A Different Scientific Perspective About                                the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and:             ...
Housekeeping
What bricks—heavy objects of pain, injury, illness, orproblems—do you NOT want in your childrens’ suitcases
Our Own Children’s Future Rests On Other Children
Our Own Children’s Future Rests On Other Children                                                                    ADHD ...
Our Own Children’s Future
Our Futures
Thinking about allthe children, youthand adults youknow…
Some international comparisons…
e nt ion                     p rev             te on           vo     ica’s   erAm
America speaks… 77% believe prevention will save money 72% say investing in prevention, because it will prevent disease an...
Hearing the Heart of America…  59% believe the nation needs  to put more emphasis on  prevention  This is a 20% increase o...
Rationing prevention in America                           ion                  pre vent
Is this thefuture we want forAmerica?      See video of the story on prisons costing much more than all                   ...
What if…crime or delinquencycould be reduced by 50% in a                     decade?
What if mental illnesses from ADHD to Depression toSchizophrenia could be reduced by 50% in a decade?
What if obesity and related illnesses like asthmaor diabetes were reduced by 50% in a decade?
What if bullying and suicides could be reduced by50% in a decade?
What if tobacco, alcohol, illegal drug & prescriptionabuse were reduced by 50% in a decade?
What if child maltreatment were reduced by 50%in a decade?
What would happen to America over thenext decade if all these these problemswere reduced by large margins?
What would happen to America over thenext decade if all these these problemswere reduced by large margins?What good things...
What would we, in this room, could we dopersonally today to help make these things happen?
How are these all related to the same causes?
Obesity Conduct Disorders                                  Homicide                                  & Suicide            ...
Psychological flexibility is required…
What if we think about these problems from anevolutionary angle…instead from a cage of past ideas?
Every species has a Fearsome predator…
The firstcapitalcrime……and Cain rose upand slew Abel
Humans have been the principle predator of otherhumans since the invention of stone tools…
Friend                       Foe       “Us”                  “Them”The principal source of safety of humans has beenother ...
Three evolutionarymechanism for today’smental gymnastics forheartfelt & principledprotection of our futures…  Evolutionary...
Selection by Consequences –A Meta-Theory with a Fractal Pattern  A Fractal is a repeated     Selection Level           Con...
Social BiologicalEpigenesis                  Environmental Inputs                                         Genesis         ...
Epigensis permits adaptation without risk of mutation, when conditions change.
Methylation dials up or down expression of genes
Methylation dials up or down expression of genes
EvolutionaryMismatch
Daily Movement &                    Brain Food Physical Activity                  Deficiency                       Human   ...
The America’s First Peoples… 26,000 to 12,000 B.E.       1491 AD     Disease & War    Extermination,   OriginalHuman      ...
The America’s First Peoples… 26,000 to 12,000 B.E.       1491 AD     Disease & War    Extermination,   OriginalHuman      ...
Slavery                                    The GreatAfrican Americans             1863                                    ...
Slavery                                    The GreatAfrican Americans             1863                                    ...
Example Lasting Effects of Evolutionary Bottlenecks                                          US Blacks            Barbados...
Airborne lead levelspredict homicide &delinquency…  African Americans have higher lead  levels in the same geographic area...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”           Age 4             6      8        10         12      14...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”                                                                  ...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”                                                                  ...
Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy”                                                                  ...
If modern society is to flourish for all,we must alter the predator-preyrelationships between human groups.This means fewer...
Whether the talon, claw or weaponcarries human rank or authoritymatters not to the blind engine of evolutionwhen trying to...
Hypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes
Redness, rubor, a response of body                           tissues to injury or irritation; characterized               ...
Human Infectious/Biological Threats                      Human Predatory Threats   Evolutionary Adaptive Responses        ...
Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life
K                                                                         R    Path                                       ...
Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body ResponseMajor Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Ill...
Mood                               Lo Reward     Lo Executive      Lo Behavioral                            Inattention   ...
