Kernels for Life:
                              from what we know about prevention science
                              a...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   2
We must move in the right
                              direction, with all due speed for
                               t...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   4
Thursday, November 18, 2010   5
Thursday, November 18, 2010   6
FREE DOWNLOAD




                 Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008).
                     Evidence-Based Kernels:
       ...
Relational
                                Antecedent       Reinforcement            Physiological
                       ...
What is a kernel?
                                  Is the smallest unit of scientifically proven behavioral
              ...
Rapid


Thursday, November 18, 2010           10
Community     Prenatal      Ages 0-2      Ages 3-5
                                 Text         Text           Text      ...
Your take away task for communities and families…
                               List five ideas you can take back to your
...
Epigensis revisited Fraser
                                         Mustard’s talk




Thursday, November 18, 2010        ...
Obesity
                               Conduct
                               Disorders


                                ...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   15
Redness, rubor, a response of body tissues to
                                                          injury or irritati...
Threat from parasites,   Threat from humans
                              bacteria, and viruses    who might kill or steal...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   18
Human Infectious/Biological Threats                       Human Predatory Threats



                                  Evo...
Substance                       Work         Obesity,
              Early           Mental Illness                   Viole...
K                                                                              R
                                  Path   ...
Obesity
                                Conduct
                                Disorders


                              ...
Physically and                   Successful in
                               emotionally                       life-long
...
Community     Prenatal      Ages 0-2      Ages 3-5
                                 Text         Text           Text      ...
Coaster and Poster case study for women




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                             25
Do these effect
                                epigensis?




Thursday, November 18, 2010                     26
Antecedent
                      Kernel




           Happens BEFORE
             the behavior




Thursday, November 18,...
Antecedent
                      Kernel




           Happens BEFORE
             the behavior




Thursday, November 18,...
Addictions intervention or treatment kernels




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                              ...
Antecedent
           Kernel




                              “Wait for the Timer” for addictions and other issues

Thurs...
Reinforcement
      Kernel




                              “Prize Bowl” for change, recovery & addictions

Thursday, Nov...
Reward & Reminder case study on tobacco




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                             32
Thursday, November 18, 2010   33
Thursday, November 18, 2010   34
Reward &
                    Reminder:
                    Logic
                    model




Thursday, November 18, 2010...
Baseline                    After Reward and Reminder
                                                                    ...
Reward &
                    Reminder:
                    Impact on
                    prevalence

                     ...
The Lancet case study on fish consumption




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                              38
Thursday, November 18, 2010   39
Apparent consumption o inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among
                                                          ...
Low maternal omega-3 consumption from
                              seafood and
                                          ...
Physiological    Mother
                                                    Mother

                                      ...
Omega-3 for all pregnant mothers, nursing
                              mothers and weaned infants and toddlers

Thursday,...
The cost? About $40 per year




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                  44
Why not help our serious at-
                              risk children with omega-3?
                                   ...
Before Omega 3



                              Omega-3 can improve school
                              grades and succes...
The British and Netherlands Prison Studies




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                                ...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   48
Reduce Omega 3 and
                              Micronutrient Brain Deficiency




Thursday, November 18, 2010            ...
!"#$%"#&'"()*+&,-)("*.&/0"*%"1&23)*4&56-1)*"61&
                              7-.8&6"%)33"*#"#&#9-(+&93)$*.1&):&;-.93-*1<&...
Why not reproduce the rapid
                              results in Manitoba to get a
                              37% r...
Safe Playing Case Study




Thursday, November 18, 2010                             52
A environmental policy
                              case study in reducing
                              early rebellious...
Contextual example of such risk

Thursday, November 18, 2010                                     54
Oh,prior prevention efforts in Sweden had resulted
                              in more fatalities…




Thursday, Novembe...
A book about “me” being a Safe Player




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                           56
Adults defining boundaries of safe play




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                            57
Adults setting timer to watch safe play in child




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                          ...
Parent praising safe play with stickers




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                             59
Study 1 showed preschool intervention alone had short-
                              term benefits

