Radcliff Seminar on June 6-7, 2011: Designing Nurturing Environments for Children and Youth<br />By Dennis D. Embry, Ph.D....
Harvard University Brief on Causes and Cures of Bullying and Harassment
Harvard University Brief on Causes and Cures of Bullying and Harassment
Harvard University Brief on Causes and Cures of Bullying and Harassment
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Harvard University Brief on Causes and Cures of Bullying and Harassment

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Bullying and harassment in the 21st century in the United States is one of the symptoms of a broader epidemic of mental, emotional, behavioral and related physical illnesses—collectively the result of evolutionary mismatches and selection by consequences within the broader culture. Focusing on bullying and harassment per se may paradoxically serve to maintain multiple toxic conditions causing victimization that all here assembled find reprehensible.

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  • Bullying is a common experience for many children and adolescents. There are lots of ways parents can help a child who is being bullied. Parents should create an open, honest and supportive environment. Encourage your child to talk about what’s happening. Don’t blame them for the harassment. Let them know that you’ll help them figure out what to do and encourage your child to be assertive rather than aggressive when confronted by a bully.As a way of helping everyone especially the parents, who still find it quite hard to manage issues like this, I found this great application which featured a safety app which gets me connected to a Safety Network or escalate my call to the nearest 911 when needed, it has other cool features that are helpful for your kids with just a press of a Panic Button. #SafekidZone, Check it here: http://bit.ly/ZjYchC
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Transcript of "Harvard University Brief on Causes and Cures of Bullying and Harassment "

  1. 1. Radcliff Seminar on June 6-7, 2011: Designing Nurturing Environments for Children and Youth<br />By Dennis D. Embry, Ph.D., President/Senior Scientist, PAXIS Institute<br />Bullying and harassment in the 21st century in the United States is one of the symptoms of a broader epidemic of mental, emotional, behavioral and related physical illnesses—collectively the result of evolutionary mismatches and selection by consequences within the broader culture. Focusing on bullying and harassment per se may paradoxically serve to maintain multiple toxic conditions causing victimization that all here assembled find reprehensible.<br />Defining the nature and scope of bullying and harassment in the 21st century<br />Bullying and harassment are emotionally and physically painful events, caused by repeated human aggression. Human aggression, in turn, can only be understood and made malleable at scale through the lens of the meta-theory of selection by consequences, which includes evolutionary theory, behavioral analysis, and even neural plasticity. Widespread human prosociality is the antithesis of antisocial behavior, of which bullying and harassment is a subset. The oddity in humans is that our ultra sociality within groups evolved as a consequence of antisocial or aggressive predatory actions of other human “out” groups. The paradox of humanity is that the principle predator of humans is other humans, and the principle source of safety is other humans. Most of the evolution of the human prefontal cortex has evolved in this context—not faced by any other species.<br />Defining bullying and harassment to the exclusion of other forms of antisocial behavior could be harmful to the cause of reducing its prevalence. Too much emphasis on these terms to the exclusion of larger aggression runs the risk missing the underlying common pathways that underlie all forms of human aggression.<br />My work as prevention scientist seeking to reduce multiple mental, emotional, behavioral and related disorders allows for a better understanding of the epidemiology of such violence, and the focus on selection by consequences provides a meta-theory to understand variations of human behavior in social, biological and physical contexts that are not otherwise apparent or sensible. <br />I do not see the primary solution to the reduction of bullying and harassment as establishing, disseminating, and using a focused definition of bullying and harassment. The real substantial problem is disseminating the scientific fact that the common mental, emotional, behavioral and related physical illnesses are preventable, which in turn causes a reduction of harassment and bullying. By analogy, the first study showing a population level prevention of various forms of child abuse and maltreatment was not caused by promoting a definition of those maltreatment or by promoting evilness of such maltreatments or the evilness of the doers of such maltreatments. Rather, the first study in the world to stop child maltreatment was done by providing practical, brief tools to ALL parents who wanted them ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Prinz</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>77</RecNum><DisplayText>(Prinz, Sanders, Shapiro, Whitaker, &amp; Lutzker, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>77</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="zr9zfpp525txf4ev2fi5szphffsf0deafaaz">77</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Prinz, R.J.</author><author>Sanders, M.R.</author><author>Shapiro, C.J.</author><author>Whitaker, D.J.</author><author>Lutzker, J.R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial</title><secondary-title>Prevention Science</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Prevention Science</full-title></periodical><volume>10</volume><number>March</number><edition>January 26, 2009</edition><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.springerlink.com/content/104965/</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Prinz, Sanders, Shapiro, Whitaker, & Lutzker, 2009), rather than to just the identified “bad” parents. <br />Based on extant randomized trials ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ialongo</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>9</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ialongo et al., 1999)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>9</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="e2wx0srs9fs9waees5ypr9sddsadsde0adsx">9</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ialongo, N. S.