Substance                        Work      Obesity, Early      Mental Illness                    Violence                 ...
Obesity Conduct Disorders                                  Homicide                                  & Suicide            ...
The metaphor of stopping a         past epidemic…
Epidemiological survey of mental, emotional,and behavioral disorders…an epidemic?
Depression Onset By Birth Cohort
Depression Onset By Birth CohortBornNow?
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10%  5%                                 ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35%                                                         ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35%                                                         ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35%                                                         ...
Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35%                                                         ...
Nearly 3 out of 4 of United States 17- to 24-year-olds areineligible for military service for based on nationalepidemiolog...
Cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders byyoung adulthood: a prospective cohort analysisfrom the Great Smoky Mounta...
The US has 75  million children  and teens.  40.4 million are  on psychotropic  medicationsWall Street Journal, 12-28-2010
Participant brain buzz…a) What does these trends mean for the future?b) What must change to fix these trends?
Evolutionary Mismatches                   Evolutionary Consequences                                          Change in    ...
Evolutionary Mismatches                    Evolutionary Consequences                                           Change in  ...
Evolutionary Mismatches                         Evolutionary Consequences  Fear of           ReducedViolence &          Ou...
Inukshuk points the way
Apparent consumption ofl inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among                                                         ...
Out of Africa migration	   Stringer, C. Nature 2000; 405: 24-26
Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources
Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources                             Omega-3                                        ...
Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources                                   Omega-3                                  ...
Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources                           Omega-6                                          ...
Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources                           Omega-6                                          ...
DHA dietary deficiency impairs synapse development                          Adequate                             Deficient...
DHA dietary deficiency impairs synapse development                                Adequate                                ...
Low maternal omega-3 consumption from seafood and                                                                   subopt...
Oilseeds in the US Food Supply in the 20th Century                                    12                                  ...
3500              All Cause Mortality (M)                                                                                 ...
800                                                                          CHD Mortality (M)                            ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                 4 ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                 4 ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                 4 ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                10                 8                 6                   ...
Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate                                                                         ...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance...
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CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance Abuse and More)

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The story of the bully is very old. You can read descriptions of bullies in the Old Testament. Bullying seems to be increasing. Why is that? Why is it that aggressive, disturbing and disruptive behaviors have steadily increased in America—much more than other rich countries? We see bullying at preschool, at elementary school, in secondary school. We see bullying in the workplace, in the media, in every walk of life imaginable. Why is this so? What has happened that this behavior is more prevalent? The causes of being a bully and being bully victim have increasingly intriguing scientific findings. This presentation outlines what might underlying causes of the increase and the implications for larger action in society. We will look a biology, the brain, behavior and even evolutionary findings to get a deeper understanding for action. Some of the causes of being a bully and being a bully victim will surprise you, and will lay the foundation for a culture freer of bullying.

