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PAX Good Behavior Game Data Outcomes

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This slide presentation shows the data on the short-term (in one year) and long-term (two decades) later outcomes of the PAX Good Behavior Game on multiple mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. …

This slide presentation shows the data on the short-term (in one year) and long-term (two decades) later outcomes of the PAX Good Behavior Game on multiple mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. This graphically shows the power of this simple strategy invented by a 4th grade teacher, and favored heavily in the Institute of Medicine Report on Prevention in 2009.

You can watch the video of the principal by clicking http://slidesha.re/principalgbg

If you wish to use the PAX GBG Savings estimators for a state or school/district, please go to http://bit.ly/hullCT

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  • Barrish, H. H., M. Saunders, et al. (1969). "Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2(2): 119-124.\nStudied out-of-seat and talking-out behaviors in 24 4th graders including 7 "problem children". After base-line rates of the inappropriate behaviors were obtained, the class was divided into 2 teams "to play a game." Each out-of-seat and talking-out response by a S resulted in a mark being placed on the chalkboard, which meant a possible loss of privileges by all members of the S's team. In this manner a contingency was arranged for the inappropriate behavior of each S while the consequence (possible loss of privileges of the S's behavior was shared by all members of the team. The privileges were events which are available in almost every classroom, i.e., extra recess, 1st to line up for lunch, time for special projects, stars and name tags, and winning the game. The individual contingencies for the group consequences were successfully applied 1st during math period and then during reading period. The experimental analysis involved elements of both reversal and multiple base-line designs\n
  • Embry, D. D. (2002). "The Good Behavior Game: a best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine." Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review 5(4): 273-297.\nA "behavioral vaccine" provides an inoculation against morbidity or mortality, impacting physical, mental, or behavior disorders. An historical example of a behavioral vaccine is antiseptic hand washing to reduce childbed fever. In current society, issues with high levels of morbidity, such as substance abuse, delinquency, youth violence, and other behavioral disorders (multi-problems), cry out for a low-cost, widespread strategy as simple as antiseptic hand washing. Congruent research findings from longitudinal studies, twin studies, and other investigations suggest that a possibility might exist for a behavioral vaccine for multi-problem behavior. A simple behavioral strategy called the Good Behavior Game (GBG), which reinforces inhibition in a group context of elementary school, has substantial previous research to consider its use as a behavioral vaccine. The GBG is not a curriculum but rather a simple behavioral procedure from applied behavior analysis. Approximately 20 independent replications of the GBG across different grade levels, different types of students, different settings, and some with long-term follow-up show strong, consistent impact on impulsive, disruptive behaviors of children and teens as well as reductions in substance use or serious antisocial behaviors. The GBG, named as a "best practice" for the prevention of substance abuse or violent behavior by a number of federal agencies, is unique because it is the only practice implemented by individual teachers that is documented to have long-term effects. Presently, the GBG is only used in a small number of settings. However, near universal use of the GBG, in major political jurisdictions during the elementary years, could substantially reduce the incidence of substance use, antisocial behavior, and other adverse developmental or social consequences at a very modest cost, with very positive cost-effectiveness ratios.\n\nTingstrom, D. H., H. E. Sterling-Turner, et al. (2006). "The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002." Behavior Modification 30: 225-253.\nThe Good Behavior Game (GBG), a type of interdependent group-oriented contingency management procedure, was first introduced in 1969 and has been used with overwhelming success in classrooms and other settings. Since its inception, the "game" has utilized team competition and peer influence combined with reinforcement procedures. It has been found to be popular, easy-to-use, time-efficient, and widely applicable and versatile. This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. In addition, different types of reinforcers used, information on consumer acceptance, and issues related to implementation are considered.\n\n
  • The Game has efficacy studies for preschool through high-school settings, showing immediate effects. Most are amazed to see it work.\n\n\n
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Transcript

  • 1. The Science and Sense of The PAX Good Behavior GameEvidence-based kernels and behavioral vaccines for our futures
