Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Prevention for Everyone                        Averting America’s epidemic of mental, emotional, mental and related behavi...
Welcome                         introductions and                           housekeepingFriday, August 12, 11             ...
What will we pack in                        our young people’s                         suitcases for their                ...
What bricks—heavy objects of pain, injury, illness, or problems     —do you NOT want in young people’s suitcases for life?...
Ask the suitcase questions of 30 people: some              republicans, some democrats, some independents              and...
What do you want to happen and not happen for our elders?Friday, August 12, 11                                            ...
Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer                                5-Year                      65-Year           ...
Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer                                5-Year                          65-Year       ...
Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer                                         Requiring more wealth transfer       ...
Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer                                                 Requiring more wealth transfe...
Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer                                                 Requiring more wealth transfe...
Friday, August 12, 11   8
Our Own Children’s FutureFriday, August 12, 11                               9
Our Own Children’s Future                                                                                           ADHD  ...
Friday, August 12, 11   11
Washington State’s Future                        Children       Children      Children                        Ages 0-5    ...
What happens if we                        pack every Washington                        state first grader’s life           ...
Why prevention for                        everyone?                        Shouldn’t we focus                        on th...
The nation faced                        a national                        epidemic of polio.                        Emerge...
The Epidemic Today?                        Mental, Emotional, Behavioral,                        and Related Physical Illn...
The Epidemic Today?                        Mental, Emotional, Behavioral,                        and Related Physical Illn...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123)        Merikangas et al., 2010   40%                        ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123)        Merikangas et al., 2010   40%                        ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123)        Merikangas et al., 2010   40%                        ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123)        Merikangas et al., 2010   40%                        ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123)        Merikangas et al., 2010   40%                        ...
Youth MEB Prevalence Rate Comparison                              4x                                            2x        ...
Depression by JobsFriday, August 12, 11                        19
Nearly 3 out of 4 of the nations 17- to 24-year-olds are                        ineligible for military service for based ...
Cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by      young adulthood: a prospective cohort analysis from      the Great ...
The US has 75            million children            and teens.            40.4 million are            on psychotropic    ...
Friday, August 12, 11   23
Why are these trends happening                         in Washington State and the                                United S...
What should the people                        Why are these trends happening   Washington State do to protect all         ...
Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Children & Youth                        Reinforcement      Antece...
Multi-Inflammatory Threat Reaction                          Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Childr...
Mood                              Reward         Executive      Behavioral                                            Atte...
Substance                         Work         Obesity,          Early          Mental Illness                   Violence ...
Evolutionary Mismatch                         How have the changes in modern                         human ecology for whi...
What are the social rewards for these behaviors?                        Billy Good      Billy BadFriday, August 12, 11    ...
What are the social rewards for these behaviors?                        Billy Good      Billy BadFriday, August 12, 11    ...
GGGCCGCCGCATTCGT-3 and 5 - AGGGA-3 ; 661-nt product; ref. 20) CGTACTGTGCGGCCTCAACGA-CTGCGTGATGT-3 ; 705-nt product  r some...
Reinforcement             Reinforcement                Adult                   Behavior &                         for “Goo...
What happens if you change the                               Matching Law (the Good                        Behavior Game) ...
CDC Nurses Office Study                                                                    60%                            ...
DRI = Differential       DRO = Differential                        Reinforcement of         Reinforcement of Other        ...
Molecular Psychiatry (2000) 5, 467–475                                                                                    ...
Changes in                               antecedents of life?                               TV’s in bedrooms              ...
Social Network & Sleep Deprivation                        Text                        Social Network & Marijuana UseFriday...
Apparent consumption o inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among                                                           ...
30%                        Percentage with Psychosis at 12 months                                                         ...
Evolutionary Mismatch                        Language of belonging and dangerFriday, August 12, 11                        ...
K                                                                     R R                              Path               ...
K                                                                      R R                              Path              ...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats   Human Predatory ThreatsFriday, August 12, 11                                        ...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats   Human Predatory Threats                           Evolutionary Adaptive Responses   ...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats     Human Predatory Threats                           Evolutionary Adaptive Responses ...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats                      Human Predatory Threats                           Evolutionary Ad...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats                          Human Predatory Threats                                   Evo...
Obesity                         Conduct                         Disorders                                                 ...
How many of you know a regular                American family with a child with…            a mental, emotional or behavio...
How many of you know a regular                American family with a child with…            a mental, emotional or behavio...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…Friday, August 12, 11                                         ...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are        preventable.Friday, August 12, 11   ...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for        preve...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for   MEB preven...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for   MEB preven...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for   MEB preven...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for    MEB preve...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for    MEB preve...
Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…         MEB’s are                 Break-even for    MEB preve...
Friday, August 12, 11   43
Mental, emotional, behavioral and health                         disorders are preventable by our own                     ...
Increase nurturance of prosociality for                                                                               pers...
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev                        DOI 10.1007/s10567-008-0036-x                        Evidence-based Kern...
What is a kernel?                              Is the smallest unit of scientifically proven behavioral                    ...
Relational                           Antecedent      Reinforcement             Physiological                              ...
Kernel                            Description                                      Behaviors Affected                     ...
= Public Posting Kernel      Antecedent        Kernel     Happens    BEFORE the     behavior                        = rada...
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy

703

Published on

Washington State Educational Service District #113 had an exciting event in which virtually every level of community and government was present to learn how to apply evidence-based kernels and behavioral vaccines across the board to achieve large benefits in reducing or preventing mental, emotional, behavioral, and related physical health problems. This even was the first to engage in helping Dr. Embry write a new book for chaining

Published in: News & Politics, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
703
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "New prevention for everyone washington state aug 2011 copy"

  1. 1. Prevention for Everyone Averting America’s epidemic of mental, emotional, mental and related behavioral disorders Dennis D. Embry, Ph.D. • President/Senior Scientist, PAXIS Institute Presentation for ESD #113, Tumwater, WA, August 11, 2011Friday, August 12, 11 1
  2. 2. Welcome introductions and housekeepingFriday, August 12, 11 2
  3. 3. What will we pack in our young people’s suitcases for their whole lives?Friday, August 12, 11 3
  4. 4. What bricks—heavy objects of pain, injury, illness, or problems —do you NOT want in young people’s suitcases for life?Friday, August 12, 11 4
  5. 5. Ask the suitcase questions of 30 people: some republicans, some democrats, some independents and some who are apolitical.Friday, August 12, 11 5
  6. 6. What do you want to happen and not happen for our elders?Friday, August 12, 11 6
  7. 7. Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer 5-Year 65-Year Olds OldsFriday, August 12, 11 7
  8. 8. Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer 5-Year 65-Year Olds Olds Who are living longer though get progressively sicker…Friday, August 12, 11 7
  9. 9. Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer Requiring more wealth transfer 5-Year 65-Year Olds Olds Who are living longer though get progressively sicker…Friday, August 12, 11 7
  10. 10. Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer Requiring more wealth transfer 5-Year 65-Year Olds Olds Who are living Who are less longer though get and less able… progressively sicker…Friday, August 12, 11 7
  11. 11. Bi-directional Wealth and Wellbeing Transfer Requiring more wealth transfer 5-Year 65-Year Olds But elders voting to stop funds to kids Olds Who are living Who are less longer though get and less able… progressively sicker…Friday, August 12, 11 7
  12. 12. Friday, August 12, 11 8
  13. 13. Our Own Children’s FutureFriday, August 12, 11 9
  14. 14. Our Own Children’s Future ADHD stealing aggression asthma depression learning disabilities obesity cancer bipolar depression hi-blood pressure heart-disease violence tobacco suicide diabetes alcohol crime drugs dangerous actsFriday, August 12, 11 10
  15. 15. Friday, August 12, 11 11
  16. 16. Washington State’s Future Children Children Children Ages 0-5 Ages 6-18 Ages 0-18 457,269 1,129,723 1,586,991Friday, August 12, 11 12
  17. 17. What happens if we pack every Washington state first grader’s life suitcase well? Universal Behavioral First Grad Vaccine Cost Net Economic Cohort X ($150 each) = Benefit for All 76,211 $11,431,718 $1,094,244,047Friday, August 12, 11 13
  18. 18. Why prevention for everyone? Shouldn’t we focus on the people at risk?Friday, August 12, 11 14
  19. 19. The nation faced a national epidemic of polio. Emergency wards were filled with iron lungs. Children died or crippled. The nation was terrified. Who should be given the vaccine? Only the frail or “at risk”? Or, all children?Friday, August 12, 11 15
  20. 20. The Epidemic Today? Mental, Emotional, Behavioral, and Related Physical IllnessesFriday, August 12, 11 16
  21. 21. The Epidemic Today? Mental, Emotional, Behavioral, and Related Physical Illnesses Do you know a middle class family with a child with a MEB?Friday, August 12, 11 16