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  • MISSION: READINESS\nIn a study being released Thursday Nov 5, 2009 in Washington, Education Secretary Arne Duncan and a group of retired military officers led by former Army Gen. Wesley Clark will sound the alarm bells and call young Americans’ relative lack of overall fitness for military duty a national security threat. The group, Mission: Readiness, will release a report that draws on Pentagon data showing that 75 percent of the nation’s 17- to 24-year-olds are ineligible for service for a variety of reasons.\n\nPut another way, only 4.7 million of the 31.2 million 17- to 24-year-olds in a 2007 survey are eligible to enlist, according to a periodic survey commissioned by the Pentagon. This group includes those who have scored in the top four categories on the Armed Forces Qualification Test, or AQFT; eligible college graduates; and qualified college students.\n\nAccording to the Pentagon, the ineligible population breaks down this way:\n\n•Medical/physical problems, 35 percent.\n•Illegal drug use, 18 percent.\n•Mental Category V (the lowest 10 percent of the population), 9 percent.\n•Too many dependents under age 18, 6 percent.\n•Criminal record, 5 percent.\n
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  • There are now studies showing that grades and behavior improve in school when children and teens increase their daily intake of omega-3 brain food. \n\nIn a randomized study on Durham school district in the England, children got omega-3 or placebo. During the first 3 months the average gain for children taking fatty acids was 9.5 months for reading and 6.5 months for spelling. Yes, this was very statistically significant. Notice the improvement in writing skills, as an example of change.\n\nLater the children who got the placebo received omega-3, and their results then improved.\n\n\n
  • When people consume lots of the omega 6s, they are 2.5 times more likely to develop depression, compared to people who consume omega-3‘s. Depression in the United States has been steadily increasing, and our young people consume the most omega-6’s in the world.\n
  • When people consume lots of the omega 6s, they are 2.5 times more likely to develop depression, compared to people who consume omega-3‘s. Depression in the United States has been steadily increasing, and our young people consume the most omega-6’s in the world.\n
  • When people consume lots of the omega 6s, they are 2.5 times more likely to develop depression, compared to people who consume omega-3‘s. Depression in the United States has been steadily increasing, and our young people consume the most omega-6’s in the world.\n
  • When people consume lots of the omega 6s, they are 2.5 times more likely to develop depression, compared to people who consume omega-3‘s. Depression in the United States has been steadily increasing, and our young people consume the most omega-6’s in the world.\n
  • When people consume lots of the omega 6s, they are 2.5 times more likely to develop depression, compared to people who consume omega-3‘s. Depression in the United States has been steadily increasing, and our young people consume the most omega-6’s in the world.\n
  • Too much omega 6—the bad brain food—hurts intelligence and school performance. American children have the highest levels of omega-6 in the world, and countries like Japan have the lowest level. And which country has children scoring high on standardized achievement tests?\n
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  • Explain:\n\nBilly’s behavior can be predicted by a mathematical formula—just like many things in nature can be predicted by a formula. The formula is simple just like E=MC2 by Einstein is simple—though powerful and complex in many ways.\n
  • So here is our estimate of the frequency of reinforcement for PAX and the reinforcement of Spleems. What does that mean for the amount of PAX time wherein the conditions of teaching and learning favor success?\n
  • And the answer?\n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
  • The question is how to solve the situation. \n
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  • Preventing Sleep Deprivation\nThe IOM Report (IOM, page 212) points out that there is a need for a public campaign to increase healthy sleep among the nation’s children and youth to prevent mental, emotional and behavioral disorders—including risk of addictions.1-4 Good sleep also reduces obesity in children and young adults.5-7\nSleep deprivation is rapidly increasing in children and teens—by virtue of electronic media (e.g., cellphones, instant messaging, TV’s and electronic games in children’s bedrooms) is now firmly linked to increased risk of ATOD use and other problematic behaviors for multiple biological, media modeling, and adverse norming reasons.