  • 2. Meet Muriel Saunders, the 4th-grade teacher who invented the Good Behavior Game in 1967 JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 1969, 2, 119-124 NUMBER 2 (SUMMER 1969) GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME: EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL CONTINGENCIES FOR GROUP CONSEQUENCES ON DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN A CLASSROOM HARRIET H. BARRISH, MURIEL SAUNDERS, AND MONTROSE M. WOLF UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Out-of-seat and talking-out behaviors were studied in a regular fourth-grade class that in- cluded several "problem children". After baseline rates of the inappropriate behaviors were obtained, the class was divided into two teams "to play a game". Each out-of-seat and talking- out response by an individual child resulted in a mark being placed on the chalkboard, which meant a possible loss of privileges by all members of the students team. In this manner a contingency was arranged for the inappropriate behavior of each child while the consequence (possible loss of privileges) of the childs behavior was shared by all members of this team as a group. The privileges were events which are available in almost every classroom, such as extra recess, first to line up for lunch, time for special projects, stars and name tags, as well as winning the game. The individual contingencies for the group consequences were successfully applied first during math period and then during reading period. The experi- mental analysis involved elements of both reversal and multiple baseline designs. Researchers have recently begun to assess Hall and Broden, 1967; Becker, Madsen, the effectiveness of a variety of behavioral Arnold, and Thomas, 1967; Hall, Lund, and procedures for management of disruptive class- Jackson, 1968; Thomas, Becker, and Arm- room behavior. Some investigators have ar- strong, 1968; Madsen, Becker, and Thomas, ranged token reinforcement contingencies for 1968). Even so, at least one group of investi- appropriate classroom behavior (Birnbrauer, gators (Hall et al., 1968) encountered a teacher Wolf, Kidder, and Tague, 1965; OLeary and who apparently did not have sufficient social Becker, 1967; Wolf, Giles, and Hall, 1968). reinforcers in her repertoire to apply social However, these token reinforcers often have reinforcement procedures successfully. The been dependent upon back-up reinforcers that present study investigated the effects of a class- were unnatural in the regular classroom, such room behavior management technique based as candy and money. On the other hand, on reinforcers natural to the classroom, other several investigators have utilized a reinforcer than teacher attention. The technique was intrinsic to every classroom, i.e., teacher at- designed to reduce disruptive classroom be- tention (Zimmerman and Zimmerman, 1962; havior through a game involving competition for privileges available in almost every class- This study is based upon a thesis submitted by the room. The students were divided into two senior author to the Department of Human Develop- teams and disruptive behavior by any member ment in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the of a team resulted in possible loss of privileges Master of Arts degree. The research was supported by for every member of his team. a Public Health Service Fellowship IFI MH-36, 964-01 from the National Institute of Mental Health and by a grant (HD 03144) from the National Institute of METHOD Child Health and Human Development to the Bureau of Child Research and the Department of Human Subjects and Setting Development, University of Kansas. The authors wish The study was conducted in a fourth-grade to thank Drs. Donald M. Baer and Don Bushell, Jr., for helpful suggestions in preparation of the manu- classroom of 24 students. Seven of the students script; Mr. Rex Shanks, Mr. Frank A. Branagan, and had been referred several times by the teacher Mrs. Betty Roberts for their invaluable help in con- to the school principal for such problems as ducting the study; and Mrs. Susan Zook, Mrs. Sue out-of-seat behavior, indiscriminate noise and Chen, and Mr. Jay Barrish for their contributions of talking, uncooperativeness, and general class- time for reliability checks. Reprints may be obtained from the authors, Department of Human Development, room disruption. Further, the school principal University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66044. reported that a general behavior management 119Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2(2), 119-124
  • 3. C linical C hild and Family P sychology R eview, Vol. 5, N o. 4, D ecember 2002 ( C 2002) pages 273-297 T he G ood B ehavior G ame: A B est P ractice C andidate as a U niversal B ehavioral V accineKey findings in the first 50 D ennis D . E mbry1 A “ behavioral vaccine” provides an inoculation against morbidity or mortality, impactingphys- ical, mental, or behavior disorders. A n historical example of a behavioral vaccine is antiseptic hand washing to reduce childbed fever. I n current society, issues with high levels of morbidity, LY studies of the GBG such as substance abuse, delinquency, youth violence, and other behavioral disorders ( multi- problems) , cry out for a low-cost, widespread strategy as simple as antiseptic hand washing. C ongruent research findings from longitudinal studies, twin studies, and other investigations N suggest that a possibility might exist for a behavioral vaccine for multiproblem behavior. A O simple behavioral