                       ...
Kernels and 4-P’s used in multi-city/national
                              Safe Playing campaign
                        ...
Why not distribute specially
                              constructed books for
                              parents wit...
Good Behavior Game Case Study




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                   63
Why not turn about the lives of high risk primary
                              grade children using a teacher invented pr...
Her invention immediately increases time to learn

Thursday, November 18, 2010                                            ...
Why not turn about the lives of high risk primary
                              grade children using a teacher invented pr...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   67
Community reinforcement case study




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                        68
PeaceBuilders School-Community Reinforcement Study

                                Positive   Peer-to-Peer     Social
   ...
Injury Prevention Study Using Positive Reinforcement
                                60%

                                ...
Prevention Store




                                         Prevention Science Meets
                                   ...
If kernels are so good…

Thursday, November 18, 2010                             72
How have kernels evolved?
                              The first (almost certainly antecedents) were selected by
         ...
Using kernels to build
                                            population-level change…
                              ...
Rule #1 of big change
                              A big population-level change requires
                              m...
Rule #2 of big change
                              Always maximize the dignity and self-sufficiency of the
               ...
Rule #3 of big change
                              Pay attention to variations in behavior for improvement.

            ...
Rule # 4 Big Change with a
                              kernel requires other kernels
                              A ker...
Why not use a new word to convey our support
                              every child being healthy in Manitoba




Thurs...
Thursday, November 18, 2010   80
Thursday, November 18, 2010   81
Thursday, November 18, 2010   82
Thursday, November 18, 2010   83
Thursday, November 18, 2010   84
Thursday, November 18, 2010   85
Thursday, November 18, 2010   86
Thursday, November 18, 2010   87
Thursday, November 18, 2010   88
Thursday, November 18, 2010   89
Thursday, November 18, 2010   90
Thursday, November 18, 2010   91
Thursday, November 18, 2010   92
Spreading healthy children in Manitoba like dandelions




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                    ...
is the gift of our futures




Thursday, November 18, 2010                                94
Contact: Dr. Dennis D. Embry, PAXIS Institute, PO Box 31205, Tucson, AZ USA
                                       dde@pax...
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Kernels for-life-manitoba-2010

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Healthy Child Manitoba (HCM) is unique in the Western Hemisphere, as the only provincial or state level strategy for the comprehensive support and prevention of children's issues from prenatal through young adulthood. All data are linked, with care for confidentiality, so that the impact of provincial initiatives can be evaluated. Dr. Embry was a keynote speaker outlining what might happen in the next decade of Healthy Child Manitoba.

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Kernels for-life-manitoba-2010