\nOur children today sleep a lot less than children just 10-20 years ago. The lack of sleep, even as a young child, significantly predicts getting drunk, stoned, or in trouble with the law including for violence as well as doing poorly in school.4 8-11 The reason is not more homework or family stress. The reason is simple: Children’s bedrooms today are like electronic super-stores—often with a TV, a computer, electronic games, and now cell phones.10 12-20 These electronic things are a lot more exciting and sleep depriving than reading a book under the covers with a flashlight.20 When parents significantly reduce use of these things—especially in children’s bedrooms—children and teens are healthier, less irritable, do better in school and less likely to get into all manner of trouble.21 22 There are some strategies to slim your child’s media diet if families are unsure what to do.23\nBibliography\n1. Abe T, Hagihara A, Nobutomo K. Sleep patterns and impulse control among Japanese junior high school students. J Adolesc 2009.2. Holm SM, Forbes EE, Ryan ND, Phillips ML, Tarr JA, Dahl RE. Reward-related brain function and sleep in pre/early pubertal and mid/late pubertal adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2009;45(4):326-34.3. Wong CJ, Sheppard J-M, Dallery J, Bedient G, Robles E, Svikis D, et al. Effects of reinforcer magnitude on data-entry productivity in chronically unemployed drug abusers participating in a therapeutic workplace. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology 2003;11(1):46-55.4. Wong MM, Brower KJ, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA. Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research 2004;28(4):578-87.5. Nielsen LS, Danielsen KV, Sorensen TI. Short sleep duration as a possible cause of obesity: critical analysis of the epidemiological evidence. Obes Rev 2010.6. Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala NB, Currie A, Peile E, Stranges S, et al. Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep 2008;31(5):619-26.7. Al Mamun A, Lawlor DA, Cramb S, O'Callaghan M, Williams G, Najman J. Do childhood sleeping problems predict obesity in young adulthood? Evidence from a prospective birth cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 2007;166(12):1368-73.8. Chervin RD, Dillon JE, Archbold KH, Ruzicka DL. Conduct problems and symptoms of sleep disorders in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(2):201-08.9. Owens J, Maxim R, McGuinn M, Nobile C, Msall M, Alario A. Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics 1999;104(3):e27.10. Dworak M, Schierl T, Bruns T, Str¸der HK. Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children. Pediatrics 2007;120(5):978-85.11. Meijer AM. Chronic sleep reduction, functioning at school and school achievement in preadolescents. Journal of Sleep Research 2008;17(4):395-405.12. Van den Bulck J. Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children.[see comment]. Sleep 2004;27(1):101-4.13. Van den Bulck J. Text messaging as a cause of sleep interruption in adolescents, evidence from a cross-sectional study. Journal of Sleep Research 2003;12(3):263-63.14. Tazawa Y, Okada K. Physical signs associated with excessive television-game playing and sleep deprivation. Pediatrics International 2001;43(6):647-50.15. Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kasen S, First MB, Brook JS. Association between television viewing and sleep problems during adolescence and early adulthood.[see comment]. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2004;158(6):562-8.16. Thompson DA, Christakis DA. The association between television viewing and irregular sleep schedules among children less than 3 years of age. Pediatrics 2005;116(4):851-6.17. Paavonen EJ, Pennonen M, Roine M, Valkonen S, Lahikainen AR. TV exposure associated with sleep disturbances in 5- to 6-year-old children. Journal of Sleep Research 2006;15(2):154-61.18. Toyran M, Ozmert E, Yurdakok K. Television viewing and its effect on physical health of schoolage children. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2002;44(3):194-203.19. Borzekowski DLG, Robinson TN. The Remote, the Mouse, and the No. 2 Pencil: The Household Media Environment and Academic Achievement Among Third Grade Students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159(7):607-13.20. Suganuma N, Kikuchi T, Yanagi K, Yamamura S, Morishima H, Adachi H, et al. Using electronic media before sleep can curtail sleep time and result in self-perceived insufficient sleep. Sleep and Biological Rhythms 2007;5(3):204-14.21. Barkin SL, Finch SA, Ip EH, Scheindlin B, Craig JA, Steffes J, et al. Is Office-Based Counseling About Media Use, Timeouts, and Firearm Storage Effective? Results From a Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial. Pediatrics 2008;122(1):e15-25.22. Gorin A, Raynor H, Chula-Maguire K, Wing R. Decreasing household television time: A pilot study of a combined behavioral and environmental intervention. Behavioral Interventions 2006;21(4):273-80.23. Jordan AB, Hersey JC, McDivitt JA, Heitzler CD. Reducing Children's Television-Viewing Time: A Qualitative Study of Parents and Their Children. Pediatrics 2006;118(5):e1303-10.\n
  • Sleep deprivation is particularly a problem for children. In studies of elementary aged children, nearly 40% had some type of sleep problem, 15% exhibited bedtime resistance and 10% had daytime sleepiness. Nearly half of teens reported at least occasional difficulty in falling or staying asleep and almost 13% experiencing chronic and severe insomnia. This lack of sleep greatly affects mood, behavior, and academic performance. In pediatric research, poor sleepers reported being significantly more depressed and were even more likely to have a negative self-image. They were also more likely to exhibit negative behavior patterns and inferior coping behaviors and have more behavioral problems at home and in school. One study showed that students that students with C’s, D’s and F’s went to bed an average of 40 minutes later and got 20 minutes less sleep than A students. Insufficient sleep has also been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), lower social skills and learning difficulties.\n