</author><author>Werthamer, L.</author><author>Kellam, S. G.</author><author>Brown, C. H.</author><author>Wang, S.</author><author>Lin, Y.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on the early risk behaviors for later substance abuse, depression, and antisocial behavior</title><secondary-title>American Journal of Community Psychology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>American Journal of Community Psychology</full-title></periodical><pages>599-641</pages><volume>27</volume><number>5</number><keywords><keyword>Baltimore</keyword><keyword>*Behavior Therapy/mt [Methods]</keyword><keyword>Child</keyword><keyword>Child Behavior Disorders/et [Etiology]</keyword><keyword>*Child Behavior Disorders/pc [Prevention &amp; Control]</keyword><keyword>Educational Status</keyword><keyword>Female</keyword><keyword>Human</keyword><keyword>Intervention Studies</keyword><keyword>Male</keyword><keyword>*Parenting</keyword><keyword>Parents/ed [Education]</keyword><keyword>Psychological Tests</keyword><keyword>Regression Analysis</keyword><keyword>Risk Factors</keyword><keyword>Schools/sn [Statistics &amp; Numerical Data]</keyword><keyword>Sex Factors</keyword><keyword>*Social Adjustment</keyword><keyword>Support, U.S. Gov&apos;t, P.H.S.</keyword><keyword>*Teaching/mt [Methods]</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1999</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ialongo et al., 1999) and epidemiological research in the 2009 IOM Report ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>O&apos;Connell</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><DisplayText>(O&apos;Connell, Boat, &amp; Warner, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="f9v0fr5stfzat3eev0mxs024vwtxwa0dprs9">42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Edited Book">28</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>O&apos;Connell, Mary Ellen</author><author>Boat, Thomas</author><author>Warner, Kenneth E.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities. </title><secondary-title>Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions</secondary-title></titles><pages>592</pages><dates><year>2009</year></dates><pub-location>Washington, DC</pub-location><publisher>Institute of Medicine; National Research Council</publisher><isbn>ISBN-10: 0-309-13207-X ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13207-7</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009), the best bets for a society with low levels of harassment and bullying involves the application of universal behavioral vaccines that prevents multiple mental, emotional, behavioral and related physical (MEBs) disorders ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Embry</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>70</RecNum><DisplayText>(Embry, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>70</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="f2tadevw65vtd5ewex8xs5f99dxp29ftd2t9">70</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Embry, Dennis D.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Behavioral Vaccines and Evidence Based Kernels: Non-Pharmaceutical Approaches for the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders</title><secondary-title>Psychiatric Clinics of North America</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Psychiatric Clinics of North America</full-title></periodical><pages> 1–34</pages><volume>34</volume><number>March</number><section>1</section><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.psc.2010.11.003</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Embry, 2011).<br />Reviewing the “state of the science” and the “state of the art” in prevention/intervention. <br />The primary causes and cures of bullying and harassment ought not to be viewed through the lens of deficient knowledge or through the lens of mezzo theory. Rather, the causes and cures need to be seen in the context of meta-theory like selection by consequences, which embraces evolutionary mismatch finds and applied behavioral sciences. For well over fifty years, we’ve known that some humans are more vulnerable to bullying and victimization, and we’ve known that some humans are more likely to engage in the behavior. In America today, and increasingly in the industrialized world, selection by consequences is generating more people who are likely to be victimized and to be perpetrators of multiple forms of antisocial behavior. <br />Unless one systematically reads or reviews the international epidemiology on mental, emotional and behavioral disorders, one might miss the fact mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders that predict BOTH victimization and perpetration have been rising in America for the past 20-50 years, and they are objectively higher in the United States than other rich democracies ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>O&apos;Connell</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><DisplayText>(O&apos;Connell, et al., 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="f9v0fr5stfzat3eev0mxs024vwtxwa0dprs9">42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Edited Book">28</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>O&apos;Connell, Mary Ellen</author><author>Boat, Thomas</author><author>Warner, Kenneth E.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities. </title><secondary-title>Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions</secondary-title></titles><pages>592</pages><dates><year>2009</year></dates><pub-location>Washington, DC</pub-location><publisher>Institute of Medicine; National Research Council</publisher><isbn>ISBN-10: 0-309-13207-X ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13207-7</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(O'Connell, et al., 2009). Indeed, the United States has the highest rates of mental illnesses in the world, according to WHO international epidemiological surveys, and the United States moved from 11th to 47th in the world in longevity during the last twenty years. These trends are connected the same biological and social mechanisms, and these combined vulnerabilities threaten the security of the United States economically and economically ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McMichael</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>21</RecNum><DisplayText>(McMichael, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>21</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="0dd05wwrz2zav3e29x45w5zjd0prerrdveaf">21</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Newspaper Article">23</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McMichael, W.H.