  1. 1. Kernels for Life: from what we know about prevention science and human development to what we do for children and youth for our futures… Twitter hashtag: #HCMMB Slides and publications http://www.slideshare.net/drdennisembry Copyright © 2010, PAXIS Institute, All rights reserved. May be reproduced in whole without charge, provided copyright notice included. Thursday, November 18, 2010 1
  2. 2. Thursday, November 18, 2010 2
  3. 3. We must move in the right direction, with all due speed for the next decade—not just for the children of Manitoba, but also as the Inukshuk for the Western Hemisphere. Thursday, November 18, 2010 3
  4. 4. Thursday, November 18, 2010 4
  5. 5. Thursday, November 18, 2010 5
  6. 6. Thursday, November 18, 2010 6
  7. 7. FREE DOWNLOAD Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-Based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 39. Download at: www.pubmed.gov Described in the 2009 IOM Report, p. 210 Thursday, November 18, 2010 7
  8. 8. Relational Antecedent Reinforcement Physiological Frame Kernel Kernel Kernel Kernel Changes Creates verbal Happens BEFORE Happens AFTER the biochemistry of relations for the the behavior behavior behavior behavior Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-Based Four Types of Kernels Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 39. Thursday, November 18, 2010 8
  9. 9. What is a kernel? Is the smallest unit of scientifically proven behavioral influence. • Is indivisible; that is, removing any part makes it inactive. Produces quick easily measured change that can grow much bigger change over time. Can be be used alone OR combined with other kernels to create new programs, strategies or policies. • Are the active ingredients of evidence-based programs • Can be spread by word-of-mouth, by modeling, by non professionals. • Can address historic disparities without stigma, in part because they are also found in cultural wisdom. Thursday, November 18, 2010 9
  10. 10. Rapid Thursday, November 18, 2010 10
  11. 11. Community Prenatal Ages 0-2 Ages 3-5 Text Text Text Text Primary Intermediate Early Teens Later Teens Thursday, November 18, 2010 11
  12. 12. Your take away task for communities and families… List five ideas you can take back to your community or even your own family Explain the benefits of how these five things Ask others to try one or more of these thing Ask them use their social and electronic networks to spread these ideas For the benefit of all children and families in Manitoba Thursday, November 18, 2010 12
  13. 13. Epigensis revisited Fraser Mustard’s talk Thursday, November 18, 2010 13
  14. 14. Obesity Conduct Disorders Homicide & Suicide Early Sex Early Pregnancy Addictions Aggression Disease School failure Epigensis results in a risky path or a healthy path Thursday, November 18, 2010 14
  15. 15. Thursday, November 18, 2010 15
  16. 16. Redness, rubor, a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat. Excitation, excitement, fervor, fervour the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up Inflaming arousal to violent emotion Firing, ignition, kindling, lighting the act of setting on fire or catching fire Hypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes Thursday, November 18, 2010 16
  17. 17. Threat from parasites, Threat from humans bacteria, and viruses who might kill or steal Thursday, November 18, 2010 17
  18. 18. Thursday, November 18, 2010 18
  19. 19. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) (Simplified) Neuro-Hormones Mood Modulators Reward Delay Intra-Group Threat Attributional Generalized Localized Modulators Affiliation Bias (Inflammatory) Inflammatory Inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory) Out-Group Response Response Stress Modulators Aggress. (Inflammatory) Intra-Group Cooperation Tit-for-Tat Beh. Bias Anti-Inflammatory Regulators Puberty/Sex (Anti-Inflammatory) Modulators (Inflammatory) Thursday, November 18, 2010 19
  20. 20. Substance Work Obesity, Early Mental Illness Violence Cancer School Abuse Problems etc Sex Failure Mood Reward Executive Behavioral Attention Stability Delay Function Competencies Immune- STD’s Motor Healing Special Skills Multi-Inflammatory Threat Reaction Functions Ed Major Ecologic Causes of the Dual Inflammatory Threats to Children & Youth Physiological Antecedents Reinforcement Verbal Relations Thursday, November 18, 2010 20
  21. 21. K R Path Path Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life Probability of short-life and doubtful Probability of long-life and reproductive success reproductive success Thursday, November 18, 2010 21