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  • Here is one example of an experimental study to reduce TV and electronic media.\n\nRobinson, T. N., M. L. Wilde, et al. (2001). "Effects of reducing children's television and video game use on aggressive behavior: a randomized controlled trial.[see comment]." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 155(1): 17-23.CONTEXT: The relationship between exposure to aggression in the media and children's aggressive behavior is well documented. However, few potential solutions have been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of reducing television, videotape, and video game use on aggressive behavior and perceptions of a mean and scary world. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, school-based trial. \nSETTING: Two sociodemographically and scholastically matched public elementary schools in San Jose, Calif. PARTICIPANTS: Third- and fourth-grade students (mean age, 8.9 years) and their parents or guardians. \nINTERVENTION: Children in one elementary school received an 18-lesson, 6-month classroom curriculum to reduce television, videotape, and video game use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In September (preintervention) and April (postintervention) of a single school year, children rated their peers' aggressive behavior and reported their perceptions of the world as a mean and scary place. A 60% random sample of children were observed for physical and verbal aggression on the playground. Parents were interviewed by telephone and reported aggressive and delinquent behaviors on the child behavior checklist. The primary outcome measure was peer ratings of aggressive behavior. \nRESULTS: Compared with controls, children in the intervention group had statistically significant decreases in peer ratings of aggression (adjusted mean difference, -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.6 to -0.2; P =.03) and observed verbal aggression (adjusted mean difference, -0.10 act per minute per child; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.03; P =.01). Differences in observed physical aggression, parent reports of aggressive behavior, and perceptions of a mean and scary world were not statistically significant but favored the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce television, videotape, and video game use decreases aggressive behavior in elementary schoolchildren. These findings support the causal influences of these media on aggression and the potential benefits of reducing children's media use.\n
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  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
  • Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115(3), e331-337. These investigators examined the extent of the underestimate of child maltreatment, one of the few studies to do so. Here is the abstract.Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment.\n
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  • CAPE MAY: A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance Abuse and More)

    1. 1. A Different Scientific Perspective About the Causes and Cures of Bullying, and: (ADHD, Obesity, Crime, Substance Abuse and More) Dennis D. Embry, Ph.D.,president/senior scientist, PAXIS Institute Co-investigator, Johns Hopkins Center for Prevention & Early Intervention Scientific advisor, Healthy Child Manitoba, Co-Investigator, School of Medicine, Yale UniversityCape May, March 22, New Jersey, USA • Copyright 2012, PAXIS Institute. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Housekeeping
    3. 3. What bricks—heavy objects of pain, injury, illness, orproblems—do you NOT want in your childrens’ suitcases
    4. 4. Our Own Children’s Future Rests On Other Children
    5. 5. Our Own Children’s Future Rests On Other Children ADHD stealing aggression asthma depressionlearning disabilities obesity cancer bipolar depression hi-blood pressure heart-disease violence tobacco suicide diabetes alcohol crime drugs dangerous acts
    6. 6. Our Own Children’s Future
    7. 7. Our Futures
    8. 8. Thinking about allthe children, youthand adults youknow…
    9. 9. Some international comparisons…
    10. 10. e nt ion p rev te on vo ica’s erAm
    11. 11. America speaks… 77% believe prevention will save money 72% say investing in prevention, because it will prevent disease and save lives 57% say they support prevention programs for health and quality-of-life reasons 21% say they support prevention to lower costs
    12. 12. Hearing the Heart of America… 59% believe the nation needs to put more emphasis on prevention This is a 20% increase over 20 years
    13. 13. Rationing prevention in America ion pre vent
    14. 14. Is this thefuture we want forAmerica? See video of the story on prisons costing much more than all state supported universities in Arizona
    15. 15. What if…crime or delinquencycould be reduced by 50% in a decade?
