Evidence-Base Crime PreventionDennis D. Embry, Ph.D.,president/senior scientist, PAXIS InstituteCo-investigator, Johns Hop...
What if…crime in Canada couldbe reduce by 50% in a decade?
The anatomy of stopping a         past epidemic…
Psychological flexibility is required…
What if we think about crime as an artifact ofevolution…instead from a cage of past ideas?
Every species has a Fearsome predator…
The firstcapitalcrime……and Cain rose upand slew Abel
Humans have been the principle predator of otherhumans since the invention of stone tools…
Three evolutionarymechanism for today’smental gymnastics forheartfelt & principledprevention of crime…  Epigensis  Evoluti...
Friend                       Foe       “Us”                  “Them”The principal source of safety of humans has beenother ...
Selection by Consequences –A Meta-Theory with a Fractal Pattern  A Fractal is a repeated     Selection Level           Con...
Social BiologicalEpigenesis                  Environmental Inputs                                         Genesis         ...
EvolutionaryMismatch
Original              1491 AD    Human Migrations to North America                      30,000,000                     ≈ S...
Original              1491 AD    Human Migrations to North America                      30,000,000                       8...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”           Age 4             6      8        10         12      14...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”                                                                  ...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”                                                                  ...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”                                                                  ...
If modern society is to flourish for all,we must alter the predator-preyrelationships between human groups.This means fewer...
Whether the talon, claw or weaponcarries human rank or authoritymatters not to the blind engine of evolutionwhen trying to...
Hypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes
Redness, rubor, a response of body                           tissues to injury or irritation; characterized               ...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats                      Human Predatory Threats   Evolutionary Adaptive Responses        ...
Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life
K                                                                         R    Path                                       ...
Obesity Conduct Disorders                                  Homicide                                  & Suicide            ...
Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body ResponseMajor Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Ill...
Mood                               Lo Reward     Lo Executive      Lo Behavioral                            Inattention   ...
Substance                        Work      Obesity, Early      Mental Illness                    Violence                 ...
Evolutionary Mismatches                   Evolutionary Consequences                                          Change in    ...
Evolutionary Mismatches                    Evolutionary Consequences                                           Change in  ...
Evolutionary Mismatches                         Evolutionary Consequences  Fear of           ReducedViolence &          Ou...
Inukshuk points the way
Apparent consumption ofl inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among                                                         ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                 4 ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                 4 ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                 4 ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                   ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                                                                         ...
An ancient inukshuk points the                                                                                            ...
Reduced Felony Violent Offenses Among Prisoners with recommended daily amounts of vitamins, minerals and                  ...
Why not reproduce the rapidresults in throughout Canadato get a 37% reduction in jailviolence?It cost the Brits 19¢ per da...
Omega-3 Status and US Military Suicide DeathsSuicide Deaths of Active-Duty US Military andOmega-3 Fatty-Acid Status: A Cas...
Matsuoka BioPsychoSocial Medicine 2011, 5:3                                                                               ...
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012
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Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012

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In this 1 hour presentation, a deeper unstinting of why crime prevention must incorporate evolutionary theory. Humans are the principle predator of humans, and the principle source of safety. This talk outlines several clear strategies with large preventive effects.

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  • Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Manitoba 2012

    1. 1. Evidence-Base Crime PreventionDennis D. Embry, Ph.D.,president/senior scientist, PAXIS InstituteCo-investigator, Johns Hopkins Center for Prevention & Early InterventionScientific advisor, Healthy Child Manitoba,Co-Investigator, School of Medicine, Yale University
    2. 2. What if…crime in Canada couldbe reduce by 50% in a decade?
    3. 3. The anatomy of stopping a past epidemic…
    4. 4. Psychological flexibility is required…
    5. 5. What if we think about crime as an artifact ofevolution…instead from a cage of past ideas?