  22. 22. Obesity Conduct Disorders Homicide & Suicide Early Sex Early Pregnancy Addictions Aggression Disease School Disabilities failure R PATH = Risky behaviors or health Thursday, November 18, 2010 22
  23. 23. Physically and Successful in emotionally life-long healthy learning Safe and Socially engaged secure Healthy Child and responsible Manitoba Thursday, November 18, 2010 23
  24. 24. Community Prenatal Ages 0-2 Ages 3-5 Text Text Text Text Primary Intermediate Early Teens Later Teens Thursday, November 18, 2010 24
  25. 25. Coaster and Poster case study for women Thursday, November 18, 2010 25
  26. 26. Do these effect epigensis? Thursday, November 18, 2010 26
  27. 27. Antecedent Kernel Happens BEFORE the behavior Thursday, November 18, 2010 27
  28. 28. Antecedent Kernel Happens BEFORE the behavior Thursday, November 18, 2010 28
  29. 29. Addictions intervention or treatment kernels Thursday, November 18, 2010 29
  30. 30. Antecedent Kernel “Wait for the Timer” for addictions and other issues Thursday, November 18, 2010 30
  31. 31. Reinforcement Kernel “Prize Bowl” for change, recovery & addictions Thursday, November 18, 2010 31
  32. 32. Reward & Reminder case study on tobacco Thursday, November 18, 2010 32
  33. 33. Thursday, November 18, 2010 33
  34. 34. Thursday, November 18, 2010 34
  35. 35. Reward & Reminder: Logic model Thursday, November 18, 2010 35
  36. 36. Baseline After Reward and Reminder 60% Wyoming Percentage of Illegal or Non-Compliant Tobacco Sales to Minors 50% 40% Reward & 30% Reminder Impact 20% 10% on Access 0% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 60% Wisconsin 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Data Source: Synar Report, SAMSA Thursday, November 18, 2010 36
  37. 37. Reward & Reminder: Impact on prevalence Source: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), Centers for Disease Control Thursday, November 18, 2010 37
  38. 38. The Lancet case study on fish consumption Thursday, November 18, 2010 38
  39. 39. Thursday, November 18, 2010 39
  40. 40. Apparent consumption o inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among Australia, Canada, UK and USA for the years 1961–2000 #" +651.-:8- A-0-;- BC BD+2 +,,-./012340567,1840 492:804:/83 -38; $ & ' <=2/0/.>?@ ( % * ) ! # " #$(" #$(% #$'" #$'% #$&" #$&% #$$" #$$% !""" “Risky” Beh. Evolution Neonates Breast Milk & Mismatch In the Rife Valley, the Successful human American infants have human brain evolution neonates born with been getting steadily Theory the result of eating 60-day supply of less omega-3 (n3) and Almost all adolescent fish high in omega-3 omega-3 in more pro-inflammatory risky behaviors have omega-6 (n6) in breast now been documented not savannah animals subcutaneous fat from milk to be related to low n3 mother’s diet and high n6 in US diet See Broadhurst, Cunnane, & Crawford (1998). Rift Valley lake fish See HIbbeln et al. (2007).Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and See Ailhaud et al. (2006).Temporal change in last 50 years changes in dietary fats: Role of n6 and shellfish provided brain-specific neurodevelopmental outcomes in Hibbeln et al. (2006). Healthy intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in excessive nutrition for childhood (ALSPAC study): an adipose tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations early Homo observational cohort study considering worldwide diversity. development and relationship to obesity Thursday, November 18, 2010 40
  41. 41. Low maternal omega-3 consumption from seafood and 34 Physiological 32 Kernel 30 Percentage of children with low verbal IQ, WISC-III , 8y 28 Hibbeln et al, Lancet 2007: 369: 578-585 UK 26 r = 0.97 24 r2 = 0.95 F=27.2 22 p<0.02. 20 Changes 18 biochemistry of 16 behavior 14 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 - Estimated omega 3 fatty acids from seafood (en %) Mother at 32 wk gestation Thursday, November 18, 2010 41
  42. 42. Physiological Mother Mother concordant Kernel concordant exceeds Changes biochemistry of behavior Mother concordant Mother concordant exceeds exceeds Thursday, November 18, 2010 42
  43. 43. Omega-3 for all pregnant mothers, nursing mothers and weaned infants and toddlers Thursday, November 18, 2010 43
  44. 44. The cost? About $40 per year Thursday, November 18, 2010 44
  45. 45. Why not help our serious at- risk children with omega-3? 30% Percentage with Psychosis at 12 months 27.5% 24% 18% 12% 6% 4.9% 0% Omega-3 Placeo Psychosis Amminger, G. P., M. R. Schafer, et al. (2010). "Long-Chain {omega}-3 Fatty Acids for Indicated Prevention of Psychotic Disorders: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(2): 146-154. Thursday, November 18, 2010 45