    16. 16. What if mental illnesses from ADHD to Depression toSchizophrenia could be reduced by 50% in a decade?
    17. 17. What if obesity and related illnesses like asthmaor diabetes were reduced by 50% in a decade?
    18. 18. What if bullying and suicides could be reduced by50% in a decade?
    19. 19. What if tobacco, alcohol, illegal drug & prescriptionabuse were reduced by 50% in a decade?
    20. 20. What if child maltreatment were reduced by 50%in a decade?
    21. 21. What would happen to America over thenext decade if all these these problemswere reduced by large margins?
    22. 22. What would happen to America over thenext decade if all these these problemswere reduced by large margins?What good things might happen toAmerica over the next decade if ourchildren, youth and adults were smarterand healthier in body, behavior, mindand spirit?
    23. 23. What would we, in this room, could we dopersonally today to help make these things happen?
    24. 24. How are these all related to the same causes?
    25. 25. Obesity Conduct Disorders Homicide & Suicide Early Sex Early Pregnancy Addictions Aggression AsthmaDisabilitiesHow are these all related to the same causes?
    26. 26. Psychological flexibility is required…
    27. 27. What if we think about these problems from anevolutionary angle…instead from a cage of past ideas?
    28. 28. Every species has a Fearsome predator…
    29. 29. The firstcapitalcrime……and Cain rose upand slew Abel
    30. 30. Humans have been the principle predator of otherhumans since the invention of stone tools…
    31. 31. Friend Foe “Us” “Them”The principal source of safety of humans has beenother humans…
    32. 32. Three evolutionarymechanism for today’smental gymnastics forheartfelt & principledprotection of our futures… Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Bottlenecks Epigensis
    33. 33. Selection by Consequences –A Meta-Theory with a Fractal Pattern A Fractal is a repeated Selection Level Consequences pattern at many levels Selection of Genes Genes Evolution of species Cells Epigensis Bodies Individual Behaviors Wiring of neurons Group Behaviors Human development Organizational Actions Selection of behaviors Language Reproductive behaviors Economies Behavioral economics Species Groups Organization behavior Language /Cultural evolution
    34. 34. Social BiologicalEpigenesis Environmental Inputs Genesis Nurturing or ToxicEpigenetics are Environments, Theseheritable Disease, or polygenes Threatschanges in can begene expression “added”,caused by “subtracted”, Mmechanisms g “divided”, or or lin Phosphorlyation phother than “multiplied.” na og Acetylation Sig enchanges in the Methylation sisunderlying DNA Histone Remodeling Chromatin Stucture Changessequence. Development Immunity Stem Cell Changes ImprintingThese changes Parent,can pass Three 1st Generationthrough multiple Generation Baby, 2nd Generation Effectsgenerations. Reproductive Cells, 3rd Generation
    35. 35. Epigensis permits adaptation without risk of mutation, when conditions change.