  22. 22. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) Merikangas et al., 2010 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in YearsFriday, August 12, 11 17
  23. 23. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) Merikangas et al., 2010 40% 35% Anxiety 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in YearsFriday, August 12, 11 17
  24. 24. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) Merikangas et al., 2010 40% 35% Anxiety 30% 25% Behavior 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in YearsFriday, August 12, 11 17
  25. 25. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) Merikangas et al., 2010 40% 35% Anxiety 30% 25% Behavior 20% Mood 15% 10% 5% 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in YearsFriday, August 12, 11 17
  26. 26. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) Merikangas et al., 2010 40% 35% Anxiety 30% 25% Substance Behavior 20% Mood 15% 10% 5% 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in YearsFriday, August 12, 11 17
  27. 27. Youth MEB Prevalence Rate Comparison 4x 2x USA United Kingdom OECDFriday, August 12, 11 18
  28. 28. Depression by JobsFriday, August 12, 11 19
  29. 29. Nearly 3 out of 4 of the nations 17- to 24-year-olds are ineligible for military service for based on national epidemiological data • Medical/physical problems, 35 percent. • Illegal drug use, 18 percent. • Mental Category V (the lowest 10 percent of the population), 9 percent. • Too many dependents under age 18, 6 percent. • Criminal record, 5 percent. Army Times, Nov 5, 2009 • www.missionreadiness.org/PAEE0609.pdFriday, August 12, 11 20
  30. 30. Cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood: a prospective cohort analysis from the Great Smoky Mountains Study. By 21 years of age, 61.1% of participants had met criteria for a well- specified psychiatric disorder. An additional 21.4% had met criteria for a not otherwise specified disorder only, increasing the total cumulative prevalence for any disorder to 82.5%.Friday, August 12, 11 21
  31. 31. The US has 75 million children and teens. 40.4 million are on psychotropic medications Wall Street Journal, 12-28-2010Friday, August 12, 11 22
  32. 32. Friday, August 12, 11 23
  33. 33. Why are these trends happening in Washington State and the United States?Friday, August 12, 11 23
  34. 34. What should the people Why are these trends happening Washington State do to protect all in Washington State and the of its children from the epidemic of United States? mental, emotional, behavioral and related physical disorders?Friday, August 12, 11 23
  35. 35. Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Children & Youth Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal RelationsFriday, August 12, 11 24
  36. 36. Multi-Inflammatory Threat Reaction Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Children & Youth Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal RelationsFriday, August 12, 11 24
  37. 37. Mood Reward Executive Behavioral Attention Stability Delay Function Competencies Immune- Motor Healing Skills Multi-Inflammatory Threat Reaction Functions Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Children & Youth Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal RelationsFriday, August 12, 11 24
  38. 38. Substance Work Obesity, Early Mental Illness Violence Cancer School Abuse Problems etc Sex Failure Mood Reward Executive Behavioral Attention Stability Delay Function Competencies Immune- STD’s Motor Healing Special Skills Multi-Inflammatory Threat Reaction Functions Ed Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Children & Youth Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal RelationsFriday, August 12, 11 24
  39. 39. Evolutionary Mismatch How have the changes in modern human ecology for which were were evolved and adapted affected Sleep Eating Mental health Problem behaviors Physical Health Sexual maturityFriday, August 12, 11 25
  40. 40. What are the social rewards for these behaviors? Billy Good Billy BadFriday, August 12, 11 26
  41. 41. What are the social rewards for these behaviors? Billy Good Billy BadFriday, August 12, 11 26
  42. 42. GGGCCGCCGCATTCGT-3 and 5 - AGGGA-3 ; 661-nt product; ref. 20) CGTACTGTGCGGCCTCAACGA-CTGCGTGATGT-3 ; 705-nt product r some amplifications of the VNTR, Fig. 3. Proposed o were used (2). The alternative primers sity. A simplified m repeat sequence e VNTR to minimize out-of-register with only major re indicated (Fig. 2). T ation. PCRs were conducted in 25- l 7R alleles are show minor 3R, 5R, and in gray along with f genomic DNA, 200 M dXTPs, 0.5 origins by unequa arrows). Large red buffer (Qiagen, Chatsworth, CA), 1 Text putative multistep lele. The adjacent p .625 units of Taq DNA polymerase S1), exon 1 (L2 S2) A-C) polymorphism s performed by using Perkin–Elmer strong linkage of polymorphisms wit c, 96°C hot start was used