  46. 46. Before Omega 3 Omega-3 can improve school grades and success Omega 3 Placebo 7 These were gains in 6 After Omega 3 academics after 3 5 months of 4 exposure to fish oil. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 Reading Spelling See www.durhamtrial.org/ Thursday, November 18, 2010 46
  47. 47. The British and Netherlands Prison Studies Thursday, November 18, 2010 47
  48. 48. Thursday, November 18, 2010 48
  49. 49. Reduce Omega 3 and Micronutrient Brain Deficiency Thursday, November 18, 2010 49
  50. 50. !"#$%"#&'"()*+&,-)("*.&/0"*%"1&23)*4&56-1)*"61& 7-.8&6"%)33"*#"#&#9-(+&93)$*.1&):&;-.93-*1<&3-*"69(1&9*#&"11"*=9(&:9>+&9%-#1 Ratio of Disciplinary Incidents Supplementation/Baseline 1.00 2%=;"&CDGKOQ 5(9%"J)&CFOKFQ 0.75 &B&R&OKOOS &B&T&*1 0.50 Active 0.25 Placebo 0 Before supplementation During supplementation ?@&39A-3$3&1"%$6-.+&B6-1)*&C&DDE&)0"*%"1&93)*4&FGH&B6-1)*"61&);"6&I&3)*.81&.6"9.3"*.&-*&9& %)3B96"#&.)&I&3)*.81&J91"(-*"K& L"1%8&".&9(K&&M6&N&51+%8-9.6+&HOOH<&FEFPHHCHE Thursday, November 18, 2010 50
  51. 51. Why not reproduce the rapid results in Manitoba to get a 37% reduction in jail violence? It cost the Brits 19¢ per day or $69.35 per year. Thursday, November 18, 2010 51
  52. 52. Safe Playing Case Study Thursday, November 18, 2010 52
  53. 53. A environmental policy case study in reducing early rebelliousness, risk taking and sensation seeking This risk factor can be easily measured in early-childhood, and it predicts lifetime injuries, delinquency, alcohol/drug abuse abuse, and school difficulties. Thursday, November 18, 2010 53
  54. 54. Contextual example of such risk Thursday, November 18, 2010 54
  55. 55. Oh,prior prevention efforts in Sweden had resulted in more fatalities… Thursday, November 18, 2010 55
  56. 56. A book about “me” being a Safe Player Thursday, November 18, 2010 56
  57. 57. Adults defining boundaries of safe play Thursday, November 18, 2010 57
  58. 58. Adults setting timer to watch safe play in child Thursday, November 18, 2010 58
  59. 59. Parent praising safe play with stickers Thursday, November 18, 2010 59
  60. 60. Study 1 showed preschool intervention alone had short- term benefits Study 2 showed preschool plus parenting intervention had long-term benefits Study 3 showed strategy could be implemented in 35 Head Starts nationally Study 4 showed parents could change child’s behavior from special story workbook Study 5 showed behavior change for over 100 preschoolers, with no adverse effect. Study 6 showed effort could be successful in a 3-city multiple baseline in New Zealand Study 7 is national campaign, adopted by 50% of New Zealand families Study 8 replicates city results in US Thursday, November 18, 2010 60
  61. 61. Kernels and 4-P’s used in multi-city/national Safe Playing campaign Proclamations in cities and nationally Endorsements/Sponsorships by prestige organizations AND businesses Media models of adoption by high-status people Media models showing rapid results/benefits Public posting of rates of adoption/use Competitions between cities on adoptions Placement in supermarket or other easy venues Price free after filling out Safe Playing Promise (with address, etc.) Promotion for every family who wants their child to be safe Product promises child will be safer in two weeks when steps followed Thursday, November 18, 2010 61
  62. 62. Why not distribute specially constructed books for parents with young children… Reduce dangerous, impulsive, disturbing behavior quickly? Increase social- competence quickly? Improve school readiness quickly? Embry, D. D. and L. Peters (1985). A three-city evaluation of the diffusion of a pedestrian-safety injury control intervention. R. S. Division, New Zealand Ministry of Transport, Wellington, NZ. Thursday, November 18, 2010 62
  63. 63. Good Behavior Game Case Study Thursday, November 18, 2010 63
  64. 64. Why not turn about the lives of high risk primary grade children using a teacher invented procedure? Muriel Saunders, the teacher Thursday, November 18, 2010 64
  65. 65. Her invention immediately increases time to learn Thursday, November 18, 2010 65
  66. 66. Why not turn about the lives of high risk primary grade children using a teacher invented procedure? Thursday, November 18, 2010 66
  67. 67. Thursday, November 18, 2010 67
  68. 68. Community reinforcement case study Thursday, November 18, 2010 68