strategy called the G ood B ehavior G ame ( G B G ) , which reinforces inhibi- tion in a group context of elementary school, has substantial previous research to consider its use as a behavioral vaccine. T he G B G is not a curriculum but rather a simple behavioral procedure from applied behavior analysis. A pproximately 20 independent replications of the G B G across different grade levels, different types of students, different settings, and some with long-term follow-up show strong, consistent impact on impulsive, disruptive behaviors of children and teens as well as reductions in substance use or serious antisocial behaviors. T he G B G , named as a “ best practice” for the prevention of substance abuse or violent be- havior by a number of federal agencies, is unique because it is the only practice implemented by individual teachers that is documented to have long-term effects. Presently, the G B G is๏ This was the first widely replicated scientific only used in a small number of settings. H owever, near universal use of the G B G , in major political jurisdictions during the elementary years, could substantially reduce the incidence of substance use, antisocial behavior, and other adverse developmental or social consequences at a very modest cost, with very positive cost-effectiveness ratios. K E Y W O R D S: substance abuse prevention; violence prevention; public policy; best practice. demonstration that disturbing, disruptive, INT R OD U CT ION A behavioral vaccine is a simple, scientifically I n the late 1840s, D r I gnaz Semmelweis worked in the maternity wards of a V ienna hospital. B y metic- ulous observation, he discovered that the mortality proven routine or practice put into widespread daily destructive and inattentive behaviors of rate in a delivery room staffed by medical students use that reduces morbidity and mortality. A powerful was up to three times higher than in a second deliv- example comes from an epidemic that occurred 150 ery room staffed by midwives. Semmelweis postulated years ago. that the students might be carrying the infection from D uring the nineteenth century, women died in their dissections to mothers giving birth. H e tested the children from preschool through secondary childbirth at alarming rates in E urope and the U nited States. U p to 25% of women who delivered their ba- bies in hospitals died from childbed fever ( puerperal sepsis) , discovered later to be caused by Streptococcus hypothesis by having doctors and medical students wash their hands with a chlorinated solution before examining women in labor. T he mortality rate in his maternity wards eventually dropped to less than 1% . education could be reliably reduced by pyogenes bacteria. 1 PA X I S I nstitute, PO B ox 68494, Tucson, A rizona 85737; e-mail: dde@paxis.org. Washing of hands with antiseptic solution—a behav- ioral vaccine—now saves millions of lives every year. Today, the C enters of D isease C ontrol and Prevention ( C D C ) web site states, “ [A ntiseptic] hand washing is individual teachers using a simple recipe for 273 1096-4037/02/1200-0273/0 C 2002 Plenum Publishing C orporation a 3x daily behavioral vaccine. Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: a best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 5(4), 273-297.
  • 4. How does the Good Behavior Game work as a behavioral vaccine?
  • 5. This is “Johnny Good” in a classroom anywhere…
  • 6. This is “Johnny Good” in a classroom anywhere… How often will the other students in the classroom reinforce him for being good during one hour? In hundreds of workshops with teachers and school staff all across North America, they say…
  • 7. This is “Johnny Good” in a classroom anywhere… How often will the other students in the classroom reinforce him for being good during one hour? In hundreds of workshops with teachers and school staff all across North America, they say… “Never or almost never…”
  • 8. This is “Johnny Good” in a classroom anywhere… How often will the other students in the classroom reinforce him for being good during one hour? In hundreds of workshops with teachers and school staff all across North America, they say… “Never or almost never…” “They’ll probably tease him for being good…”
  • 9. This is “Johnny Bad” in a classroom anywhere…
  • 10. This is “Johnny Bad” in a classroom anywhere… How often will the other students in the classroom reinforce him for being bad during one hour? In hundreds of workshops with teachers and school staff all across North America, they say…
  • 11. This is “Johnny Bad” in a classroom anywhere… How often will the other students in the classroom reinforce him for being bad during one hour? In hundreds of workshops with teachers and school staff all across North America, they say… “10 to 20 times at least”
  • 12. This is “Johnny Bad” in a classroom anywhere… How often will the other students in the classroom reinforce him for being bad during one hour? In hundreds of workshops with teachers and school staff all across North America, they say… “10 to 20 times at least” “They’ll probably laugh, giggle and smile at him
  • 13. Teacher attentionfor being good or blistering “consequences” forbeing bad from adults cannot compete with theaccidental attention from peers for being “bad.”Great teachers and grandmothers have knownthis forever, and so have scientists.The Good Behavior Game turns all this on itshead for a better present and future.