    6. 6. Every species has a Fearsome predator…
    7. 7. The firstcapitalcrime……and Cain rose upand slew Abel
    8. 8. Humans have been the principle predator of otherhumans since the invention of stone tools…
    9. 9. Three evolutionarymechanism for today’smental gymnastics forheartfelt & principledprevention of crime… Epigensis Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Bottlenecks
    10. 10. Friend Foe “Us” “Them”The principal source of safety of humans has beenother humans…
    11. 11. Selection by Consequences –A Meta-Theory with a Fractal Pattern A Fractal is a repeated Selection Level Consequences pattern at many levels Selection of Genes Genes Evolution of species Cells Epigensis Bodies Individual Behaviors Wiring of neurons Group Behaviors Human development Organizational Actions Selection of behaviors Language Reproductive behaviors Economies Behavioral economics Species Groups Organization behavior Language /Cultural evolution
    12. 12. Social BiologicalEpigenesis Environmental Inputs Genesis Nurturing or ToxicEpigenetics are Environments, Theseheritable Disease, or polygenes Threatschanges in can begene expression “added”,caused by “subtracted”, Mmechanisms g “divided”, or or lin Phosphorlyation phother than “multiplied.” na og Acetylation Sig enchanges in the Methylation sisunderlying DNA Histone Remodeling Chromatin Stucture Changessequence. Development Immunity Stem Cell Changes ImprintingThese changes Parent,can pass Three 1st Generationthrough multiple Generation Baby, 2nd Generation Effectsgenerations. Reproductive Cells, 3rd Generation
    13. 13. EvolutionaryMismatch
    14. 14. Original 1491 AD Human Migrations to North America 30,000,000 ≈ Souls in ≈ 300,000 Souls North AmericaEvolutionary bottleneck
    15. 15. Original 1491 AD Human Migrations to North America 30,000,000 8th ≈ Souls in ≈ 300,000 Souls Fire North AmericaEvolutionary bottleneck
    16. 16. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Birth ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Binge Daily Meth & IV Violent TV Cigarettes Drinking Marijuana Other Drugs Use School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Sexually Serious Hepatitis C Smoking Ashtma Transmitted Car Crash Notes & Intentional Diseases Gunshot Low Birth Weight Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Records Has Abused Assault Calls by Moms at School Theft Various Drug sales; Armed Felony Assault Robbery from Reclaim- Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by Legend Embry and ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse TS = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) SD = Speech Delay Rodgers, 2002, ODD A/D = = Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder LD SED = = Learning Disabilityr Severe Emotional Disorder for Wyoming CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    17. 17. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” When could this path Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 have been altered Birth based on scientific ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D evidence? DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Binge Daily Meth & IV Violent TV Cigarettes Drinking Marijuana Other Drugs Use School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Sexually Serious Hepatitis C Smoking Ashtma Transmitted Car Crash Notes & Intentional Diseases Gunshot Low Birth Weight Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Records Has Abused Assault Calls by Moms at School Theft Various Drug sales; Armed Felony Assault Robbery from Reclaim- Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by Legend Embry and ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse TS = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) SD = Speech Delay Rodgers, 2002, ODD A/D = = Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder LD SED = = Learning Disabilityr Severe Emotional Disorder for Wyoming CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    18. 18. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” When could this path Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 have been altered Birth based on scientific ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D evidence? DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Violent TV Cigarettes Binge Drinking Daily Marijuana Meth & IV Other Drugs Use What is the cost of human suffering to School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Notes & Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Smoking Ashtma Sexually Serious Transmitted Car Crash Hepatitis C this family, victims, Intentional and society? Low Birth Weight Diseases Gunshot Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Records Has Abused Assault Calls by Moms at School Theft Various Drug sales; Armed Felony Assault Robbery from Reclaim- Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by Legend Embry and ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse TS = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) SD = Speech Delay Rodgers, 2002, ODD A/D = = Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder LD SED = = Learning Disabilityr Severe Emotional Disorder for Wyoming CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    19. 19. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” When could this path Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 have been altered Birth based on scientific ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D evidence? DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Violent TV Cigarettes Binge Drinking Daily Marijuana Meth & IV Other Drugs Use What is the cost of human suffering to School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Notes & Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Smoking Ashtma Sexually Serious Transmitted Car Crash Hepatitis C this family, victims, Intentional and society? Low Birth Weight Diseases Gunshot Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Abused Assault Various Drug sales; Armed from Reclaim- What are the costs of Records Has Calls by Moms at School Theft Felony Assault Robbery Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by ADHD = Legend Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse Embry and evidence-based TS ODD = = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) Oppositional Defiant Disorder SD LD = = Speech Delay Learning Disabilityr Rodgers, 2002, for Wyoming practices to avert? A/D = Antisocial Personality Disorder SED = Severe Emotional Disorder CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    20. 20. If modern society is to flourish for all,we must alter the predator-preyrelationships between human groups.This means fewer humans as prey,This means fewer humans as predators;This means more humans as cooperators.