  69. 69. PeaceBuilders School-Community Reinforcement Study Positive Peer-to-Peer Social Home Notes Notes Competence Violence Thursday, November 18, 2010 69
  70. 70. Injury Prevention Study Using Positive Reinforcement 60% 50% Change in 40% Nurses’ Office Visits from Year to 30% Year 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% All Visits Injury Viists Non-Injuries Fighting Injuries Non-Fighting Injuries Control/Wait List Intervention Krug, E. G., N. D. Brener, et al. (1997). "The impact of an elementary school-based violence prevention program on visits to the school nurse." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 13(6): 459-463. Thursday, November 18, 2010 70
  71. 71. Prevention Store Prevention Science Meets Retail Consumers Dennis D. Embry, Ph.D., Society for Prevention Research, Denver, June, 2010 Thursday, November 18, 2010 71
  72. 72. If kernels are so good… Thursday, November 18, 2010 72
  73. 73. How have kernels evolved? The first (almost certainly antecedents) were selected by consequence for immediate reinforcement of food, protection, etc. Early tools come to mind as examples. The second (physiological) probably also arouse by selection by consequences by providing relief from physical or emotional distress. The third (relational frames) arouse with invention of oral and written language, selected by consequences to protect against danger from other humans or natural harm. The forth (contingent reinforcement) arouse with invention of oral and written language, selected by consequences for social advantage within groups and survival advantage of kin. Thursday, November 18, 2010 73
  74. 74. Using kernels to build population-level change… Problem Kernel #1 Observed Proximal Observed Effect Kernel Proximal Kernel #2 Effect Kernel Big Kernel #3 Change Effect Observed Proximal Effect t Thursday, November 18, 2010 74
  75. 75. Rule #1 of big change A big population-level change requires myriads of reliable, measurable small behavioral changes in at least 20% to 25% of the the total population. Blame is not a kernel. A diagnoses is not a kernel. “Shoulds” are not a kernel. Blame, diagnoses, and “shoulds” are personal or group ways of experiential avoidance for dealing with failure of the methods to create desired change. Thursday, November 18, 2010 75
  76. 76. Rule #2 of big change Always maximize the dignity and self-sufficiency of the persons whose behavior you wish to influence. If you fail this step, you will be meet resistance, counter-control and sabotage of the group of persons to maintain their dignity and self-sufficiency. This is a basic feature of human social interactions from which our species has evolved. Dead, disposed or failed chiefs and leaders liter human history who failed to observe the key universal feature of human societies. Thursday, November 18, 2010 76
  77. 77. Rule #3 of big change Pay attention to variations in behavior for improvement. Small differences—when done by many people— can make the difference between night and day. These small differences are the the variation in quality control that great car companies like Toyota or Honda to make incremental improvements. Look for innovations as well as problems. Thursday, November 18, 2010 77
  78. 78. Rule # 4 Big Change with a kernel requires other kernels A kernel that you want to promote to affect a specific behavior will require other kernels to make the specific action happen. This because other behaviors or people will be required before and after or in other settings for cooperation to happen. Thursday, November 18, 2010 78
  79. 79. Why not use a new word to convey our support every child being healthy in Manitoba Thursday, November 18, 2010 79
  80. 80. Thursday, November 18, 2010 80
  81. 81. Thursday, November 18, 2010 81
  82. 82. Thursday, November 18, 2010 82
  83. 83. Thursday, November 18, 2010 83
  84. 84. Thursday, November 18, 2010 84
  85. 85. Thursday, November 18, 2010 85
  86. 86. Thursday, November 18, 2010 86
  87. 87. Thursday, November 18, 2010 87
  88. 88. Thursday, November 18, 2010 88
  89. 89. Thursday, November 18, 2010 89
  90. 90. Thursday, November 18, 2010 90
  91. 91. Thursday, November 18, 2010 91
  92. 92. Thursday, November 18, 2010 92
  93. 93. Spreading healthy children in Manitoba like dandelions Thursday, November 18, 2010 93
  94. 94. is the gift of our futures Thursday, November 18, 2010 94
  95. 95. Contact: Dr. Dennis D. Embry, PAXIS Institute, PO Box 31205, Tucson, AZ USA dde@paxis.org • www.paxis.org • www.slideshare.net/drdennisembry Thursday, November 18, 2010 95
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