followed by is noted.nd 68°C for 1 min. After a 4-min chase Fig. 1. Diagrammatic representation of the human DRD4 gene region. Exon Standard methods of estimating coalescence time for these alleles are not applicable, given the repetitive nature of the region and high high fitness if almost everyone is meek but might r when very common, because aggressive individuae eliminated with 0.5 units of shrimp positions are indicated by blocks (yellow, noncoding; orange, coding). The recombination frequency. However, calculations of allele age based on the relatively high worldwide population frequency of the DRD4 penalties of frequent conflict. This type of freq selection might be expected to apply to many type Amersham Pharmacia), 0.1 unit of approximate positions of a 120-bp promoter region duplication (blue trian- 4R and 7R alleles suggest that these alleles are ancient ( 300,000 years old; refs. 25 and 26; see Methods). On the other hand, variation, including those associated with this part gle), an exon 1 12-bp duplication (blue triangle), an exon 3 VNTR (blue mitter receptor (4–9). ham Pharmacia), and 1 SAP buffer calculations of allele age based on the observed intraallelic vari- Alternative explanations to the proposed posit triangle), and two intron 3 SNPs are indicated. 2R–11R variants of the VNTR are ability (refs. 26 and 27; see Methods) suggest that the 7R allele is as recent random bottlenecks, population expan e SAP Exo I reaction was carried out 5–10-fold ‘‘younger’’ (30,000–50,000 years old). Such large discrep- ulation admixture (24) are less likely to account indicated below exon 3 (blue) along with their worldwide population fre- ancies between allele ages calculated by these two methods usually 15-min heat inactivation at 72°C. The quencies determined by PCR analysis (3, 17). are taken as evidence that selection has increased the frequency of results. Bottlenecks certainly have occurred duri tion and evolution (33–35) and undoubtedly ha the allele to higher levels than expected by random genetic drift reaction was used directly for DNA (26). The absolute values of these estimates are greatly affected by current worldwide DRD4 allele frequency. Num studies on other genes (24, 33, 35) have shown the assumptions used in their computations, for example the uals, the two allelic PCR products first assumed recombination frequency (26). We have used conservative Africa’’ constriction of allele diversity (and an incr occurred. In the present study, a greater diversit estimates of recombination frequency based on the average ob- rose gels. DNA cycle sequencing was majority of individuals were heterozygotes, and the two allelic PCR served for the terminal 20 megabases of 11p (31). Given the was found for African DRD4 4R alleles in co remainder of our population sample, which is co observed high recombination at this locus (Table 1 and Fig. 3), itniques using ABI 377 and 3700 auto- products could be separated by gel electrophoresis before sequenc- is likely that the actual age of the 7R allele is even younger, and out-of-Africa hypothesis (24). Although one the 7R allele frequency was increased by ch further LD analysis will refine these estimates. The important out-of-Africa expansion, this theory does not ex ing, providing unambiguous haplotypes. Altogether, we screened conclusion, however, is that regardless of the parameters assumed, the relative age differences for the 4R and 7R alleles calculated lack of diversity in African 7R alleles. The mo 7R(1-2-6-5-2-5-4)-A-C haplotype (Fig. 3) is fou over 450,000 bp of genomic DNA and 2,968 48-bp repeats. from intraallelic variability remains large, whereas their population comparable to those found worldwide ( 85%) ions. Ka Ks ratios were calculated by frequency suggests they are both ancient. imagine what type of bottleneck could produce In the 600 chromosomes sequenced, 56 different haplotypes The simplest hypothesis to account for (i) the observed bias in strong worldwide LD for a single allele (DRD4 7R . Putative recombinant haplotypes were found (Table 1). These haplotypes were composed of 35 nucleotide changes (Ka Ks), (ii) the unusual sequence organization of the DRD4 7R allele, and (iii) the strong LD surrounding this the remaining alleles. A model that is consistent results is the ‘‘weak Garden of Eden’’ hypothesispendent events. Allele age calcula- distinct 48-bp variant motifs (Fig. 2), 19 of which were reported allele is that the 7R allele arose as a rare mutational event (or events) that nevertheless increased to high frequency by positive DRD4 4R allele would be hypothesized to be an Friday, August 12, 11 selection. Advantageous alleles usually take a long time to reach a in indigenous populations, whereas the 7R 27 allele