    21. 21. Whether the talon, claw or weaponcarries human rank or authoritymatters not to the blind engine of evolutionwhen trying to suppress one group ofhumans in favor of another.Life finds a way.
    22. 22. Hypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes
    23. 23. Redness, rubor, a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat. Excitation, excitement, fervor, fervour the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up Inflaming arousal to violent emotion Firing, ignition, kindling, lightingHypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes
    24. 24. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) Neuro-Hormones (Simplified) Mood Modulators Reward Threat Attributional Delay Intra-GroupGeneralized Localized Modulators Affiliation Bias (Inflammatory)Inflammatory Inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory) Out-GroupResponse Response Stress Aggress. (Inflammatory) Modulators Intra-Group Cooperation Tit-for-Tat Beh. Bias Anti-Inflammatory Regulators Puberty/Sex (Anti-Inflammatory) Modulators (Inflammatory)
    25. 25. Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life
    26. 26. K R Path Path Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life Probability of short-life andProbability of long-life and doubtful reproductive success reproductive success
    27. 27. Obesity Conduct Disorders Homicide & Suicide Early Sex Early Pregnancy Addictions Aggression AsthmaDisabilitiesR PATH = risky adolescence, predator and prey
    28. 28. Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body ResponseMajor Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Illnesses Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal Relations more for anti-social cue anti-social influences trigger occasion perceived than prosocial acts and threats adverse biological threats and related behaviors mechanisms reactions
    29. 29. Mood Lo Reward Lo Executive Lo Behavioral Inattention Delay Function Instability Competencies Poor Immune- Motor Healing Skills Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body Response DysfunctionMajor Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Illnesses Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal Relations more for anti-social cue anti-social influences trigger occasion perceived than prosocial acts and threats adverse biological threats and related behaviors mechanisms reactions
    30. 30. Substance Work Obesity, Early Mental Illness Violence Cancer School Abuse Problems etc Sex Failure Mood Lo Reward Lo Executive Lo Behavioral Inattention Delay Function Instability Competencies Poor Immune-STD’s Motor Healing Special Skills Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body Response Dysfunction Ed Major Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Illnesses Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal Relations more for anti-social cue anti-social influences trigger occasion perceived than prosocial acts and threats adverse biological threats and related behaviors mechanisms reactions
    31. 31. Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Consequences Change in Increased Genes Cancer Rise in Increased Obesity Autism Rates Rise in Rise in ATOD Addictions Increased Depression Aggression Rates Rates Schizo.New cultural trends predict new challenges and risks
    32. 32. Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Consequences Change in Increased Genes Cancer Lower Rates Rise in Increased of Positive Obesity Reinforcement Autism Rates Rise in Rise in ATOD Addictions Increased Depression Aggression Rates Rates Schizo.New cultural trends predict new challenges and risks
    33. 33. Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Consequences Fear of ReducedViolence & Outdoor Vitamin D Change in Increased Deficiency Genes Crime Activities CancerIncreased Lower Rates Rise in IncreasedElectronic of Positive ObesityMedia Use Reinforcement Autism Rates Rise in Rise in ATODOmega 3 Addictions IncreasedFatty Acid Depression AggressionDeficiency Rates Rates Schizo.New cultural trends predict new challenges and risks
    34. 34. Inukshuk points the way
    35. 35. Apparent consumption ofl inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among Australia, Canada, UK and USA for the years 1961–2000 10 Australia Canada UK USA Apparent consumption of linoleic acid 9 8 7 (% energy) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Evolution Neonates Breast Milk “Risky” Beh. In the Rife Valley, the Successful human American infants have Almost all adolescent human brain neonates born with been getting steadily risky behaviors have evolution the result of 60-day supply of less omega-3 (n3) and now been documented eating fish high in omega-3 in more pro-inflammatory to be related to low n3 omega-3 not subcutaneous fat omega-6 (n6) in breast and high n6 in US diet savannah animals from mother’s diet milk change in last 50 years See Broadhurst, Cunnane, & See HIbbeln et al. (2007).Maternal See Ailhaud et al. (2006).Temporal Crawford (1998). Rift Valley lake seafood consumption in pregnancy changes in dietary fats: Role of n6 fish and shellfish provided brain- and neurodevelopmental outcomes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in Hibbeln et al. (2006). Healthy intakes specific nutrition for childhood (ALSPAC study): an excessive adipose tissue of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations early Homo observational cohort study development and relationship to considering worldwide diversity. obesityPhysiological Adaptation