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Most U.S. youths unfit to serve, data show</title><secondary-title>Army Times</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2009</year><pub-dates><date>Nov. 5, 2009</date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Washington, DC</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McMichael, 2009). <br />My colleagues (Anthony Biglan, David Sloan Wilson, and Steven Hayes) and I hypothesize that the most effective or promising approaches to bullying/peer victimization prevention and intervention are not immediately obvious:<br />Reduce toxic influences affecting biological bases predisposing the population toward either victimization or perpetrator status or both. The biological bases are largely the results of evolutionary mismatch. An example is in order. Humans prosocial, peaceful cooperation and prefrontal cortex development arose in the contexts abundant sources of omega-3 fatty acid ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Broadhurst</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>577</RecNum><DisplayText>(Broadhurst et al., 2002)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>577</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="ptte0ffa6ptvt1ee0wb5eszdxfasa2zappwr">577</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Broadhurst, C. Leigh</author><author>Wang, Yiqun</author><author>Crawford, Michael A.</author><author>Cunnane, Stephen C.</author><author>Parkington, John E.</author><author>Schmidt, Walter F.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>US Department of Agriculture, Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.</auth-address><titles><title>Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens</title><secondary-title>Comparative Biochemistry &amp; Physiology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Comparative Biochemistry &amp; Physiology</full-title></periodical><pages>653-73</pages><volume>Part B, Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology. 131</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2002</year><pub-dates><date>Apr</date></pub-dates></dates><accession-num>11923081</accession-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Broadhurst et al., 2002), with the ratio of consumption being one unit of omega-3 to two units of other polyunsaturated fats such as omega-6 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Simopoulos</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>716</RecNum><DisplayText>(Simopoulos, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>716</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="ptte0ffa6ptvt1ee0wb5eszdxfasa2zappwr">716</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Simopoulos, A. P.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, 2001 S Street, NW, Suite 530, 20009 Washington, DC, USA. cgnh@bellatlantic.net</auth-address><titles><title>Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases</title><secondary-title>Biomedicine &amp; Pharmacotherapy</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biomedicine &amp; Pharmacotherapy</full-title></periodical><pages>502-7</pages><volume>60</volume><number>9</number><dates><year>2006</year><pub-dates><date>Nov</date></pub-dates></dates><accession-num>17045449</accession-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Simopoulos, 2006). Today, American consume one unit of omega-3 to 20-to-30 units of omega-6, with dire consequences of increased mental, emotional, behavioral and related physical disorders ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hibbeln</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>410</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hibbeln, Nieminen, Blasbalg, Riggs, &amp; Lands, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>410</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="ptte0ffa6ptvt1ee0wb5eszdxfasa2zappwr">410</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hibbeln, J. R.</author><author>Nieminen, L. R.</author><author>Blasbalg, T. L.</author><author>Riggs, J. A.</author><author>Lands, W. E.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2088, USA. jhibbeln@mail.nih.gov</auth-address><titles><title>Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity</title><secondary-title>American Journal of Clinical Nutrition</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>American Journal of Clinical Nutrition</full-title></periodical><pages>1483S-1493S</pages><volume>83</volume><number>6 Suppl</number><dates><year>2006</year><pub-dates><date>Jun</date></pub-dates></dates><accession-num>16841858</accession-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hibbeln, Nieminen, Blasbalg, Riggs, & Lands, 2006). Randomized trials of improving this ratio result in lower rates of mental, emotional, behavioral and physical disorders ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sinn</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>848</RecNum><DisplayText>(Sinn, Milte, &amp; Howe, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>848</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="ptte0ffa6ptvt1ee0wb5eszdxfasa2zappwr">848</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sinn, Natalie</author><author>Milte, Catherine</author><author>Howe, Peter R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Oiling the Brain: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychopathology across the Lifespan</title><secondary-title>Nutrients</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nutrients</full-title></periodical><pages>128-170</pages><volume>2</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>2072-6643</isbn><accession-num>doi:10.3390/nu2020128</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/2/2/128</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Sinn, Milte, & Howe, 2010).<br />Increase nurturance of prosociality for persons of all ages and settings. America is consumed with a desire to punish misdeeds, possibly because humans actually experience dopamine release when doing so. Sadly, this often backfires in randomized trials. The best evidence we have for social-emotional approaches to reducing BOTH the propensity for being victimized or being a perpetrator involve multiple methods of differential reinforcement of prosociality via multiple well-proven mechanisms and providing mild-corrections for deviations of norms. Some of the best examples of this in schools come from randomized trials of strategies informed by behavior analysis such as the Good Behavior Game 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969; Embry, 2011; Ialongo, et al., 1999; Kellam et al., 2008), Positive Action (REFs), and PeaceBuilders 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Embry, Flannery, Vazsonyi, Powell, & Atha, 1996; Flannery et al., 2003; Krug, Brener, Dahlberg, Ryan, & Powell, 1997; Vazsonyi, Belliston, & Flannery, 2004).