  43. 43. Reinforcement Reinforcement Adult Behavior & for “Good” for “Bad” coercion the Matching In one hour of school, In one hour of school, Law how often do peers how often do peers How often might adults Example reinforce the “good” in reinforce the “bad” in in authority exert The probability of human behavioral choice Evolutionary school? school? perceived threats of “matches” this saturation Mismatch How often by adults How often by adults coercion in school, at formula in the classroom, at school? at school? home, or in the home and community, How often at home or How often at home or community in a single and Matching Law works day? community in a day? community in a day? for all vertebrate creaturesFriday, August 12, 11 28
  44. 44. What happens if you change the Matching Law (the Good Behavior Game) in a classroom?Friday, August 12, 11 29
  45. 45. CDC Nurses Office Study 60% 50% Percentage Change 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% All Visits Injury Viists Non-Injuries Fighting Non-Fighting Injuries Injuries Control/Wait List PeaceBuilders What happens if you teach students to praise each other for “peaceability”Friday, August 12, 11 30
  46. 46. DRI = Differential DRO = Differential Reinforcement of Reinforcement of Other Incompatible Behaviors BehaviorsFriday, August 12, 11 31
  47. 47. Molecular Psychiatry (2000) 5, 467–475  2000 Macmillan Publishers Ltd All rights reserved 1359-4184/00 $15.00 www.nature.com/mp MILLENNIUM ARTICLE Is there an evolutionary mismatch between the normal physiology of the human dopaminergic system and current environmental conditions in industrialized countries? L Pani CNR Center for Neuropharmacology, ‘BB Brodie’ Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari and Neuroscienze Scarl, Cagliari, Italy A large body of evidence has recently defined a field theory known as ‘evolutionary mismatch’, which derives its attributes largely from the fact that current environmental conditions are completely different from those in which the human central nervous system evolved. Current views on the evolutionary mismatch theory lack, however, any attempts to define which brain areas or neuronal circuits should be mostly involved in coding such misevolved traits and to what extent our neurobiological knowledge can be applied to the topographical localization of a specific psychopathology. In this respect the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic circuits have long been misconceptualized as simple reward or reinforcement systems. Instead, they motivate and coordinate the functions of the higher brain areas that mediate planning and foresight and direct finalized movement in both animals and humans. These systems make animals intensely interested in exploring the world around them, but by the same means they also make them susceptible to the environmental stimuli that have been sought and con- sumed. It is has been speculated that the cortical dopamine targets that developed most recently in phylogeny are of particular functional value, and that the mesocorticolimbic dopa- minergic system is involved in more complex integrative functions than previously assumed. In the present paper I will argue that some mental disorders may have their deep roots in the evolutionary mismatch between the normal physiology of the mesocorticolimbic dopami- nergic system and the current environmental conditions in affluent societies. Molecular Psy- chiatry (2000) 5, 467–475. Keywords: evolution; limbic system; dopamine; stress; depression; emotions; Darwinian medicineFriday, August 12, 11 Introduction Table 1 Steps in brain evolution with increasing environ- 32
  48. 48. Changes in antecedents of life? TV’s in bedrooms Text Electronic games Computers, social mediaFriday, August 12, 11 33
  49. 49. Social Network & Sleep Deprivation Text Social Network & Marijuana UseFriday, August 12, 11 34
  50. 50. Apparent consumption o inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among Australia, Canada, UK and USA for the years 1961–2000 10 Australia Canada UK USA Apparent consumption of linoleic acid 9 8 7 (% energy) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 “Risky” Beh. Evolution Neonates Breast Milk & Mismatch In the Rife Valley, the Successful human American infants have human brain evolution neonates born with been getting steadily less Theory the result of eating fish 60-day supply of omega-3 (n3) and more Almost all adolescent pro-inflammatory risky behaviors have now Example high in omega-3 not omega-3 in omega-6 (n6) in breast been documented to be savannah animals subcutaneous fat from Evolutionary milk related to low n3 and mother’s diet high n6 in US diet Physiology See Broadhurst, Cunnane, & change in last 50 years Mismatch See HIbbeln et al. (2007).Maternal seafood Crawford (1998). Rift Valley lake fish See Ailhaud et al. (2006).Temporal changes consumption in pregnancy and in dietary fats: Role of n6 and shellfish provided brain-specific neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood Hibbeln et al. (2006). Healthy intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in excessive nutrition for (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort adipose tissue and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering early Homo study worldwide diversity. development and relationship to obesityFriday, August 12, 11 35