  • 14. What shall we do instead? We can create a recipe for PAX (Peace, Health, Happiness, Productivity)— using evidence-based kernels.
  • 15. What is an evidence-based kernel? Is the smallest unit of scientifically proven behavioral influence. Is indivisible; that is, removing any part makes it inactive. Produces quick easily measured change that can grow much bigger change over time. Can be be used alone OR combined with other kernels to create new programs, strategies or policies. • Are the active ingredients of evidence-based programs. • Can be spread by word-of-mouth, by modeling, by non-professionals. • Can address historic disparities without stigma, in part because they are also found in cultural wisdom.
  • 16. Kernel Example #1: PAX Quiet for Transitions๏ Ordinary classrooms have at least 50 transitions per day—generally lasting 2 minutes or more. (50 x 2 mins = 100 lost minutes per day).๏ Using PAX Quiet (non-verbal transition cue) reduces transitions to about 10 seconds each. (50 x 10 seconds = 8 minutes lost) Antecedent Antecedent kernels happen Kernel BEFORE target behavior
  • 17. Example #2: Non-emotional response to bad behavior๏ Emotional responding to disruptions has adverse effects: ๏ Accidental rewards for negative behavior— increase the problems ๏ Interrupts instruction ๏ Scares children with trauma exposure ๏ Harms immune system of teacher and students๏ Using non-emotional feedback solves all these. Relational Relation frame kernels change Frame Kernel behavior by language
  • 18. Kernel Example #3: Beat the Timer๏ Children’s computer games improves attention and accuracy by reducing time to respond, “ I’m setting the timer for 3 minutes which increases two brain chemicals to do these math 3:00 problems. If documented to reduce ADHD (dopamine & everybody finishes norepinephrine). by the timer ring, we can have a Granny’s Wacky๏ Teachers & parents can mimic computer games Prize…” with Beat The Timer that shortens time to act accurately coupled with mystery motivators (aka “Granny’s Wacky Prizes” as intrinsic rewards). Reinforcement Reinforcement kernels happen Kernel AFTER target behavior
  • 19. When kernels are used in a daily recipe,A behavioral vaccine can be created that increaseswell-being and reduces morbidity (illness, disorders, or disability) or mortality (death). The PAX Good Behavior Game is such a recipe.
  • 20. The “recipe” for the PAX (Good Behavior) Game 1. The class defines the “good” to be achieved = PAX 2. The class defines the “bad” to be reduced = Spleems 3. The teachers uses kernels like PAX Quiet, Beat the Timer, Non-Emotional Cues and Granny’s Wacky Prizes to create a daily “game”. 4. Teacher forms 3-5 teams in the class (based on a formula). 5. A Spleem (a disturbing, disruptive, destructive or inattentive behavior) is counted against the team. 6. A game is played three (3) times per day for increasing number of minutes as successful. The Games are playedNote: The game is NOT called the during demanding times for instruction.Good Behavior Game to students. 7. Teams have a PAX WIN if they score three (3) or fewer It is called the PAX Game. Spleems. 8. The wins are reinforced by silly activities normally forbidden for a few seconds or minutes at most, based on a scientific principle called “Grandmother’s Law”.
  • 21. So what happens to disturbing, disruptive, destructive, disrespectful, orinattentive behavior with the PAX (Good Behavior) Game?