    36. 36. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 4 United 2000 Kingdom 2 1961 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    37. 37. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 4 United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 1961 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    38. 38. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 4 United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 2000 1961 1961 Australia 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    39. 39. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 1988 4 1961 Argentina United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 2000 1961 1961 Australia 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    40. 40. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 1985 10 United 8 States 6 1988 1999 1961 4 1961 Argentina United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 2000 1961 1961 Australia 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    41. 41. An ancient inukshuk points the way Brief Report 30% Percentage with Psychosis at 12 months Omega-3 Fatty Acid Treatment of Women Physiological 27.5% With Borderline Personality Disorder: Kernel A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study 24% Mary C. Zanarini, Ed.D. Results: Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to 1 g of E- Frances R. Frankenburg, M.D. EPA; 10 subjects were given placebo. Ninety percent of those in both groups completed all 8 weeks of the trial. Analyses that Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effi- used random-effects regression modeling and controlled for cacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) and placebo in the baseline severity showed E-EPA to be superior to placebo in treatment of female subjects with borderline personality disorder. Method: The authors conducted an 8-week, placebo-con- diminishing aggression as well as the severity of depressive symptoms. 18% trolled, double-blind study of E-EPA in 30 female subjects meet- Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that E-EPA may ing Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV cri- be a safe and effective form of monotherapy for women with teria for borderline personality disorder. moderately severe borderline personality disorder. Changes (Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:167–169) 12%biochemistry of B orderline personality disorder is marked by notable reactivity of mood and impulsive aggression. Because re- week, were actively abusing alcohol or drugs, or were acutely sui- cidal. behavior sponse to antidepressants and mood stabilizers has typi- cally been clinically modest in this patient group (1), the Subjects were next invited to participate in face-to-face inter- views. At that time, the study procedures were fully explained, and written informed consent was obtained. Two semistructured 6% identification of novel treatments is needed. Candidates diagnostic interviews were then administered to each subject: the 4.9% include omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (6) and acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are commonly the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) (7). Two observer-rated scales were also administered: the Modified Overt found in seafood and have beneficial effects and none of Aggression Scale (8) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression the adverse side effects commonly associated with phar- Rating Scale (9). macotherapy. In cross-national studies, greater seafood consumption was associated with lower rates of bipolar Subjects were included if they met both DIB-R and DSM-IV cri- teria for borderline personality disorder. They were excluded if 0% disorder (30-fold range) and major depression (50-fold range) (2). In placebo-controlled trials, a mixture of these they met current or lifetime criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaf- fective disorder, or bipolar I or bipolar II disorder or were cur- Omega-3 Placeo rently in the midst of a major depressive episode. fatty acids was found to be an effective adjunctive agent for patients suffering from bipolar disorder (3), and ethyl- Study duration was 8 weeks. Subjects were seen every week for the first month and then biweekly for the next month. Both psy- Psychosis eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) was found to have a bene- chiatric rating scales were readministered at each subsequent visit. Side effects were also assessed at these visits with a struc- ficial adjunctive effect for patients suffering from recur- tured questionnaire. rent depression (4). Because of the shared symptoms of Subjects received two capsules per day (beginning the day after Source: Am. Journal of Psychiatry Source: Archives of General Psychiatry borderline personality disorder and these mood disorders, their baseline assessment); each capsule contained either 500 mg a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of E-EPA seemed of 97% E-EPA or a placebo (mineral oil). One gram was chosen as warranted. the dose most likely to be effective on the basis of unpublished studies in depression (David Horrobin, personal communication, Feb. 1, 2001). Capsules were supplied by Laxdale Pharmaceuticals Method (Stirling, U.K.).
    42. 42. Reduced Felony Violent Offenses Among Prisoners with recommended daily amounts of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids Ratio of Disciplinary Incidents Supplementation/Baseline 1.00 Active -37.0% Placebo -10.1% 0.75 p ‹ 0.005 p = ns 0.50 Active 0.25 Placebo 0 Before supplementation During supplementationUK maximum security prison - 338 offences among 172 prisoners over 9 months treatment in a compared to 9 months baseline. Gesch et al. Br J Psychiatry 2002, 181:22-28
    43. 43. Why not reproduce the rapidresults in throughout Canadato get a 37% reduction in jailviolence?It cost the Brits 19¢ per day or $69.35 per year.