  51. 51. 30% Percentage with Psychosis at 12 months 27.5% 24% 18% 12% 6% 4.9% 0% Omega-3 Placeo PsychosisFriday, August 12, 11 36
  52. 52. Evolutionary Mismatch Language of belonging and dangerFriday, August 12, 11 37
  53. 53. K R R Path Path Path Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life Probability of long-life and Probability of short-life and reproductive success doubtful reproductive successFriday, August 12, 11 38
  54. 54. K R R Path Path Path Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life Probability of long-life and Probability of short-life and reproductive success doubtful reproductive success R-Path can be triggered by evolutionary mismatch in social or physical environment.Friday, August 12, 11 38
  55. 55. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory ThreatsFriday, August 12, 11 39
  56. 56. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) Generalized Localized Inflammatory Inflammatory Response Response Anti-Inflammatory RegulatorsFriday, August 12, 11 39
  57. 57. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) (Simplified) Intra-Group Threat Attributional Generalized Localized Affiliation Bias (Inflammatory) Inflammatory Inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory) Out-Group Response Response Aggress. (Inflammatory) Intra-Group Cooperation Tit-for-Tat Beh. Bias Anti-Inflammatory Regulators (Anti-Inflammatory) (Inflammatory)Friday, August 12, 11 39
  58. 58. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) Neuro-Hormones (Simplified) Mood Modulators Reward Delay Intra-Group Threat Attributional Generalized Localized Modulators Affiliation Bias (Inflammatory) Inflammatory Inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory) Out-Group Response Response Stress Aggress. (Inflammatory) Modulators Intra-Group Cooperation Tit-for-Tat Beh. Bias Anti-Inflammatory Regulators Puberty/Sex (Anti-Inflammatory) Modulators (Inflammatory)Friday, August 12, 11 39
  59. 59. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) Neuro-Hormones (Simplified) Mood Modulators Reward Delay Intra-Group Threat Attributional Generalized Localized Modulators Affiliation Bias (Inflammatory) Inflammatory Inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory) Out-Group Response Response Stress Aggress. (Inflammatory) Modulators Intra-Group Cooperation Tit-for-Tat Beh. Bias Anti-Inflammatory Regulators Puberty/Sex (Anti-Inflammatory) Modulators (Inflammatory) Modern culture commonly produces multiple evolutionary mismatches triggering multiple inflammatory responses.Friday, August 12, 11 39
  60. 60. Obesity Conduct Disorders Homicide & Suicide Depression Oppositional/ Addictions ADHD Aggression Self harm ANXIETY R PATH = Risky behaviors or healthFriday, August 12, 11 40
  61. 61. How many of you know a regular American family with a child with… a mental, emotional or behavioral disorder?Friday, August 12, 11 41
  62. 62. How many of you know a regular American family with a child with… a mental, emotional or behavioral disorder? Like a more Like ADHD or Like learning or serious mental Like a serious behavior developmental illness like addictions problems? disorder? bipolar or problem? suicidal actions?Friday, August 12, 11 41
  63. 63. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders…Friday, August 12, 11 42
  64. 64. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are preventable.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  65. 65. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for preventable. MEB prevention is one year.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  66. 66. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for MEB prevention preventable. MEB prevention balances is one year. budgets.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  67. 67. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for MEB prevention MEB prevention preventable. MEB prevention balances improves US is one year. budgets. business.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  68. 68. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for MEB prevention MEB prevention preventable. MEB prevention balances improves US is one year. budgets. business. Effective MEB prevention helps national security.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  69. 69. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for MEB prevention MEB prevention preventable. MEB prevention balances improves US is one year. budgets. business. Effective MEB MEB prevention prevention helps helps US global national security. success.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  70. 70. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for MEB prevention MEB prevention preventable. MEB prevention balances improves US is one year. budgets. business. MEB prevention Effective MEB MEB prevention saves Social prevention helps helps US global Security & national security. success. Medicare.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  71. 71. Key messages about mental, emotional & behavioral disorders… MEB’s are Break-even for MEB prevention MEB prevention preventable. MEB prevention balances improves US is one year. budgets. business. MEB prevention Effective MEB MEB prevention saves Social MEB prevention prevention helps helps US global Security & heals past national security. success. Medicare. inequities.Friday, August 12, 11 42