  • 22. Behavior Tracking Results in Baltimore 150+ classrooms No or Low Implementation High Implementation of PAX (Good Behavior) Game of PAX (Good Behavior) Game 17 per/hr X 5.5class hours X 30 students = 2,805 disruptions per school day per classroom
  • 23. Behavior Tracking Results in Baltimore 150+ classrooms No or Low Implementation High Implementation of PAX (Good Behavior) Game of PAX (Good Behavior) Game 17 per/hr X 5.5class hours X 30 students = 2,805 6 per/hr X 5.5 disruptions per class hours X 30 school day per students = classroom 990 disruptions per school day per classroom
  • 24. Behavior Tracking Results in Chicago in 43 classrooms
  • 25. Johns Hopkins Centre for Prevention and Early Intervention๏ Five longitudinal studies of the effects of the Good Behavior Game now being studied๏ All involve random assignment of teachers in schools and schools to use or not use GBG๏ Here are data from Cohort 1 and 2 studies showing effects 20 years later, after just getting GBG in 1st grade ONLY
  • 26. Why might the PAX (Good Behavior) Game have lifetime benefits?๏ GBG teaches voluntary control of attention in the brain.๏ GBG teaches accidental negative attention from adults in authority.๏ GBG teaches children how to stay focused on valued goal—even when taunted, teased, or distracted by peers (negative peer pressure).๏ GBG protects against adversity and increases resiliency, strengthening inhibition and self control in the
  • 27. ? PAX GBG Changes Risk to Resiliency
  • 28. ? PAX GBG Changes Risk to Resiliency From The Common Risk Prediction To The How and Why? Resiliency Trajectory
  • 29. GBG reduces lifetime special services NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, more than 80% of those children received special education services by age 21. Control GBG Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 30. GBG reduces lifetime special services NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, more than 80% of those children received special education services by age 21. Control GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Only GBG For children rated at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, only 40% of those children received any special education services by age 21. And, GBG reduced special education needs for all children over their lives. Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 31. GBG reduces lifetime alcohol addictions NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, more than 60% of those children developed an alcohol addiction by age 21. Control GBG Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 32. GBG reduces lifetime alcohol addictions NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, more than 60% of those children developed an alcohol addiction by age 21. Control GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Only GBG For children rated at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 50% of those children developed an alcohol addiction by age 21. And, GBG helped all children from 1st grade have less lifetime alcohol addiction Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 33. GBG reduces lifetime drug addictions NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 60% of those children developed an drug addiction by age 21. Control GBG Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 34. GBG reduces lifetime drug addictions NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 60% of those children developed an drug addiction by age 21. Control GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Only For children rated at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 40% of those children GBG developed a drug addiction by age 21. And, GBG helped all children from 1st grade have less lifetime alcohol addiction Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 35. GBG reduces lifetime anti-social personality disorder NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 60% of those children developed a serious antisocial personality disorder by age 21. Control GBG Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 36. GBG reduces lifetime anti-social personality disorder NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 60% of those children developed a serious antisocial personality disorder by age 21. Control GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Only GBG For children rated at the highest levels of aggression in 1st grade, 40% of those children developed a serious anti-social personality disorder by age 21. And, for lowers levels of early aggression, there is no statistical significant difference. That is, GBG does not make children better or worse on this disorder. Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 37. GBG reduces regular smoking NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at every level of aggression, 20% of those children were regular smokers by age 21. Control GBG Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 38. GBG reduces regular smoking NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade For children at every level of aggression, 20% of those children were regular smokers by age 21. GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Only For children at all level of teacher rated aggression, Control the percentage of regular smokers was about 5% or less by age 21. GBG Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 39. GBG increases high school graduation GBG NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Control For children at the highest level of aggression, just 30% of those children graduated from high-school by age 21. Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 40. GBG increases high school graduation GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Only For children at all level of teacher rated aggression, 80%+ of them graduated from high-school by age 21. For children of other levels of aggression, it increased high-school graduation or had no significant statistical impact on high school GBG graduation. NO GOOD Behavior GAME in 1st Grade Control For children at the highest level of aggression, just 30% of those children graduated from high-school by age 21. Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., . . . Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes,. Drug & Alcohol Dependence(Special Issue), 24.