    44. 44. Omega-3 Status and US Military Suicide DeathsSuicide Deaths of Active-Duty US Military andOmega-3 Fatty-Acid Status: A Case-Control ComparisonMichael D. Lewis, MD; Joseph R. Hibbeln, MD; Jeremiah E. Johnson, RD;Yu Hong Lin, PhD; Duk Y. Hyun, BS; and James D. Loewke, BSABSTRACTBackground: The recent escalation of US military S uicide rates among active-duty US military have increased to re- cord numbers, doubling since the inception of Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) and Operation Iraqi Freedom and rivaling thesuicide deaths to record numbers has been battlefield in toll on the US military.1 Army Vice–Chief of Staff Generala sentinel for impaired force efficacy and has Peter W. Chiarelli described the record suicide rate as “horrible” andaccelerated the search for reversible risk factors. voiced frustration that “the Army has not yet been able to identify anyObjective: To determine whether deficiencies causal links among the suicide cases.”2(pA2)of neuroactive, highly unsaturated omega-3 Deficiencies of nutrients critical for brain function may be a signifi-essential fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs), in particulardocosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with cant contributing risk factor for psychiatric pathology, especially suicideincreased risk of suicide death among a large and stress-related psychiatric symptoms.3 Highly unsaturated omega-3random sample of active-duty US military. essential fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs), in particular docosahexaenoic acidMethod: In this retrospective case-control (DHA), are selectively concentrated in neural tissues and are requiredstudy, serum fatty acids were quantified as for optimal neural function.4 These fatty acids cannot be made de novoa percentage of total fatty acids among US but are available only from dietary sources, with seafood being the richestmilitary suicide deaths (n = 800) and controls source. Nutritional deficiencies in n-3 HUFAs may increase vulnerabil-(n = 800) matched for age, date of collection ofsera, sex, rank, and year of incident. Participants ity to combat deployment stress, manifesting as psychiatric symptomswere active-duty US military personnel including adjustment disorders, major depression, impulsive violence,(2002–2008). For cases, age at death ranged and suicide.5 In civilian populations, observational studies indicate thatfrom 17–59 years (mean = 27.3 years, SD = 7.3 low fish consumption is associated with increased risk of completed sui-years). Outcome measures included death by cides6,7 and greater suicidal ideation.8 Low DHA status was associatedsuicide, postdeployment health assessmentquestionnaire (Department of Defense Form with increased risk of past suicide attempts9 and future suicide attempts.102796), and ICD-9 mental health diagnosis data. In comparison to placebo, 2 grams per day of n-3 HUFA reduced suicidalResults: Risk of suicide death was 14% higher per thinking and depressive symptoms and reduced the perception of stressSD of lower DHA percentage (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, among subjects (n = 49) with deliberate self-harm.111.02–1.27; P < .03) in adjusted logistic regressions. These findings suggest that low DHA levels may be a contributingAmong men, risk of suicide death was 62% factor for adverse psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we posited thatgreater with low serum DHA status (adjusted low DHA status would be associated with increased risk of suicide deathOR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12–2.34; P < .01, comparingDHA below 1.75% [n = 1,389] to DHA of 1.75% among military personnel. Prospectively collected serum and supportingand above [n = 141]). Risk of suicide death was data were available from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center52% greater in those who reported having seen (AFHSC) for a large number of active-duty suicide deaths (n = 800) and
    45. 45. Matsuoka BioPsychoSocial Medicine 2011, 5:3 http://www.bpsmedicine.com/content/5/1/3 REVIEW Open Access Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder? Yutaka Matsuoka1,2 Abstract Not only has accidental injury been shown to account for a significant health burden on all populations, regardless of age, sex and geographic region, but patients with accidental injury frequently present with the psychiatric condition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prevention of accident-related PTSD thus represents a potentially Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus important goal. Physicians in the field of psychosomatic medicine and critical care medicine have the opportunity through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel to see injured patients in the immediate aftermath of an accident. This article first briefly reviews the prevalence preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder? and associated factors of accident-related PTSD, then focuses on a conceptual model of fear memory and Matsuoka proposes a new, rationally hypothesized translational preventive intervention for PTSD through promoting hippocampal neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The results of an open-label pilot trial of Matsuoka BioPsychoSocial Medicine 2011, 5:3 http://www.bpsmedicine.com/content/5/1/3 (8 February 2011) injured patients admitted to the intensive care unit suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation immediately after accidental injury can reduce subsequent PTSD symptoms.Omega-3 for PTSD symptoms could be usedroutinely for the patients exposed to trauma
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