  72. 72. Friday, August 12, 11 43
  73. 73. Mental, emotional, behavioral and health disorders are preventable by our own hands—right here in Washington State.Friday, August 12, 11 44
  74. 74. Increase nurturance of prosociality for persons of all ages This can be individual, family, school and/or community action Reduce toxic influences of all ages This can be at an individual, family, school and/or community level Increase psychological flexibility among people of all ages This can be achieved across settings, as the above. From Biglan, Flay and Embry. Nurturing Environments and the Next Generation of Prevention Research and Practice for the American PsychologistFriday, August 12, 11 45
  75. 75. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev DOI 10.1007/s10567-008-0036-x Evidence-based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence Basic understanding of kernels Embry, D. D. and A. Biglan (2008). "Evidence-Based Kernels: Dennis D. Embry Æ Anthony Biglan Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence." Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review 11(3): 75-113. Ó The Author(s) 2008. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract This paper describes evidence-based kernels, This paper presents an analysis of fundamental units of fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to behavioral influence that underlie effective prevention and underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, treatment. We call these units kernels. They have two adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence defining features. First, in experimental analysis, procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a researchers have found them to have a reliable effect on Using kernels for population change A R T I C L E COMMUNITY-BASED PREVENTION USING SIMPLE, LOW-COST, EVIDENCE-BASED Embry, D. D. (2004). "Community-Based Prevention Using Simple, KERNELS AND BEHAVIOR VACCINES Low-Cost, Evidence-Based Kernels and Behavior Vaccines." Dennis D. Embry PAXIS Institute Journal of Community Psychology 32(5): 575. A paradox exists in community prevention of violence and drugs. Good B e h a v i o r a l Vac c i n e s an d Evidence-Based Kernels: Nonpharmaceutical Behavioral vaccines for disease control A p p ro a c h e s f o r th e P re v e n t i o n o f M e n t a l , Embry, D. D. 2011. Behavioral vaccines and evidence-based kernels: Emotional, and B e h a v i o r a l D i s o rd e r s non-pharmaceutical approaches for the prevention of mental, emotional, Dennis D. Embry, PhD and behavioral disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 34 (1):1-34. KEYWORDSFriday, August 12, 11 46
  76. 76. What is a kernel? Is the smallest unit of scientifically proven behavioral influence. • Is indivisible; that is, removing any part makes it inactive. Produces quick easily measured change that can grow much bigger change over time. Can be be used alone OR combined with other kernels to create new programs, strategies or policies. • Are the active ingredients of evidence-based programs • Can be spread by word-of-mouth, by modeling, by non professionals. • Can address historic disparities without stigma, in part because they are also found in cultural wisdom.Friday, August 12, 11 47
  77. 77. Relational Antecedent Reinforcement Physiological Frame Kernel Kernel Kernel Kernel Changes Creates verbal Happens BEFORE Happens AFTER the biochemistry of relations for the the behavior behavior behavior behavior Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-Based Four Types of Kernels Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 39.Friday, August 12, 11 48