  • 41. GBG reduces suicidal actions & thoughts Wilcox, H. C., Kellam, S., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., & Anthony, J. (2008). The impact of two universal randomized first- and second-grade classroom interventions on young adult suicide ideation and attempts. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl 1), 60-73.
  • 42. Authors personal copyB e h a v i o r a l Va c c i n e s a n dEvidence-Based Kernels: The cost per lifetimeNonpharmaceuticalA p p ro a c h e s f o r th eP re v e n t i o n o f M e n t a l , to administer PAXEmotional, andB e h a v i o r a l D i s o rd e r s GBG is $62 perDennis D. Embry, KEYWORDS PhD child’s lifetime  Evidence-based kernels  Behavioral vaccines  Prevention  Public health This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached This is less than cost of administering ANY copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues.The Institute of Medicine Report on the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behav-ioral Disorders Among Young People1 (IOM Report) provides a powerful map for howthe United States might significantly prevent mental illnesses and behavioral disor- childhood medical vaccine that most developed Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited.ders like alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among America’s youth. This docu-ment is already shaping United States policies, and will almost certainly affectCanada and other countries’ policies. Mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders countries now give routinely to protect the health In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are(MEBs) among America’s youth and young adults present a serious threat to thecountry’s national security2 and to our economic competitiveness compared with22 other rich countries.3–7 Such MEBs are also the leading preventable cost center and wellbeing of the whole population. encouraged to visit: http://www.elsevier.com/copyrightfor local, state, and the federal governments.1,4 Further, safe schools, healthyworking environments, and public events or places are seriously compromised byMEBs as well. Why doesn’t every 1st grader get PAX GBG?Psychiatry Clin N Am 34 (2011) 1–34 A grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA028946) for the Promise Neighborhood Research Consortium provided support to the author for work on this article.
  • 43. The PAX Good Behavior Game is a “Game Changer” in children’s lives Resiliency Trajectory GB GAME Infancy 2-3- Years Old 5- Years Old 11- Years Old 13- Years Old 15-18 Years Old Fussy, irritable, Impulsive, Impulsive Self regulation School success No drug use diffuclt to Emotionally Hyperactive, Attention Positive peers No alcohol use consol; may not dysregulated, Disruptive, Positive Adult praise Graduaiton engage well non-compliant Emotional attention Resiliency
  • 44. PAX GBG works as a brain builder๏ Promotes communication between the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) and limbic structures๏ Builds and reinforces inhibitory controls๏ Self regulatory behaviors๏ Effective emotion processing๏ Regulates stress reactivity๏ Reinforces prosocial behavior
  • 45. GBG Builds the Brain’s BrakeInhibitory Control Network in Children are not yet capable of activating the inhibitory Prefrontal Cortex "brake" network involving the prefrontal cortex. GBG theoretically builds the scaffolding for this “brake” network, allowing them to better resist impulses and ignore distractions as they grow…
  • 46. PAX GBG Builds from “Bottom” UP from emotional limbic system to cognitive PFC, wiring neural networks:๏ Social learning techniques recruit Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC) ๏ Continual practice of inhibition and๏ Challenges to working memory social rewards for prosocial behavior strengthen the Dorsolateral PFC reinforces activity of the anterior cingulate and other “error-๏ Rewards stimulate ventral striatum monitoring” brain centres and other reward structures to reinforce memory, draw attention, ๏ May bolster or heal functions and motivate good behavior harmed by chronic adversity and stress exposure๏ Focus on socio-emotional development increases connectivity
  • 47. What to know what people say who have used PAX GBG?Watch the the impromptu interview a principal, http://slidesha.re/principalgbg
  • 48. You can calculate PAX GBG Cost SavingsDown load these spreadsheets @ http://bit.ly/hullCT The spreadsheets allow customizing to your site.
  • 49. For more info aboutbringing the PAX GBG to your location, contact Claire RichardsonDirector of School and Community ProgramsPAXIS Institute, PO 31205, Tucson, AZ 85751 Direct: 520-907-5240 • claire@paxis.org Copyright © 2011, PAXIS Institute. All rights reserved.