<br />Increase psychological flexibility among people of all ages. Human cognition and language is apparently unique in being composed of arbitrary sounds and symbols that have what are called “entailments of meaning” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hayes</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>5</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hayes et al., 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>5</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="ax0255rw2zvtvtef5axpr09tdx5vzxrrxw09">5</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hayes, Steven C.</author><author>Fox, Eric</author><author>Gifford, Elizabeth V.</author><author>Wilson, Kelly G.</author><author>Barnes-Holmes, Dermot</author><author>Healy, Olive</author><author>Hayes, Steven C.</author><author>Barnes-Holmes, Dermot</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>et al.,</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Derived relational responding as learned behavior</title><secondary-title>Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition.</secondary-title></titles><pages>21</pages><keywords><keyword>relational frame theory</keyword><keyword>stimulus</keyword><keyword>operants</keyword><keyword>verbal events</keyword><keyword>verbal behavior</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>New York, NY, US</pub-location><publisher>Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers</publisher><accession-num>2001-06976-002</accession-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hayes et al., 2001) The more literal that people treat such language and thought, the more prone they are to acts of violence, mental illness, distress, and even illness. Randomized trials that involve teaching and encouraging psychological flexibility reduce the behaviors that increase exposure to victimization and reduce the perpetration of such violence. Such flexibility reduces narrow, reactive, aggressive, and/or internalize responses to perceived threats. One of the key empirically proven tools for inducing psychological flexibility involves a strategy called, “defusion” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Barnes-Holmes</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>32</RecNum><DisplayText>(Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, McHugh, &amp; Hayes, 2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>32</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2pee99pftr22z1esfpupddpyz0sfds5zd29x">32</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne</author><author>Barnes-Holmes, Dermot</author><author>McHugh, Louise</author><author>Hayes, Steven C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Department of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Co. Kildare, Maynooth, Ireland, yvonne.barnes-holmes@may.ie</auth-address><titles><title>Relational Frame Theory: Some Implications for Understanding and Treating Human Psychopathology</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Psychology &amp; Psychological Therapy</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Psychology &amp; Psychological Therapy</full-title></periodical><pages>355-375</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>relational frame theory</keyword><keyword>human psychopathology</keyword><keyword>behavior analysis</keyword><keyword>human language</keyword><keyword>cognition</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2004</year></dates><publisher>Asociaci?n de An?lisis del Comportamiento: Spain</publisher><accession-num>2005-14214-010</accession-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, McHugh, & Hayes, 2004). In my presentation, I will demonstrate a practical application of this arising from the harassment and bullying of LGBT students and staff.<br />Policymakers and practitioners are going to be far more successful is using the three above principles, instead of focusing on narrow “anti-bullying” efforts in terms of bettering the world. In some ways, an “anti-bullying” obsession is as unlikely to succeed as the “anti-gay” efforts of state governments and advocacy groups to suppress LGBT thoughts and behaviors.<br />Innovating and shaping the future of bullying prevention practice and policy<br />Coming at social problems like harassment and bullying in schools from an obsessive stance of “anti” anything is likely to create a monster of unintended consequences on the order of kindergartners being expelled for having a plastic picnic knife or saying “I’m going to shoot you after watching something violent on TV”. The very act of focusing on the “anti” can in fact result in worsening such behaviors. What are the alternative policies and practices?<br />Policy and Practice Option #1: Develop a Comprehensive Policy of Nurturing Prosociality. This policy needs to extend to everyday behavior in classrooms, in public spaces, in after-school programs, in the neighborhood, among families, in local businesses, by local organizations—including government, in the media and coordinated by local funders and policy institutions. I will give examples in my talk.<br />Policy and Practice Option #2: Develop a Comprehensive Policy of Reducing Toxic Influences. Like the above, this extends to all sectors. And, I will cover examples.<br />Policy and Practice Option #3: Develop a Comprehensive Approach for Creating Psychological Flexibility. This action is in a novice stage of thinking by colleagues and I, but I will provide examples.<br />All the above needs to be included in pre-service training, and I will give examples to date.<br /> ADDIN EN.REFLIST References Cited<br />Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., McHugh, L., & Hayes, S. C. (2004). Relational Frame Theory: Some Implications for Understanding and Treating Human Psychopathology. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 4, 355-375. <br />Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2(2), 119-124. <br />Broadhurst, C. L., Wang, Y., Crawford, M. A., Cunnane, S. C., Parkington, J. E., & Schmidt, W. F. (2002). Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens. 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