  78. 78. Kernel Description Behaviors Affected References Combinations of visual, kinesthetic and/or auditory Non-verbal cues that single shifting attention or task in Reduces dawdling, increases time on task or Rosenkoetter, & Fowler, 1986; Krantz, & Risley, 1977; Abbott et al., 1998; transition cues patterned way, coupled with praise or occasional engaged learning; gives more time for instruction Embry et al., 1996 rewards. Antecedent Stop lights in Traffic light signals when behavior is appropriate/ (Cox, Cox, & Cox, 2000; Jason & Liotta, 1982; Jason, Neal, & Marinakis, desirable or inappropriate/undesirable in real time, Decreases noise, off task behavior, or increases Kernel school settings or traffic settings and connected to some kind of occasional stopping in dangerous intersections 1985; Lawshe, 1940; Medland & Stachnik, 1972; Van Houten & Malenfant, 1992; Van Houten & Retting, 2001; Wasserman, 1977) reinforcement. These may be lines or other cues such as ropes or Decreases dangerous behavior; decreases Boundary cues and (Carlsson & Lundkvist, 1992; Erkal & Safak, 2006; Marshall, et al., 2005; rails that signal where behavior is safe, acceptable pushing and shoving; increases waiting behavior railings or desired in a queue; reduces falls Nedas, Balcar, & Macy, 1982; Sorock, 1988) Happens Cooperative, Planned activities happen during children play time Decreases aggression and increases social competence; also affects body mass index, and (Bay-Hinitz, Peterson, & Quilitch, 1994; Leff, Costigan, & Power, 2004; BEFORE the Structured peer play that involve rules, turn taking, social competencies, and cooperation with or without “soft competition.” appears to reduce ADHD symptoms, and increase academics afterwards; reduces social rejection in Mikami, Boucher, & Humphreys, 2005; Murphy, et al., 1983; Ridgway, Northup, Pellegrin, LaRue, & Hightsoe, 2003) behavior middle school (Barker & Jones, 2006; Ben Shalom, 2000; Bray & Kehle, 2001; Buggey, 2005; Clare, Drawn, photographic or video model viewer/listener Increases academic engagement; increases attention; Jenson, Kehle, & Bray, 2000; Clark, Beck, Sloane, Goldsmith, & et al., 1993; Clark, Kehle, increases recall and long term memory; improves behavior; Jenson, & Beck, 1992; Clement, 1986; R. A. Davis, 1979; Dowrick, 1999; Dowrick, Kim- Self-modeling engaging targeted behavior, receiving rewards or reduces dangerous behavior; increases social competence; Rupnow, & Power, 2006; Elegbeleye, 1994; Hartley, Bray, & Kehle, 1998; Hartley, Kehle, & recognition. improved sports performance; reduced health problems Bray, 2002; Hitchcock, Prater, & Dowrick, 2004; Houlihan, Miltenberger, Trench, Larson, & et al., 1995; Kahn, Kehle, Jenson, & Clark, 1990; Kehle, Bray, Margiano, Theodore, & Zhou, 2002; Law & Ste-Marie, 2005; Lonnecker, Brady, McPherson, & Hawkins, 1994; Meharg & (Agran, et al., 2005; Blick & & Woltersdorf, 1990; Owusu-Bempah& Frank, 1990; Buggey, 1995; Lipsker, 1991; Meharg Test, 1987; Boyle & Hughes, 1994; Brown & Howitt, 1985; Owusu- Reductions in alcohol, tobacco use; reductions in illness Buggey, Toombs, Gardener, & Cervetti, 1999; Burch, Clegg, & Bailey, 1987; Carr & Punzo, 1993; Cavalier, Coding target behavior with a relational frame, which symptoms from diabetes; increased school achievement; changes Bempah & Hodges, 1983;Clare, et al., 2000;McLoughlin,Kehle, & Truscott, 2001; Dalton, Martella, & Ferretti, & Howitt, 1997; Possell, Kehle, Clarke, Bray, & Bray, 1999; Ram & McCullagh, 2003; Reamer, Brady, & Hawkins, 1998; Rickards-Schlichting, Kehle, & Bray, 2004; Rickel & Fields, Self-monitoring is often charted or graphed for public or semi-public in other social competencies or health behaviors; reductions in Marchand-Martella, 1999; de Haas-Warner, 1991; R. M. Foxx & Axelroth, 1983; Glasgow, Klesges, Godding, & Gegelman, 1983; Glasgow, Klesges, & Vasey, 1983; Gray & & Simon, 1997; Walker & 1983; Schunk & Hanson, 1989; Schwartz, Houlihan, Krueger, Shelton, 1992; Hall & Zentall, display, occasioning verbal praise from others ADHD, Tourettes and other DSM-IV disorder; improvement in 2000; K. R. Harris, Friedlander, 1992; Wedel & Fowler, 1984; Woltersdorf, 1992) 1990; Hitchcock, Clement, Saddler, Frizzelle, & Graham, 2005; Hertz & McLaughlin, brain injured persons et al., 2004; Hughes, et al., 2002; Kern, Dunlap, Childs, & Clarke, 1994; Martella, Leonard, Marchand- Martella, & Agran, 1993; M. Y. Mathes & Bender, 1997; McCarl, Svobodny, & Beare, 1991; McDougall & Brady, 1995; McLaughlin, Krappman, & Welsh, 1985; Nakano, 1990; OReilly, et al., 2002; Petscher & Bailey, 2006; Possell, et al., 1999; Rock, 2005; Selznick & Savage, 2000; Shabani, Wilder, & Flood, 2001; After hearing or seeing some content, person is told Shimabukuro, Prater, Jenkins, & Edelen-Smith, 1999; Stecker, Whinnery, & Fuchs, 1996; Thomas, Paragraph Abrams, & Johnson, 1971; Todd, Horner, &G. Mathes, Fuchs, Fuchs, Henley,Winn, Skinner, (Bean & Steenwyk, 1984; P. Sugai, 1999; Trammel, Schloss, & Alper, 1994; & et al., to “shrink” meaning to 8-10 words, full sentence; Improved reading responses and retention Allin, & Hawkins, 2004; Wood, Murdock, & Cronin, 2002; Wood, Murdock, Cronin, Dawson, & Kirby, 1998) Shrinking praise typically happens for good summaries. 1994; Spencer, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 2003)Friday, August 12, 11 49
  79. 79. = Public Posting Kernel Antecedent Kernel Happens BEFORE the behavior = radarFriday, August 12, 11 50
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×