    36. 36. Methylation dials up or down expression of genes
    37. 37. Methylation dials up or down expression of genes
    38. 38. EvolutionaryMismatch
    39. 39. Daily Movement & Brain Food Physical Activity Deficiency Human Evolutionary Mismatches Ratio/Rate of SleepReinforcement for Sufficiency Prosocial Acts
    40. 40. The America’s First Peoples… 26,000 to 12,000 B.E. 1491 AD Disease & War Extermination, OriginalHuman Marginalization, Migrations to & Suppression North America 30,000,000 300,000 ≈ Souls in ≈ Souls North America Residential Schools; Western DietEvolutionary bottleneck
    41. 41. The America’s First Peoples… 26,000 to 12,000 B.E. 1491 AD Disease & War Extermination, OriginalHuman Marginalization, Migrations to & Suppression North America 30,000,000 300,000 ≈ Souls in ≈ Souls Today North America Residential Schools; Western DietEvolutionary bottleneck
    42. 42. Slavery The GreatAfrican Americans 1863 Middle … 1500’s to Passage Institution of Slavery Jim Crow Migration North Original Human Populations in Africa Continuing ≈Capture Trauma 30% to Separation, Exposure 50% + violence, to Toxins mortality malnutritionEvolutionary bottleneck
    43. 43. Slavery The GreatAfrican Americans 1863 Middle … 1500’s to Passage Institution of Slavery Jim Crow Migration North Original Human Populations in Africa Continuing ≈Capture Trauma today 30% to Separation, Exposure 50% + violence, to Toxins mortality malnutritionEvolutionary bottleneck
    44. 44. Example Lasting Effects of Evolutionary Bottlenecks US Blacks Barbados St. Lucia JamaicaPopular political pundits say: Cameroon (urban) Cameroon (Rural) Nigeria (Rural)“Slavery is over. Jim Crow is 40% Slavery Exposure No Slavery Exposureover. Everybody should be over 30%all this.”Evolution is bigger than pundits, 20%and epigensis is a solution to a 10%past evolutionary problem thatmight come back. Evolution is 0% Hi Blood Pressure Percentage Source: Scientific American, February, 1999
    45. 45. Airborne lead levelspredict homicide &delinquency… African Americans have higher lead levels in the same geographic area as other peoples. African Americans absorb lead more readily. Incarcerated African Americans have the highest lead levels. Lead is concentrated in the old industrial North, where African Americans migrated in after WWII.
    46. 46. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Birth ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Binge Daily Meth & IV Violent TV Cigarettes Drinking Marijuana Other Drugs Use School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Sexually Serious Hepatitis C Smoking Ashtma Transmitted Car Crash Notes & Intentional Diseases Gunshot Low Birth Weight Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Records Has Abused Assault Calls by Moms at School Theft Various Drug sales; Armed Felony Assault Robbery from Reclaim- Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by Legend Embry and ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse TS = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) SD = Speech Delay Rodgers, 2002, ODD A/D = = Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder LD SED = = Learning Disabilityr Severe Emotional Disorder for Wyoming CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    47. 47. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” When could this path Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 have been altered Birth based on scientific ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D evidence? DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Binge Daily Meth & IV Violent TV Cigarettes Drinking Marijuana Other Drugs Use School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Sexually Serious Hepatitis C Smoking Ashtma Transmitted Car Crash Notes & Intentional Diseases Gunshot Low Birth Weight Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Records Has Abused Assault Calls by Moms at School Theft Various Drug sales; Armed Felony Assault Robbery from Reclaim- Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by Legend Embry and ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse TS = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) SD = Speech Delay Rodgers, 2002, ODD A/D = = Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder LD SED = = Learning Disabilityr Severe Emotional Disorder for Wyoming CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    48. 48. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” When could this path Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 have been altered Birth based on scientific ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D evidence? DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Violent TV Cigarettes Binge Drinking Daily Marijuana Meth & IV Other Drugs Use What is the cost of human suffering to School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Notes & Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Smoking Ashtma Sexually Serious Transmitted Car Crash Hepatitis C this family, victims, Intentional and society? Low Birth Weight Diseases Gunshot Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Records Has Abused Assault Calls by Moms at School Theft Various Drug sales; Armed Felony Assault Robbery from Reclaim- Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by Legend Embry and ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse TS = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) SD = Speech Delay Rodgers, 2002, ODD A/D = = Oppositional Defiant Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder LD SED = = Learning Disabilityr Severe Emotional Disorder for Wyoming CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    49. 49. Audited Life Path of a Male Convicted Criminal , “Billy” When could this path Age 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 have been altered Birth based on scientific ADHD ODD A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D A/D evidence? DSM IV TS CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Labels depression anxiety Self-Rep. Likes Stole Violent TV Cigarettes Binge Drinking Daily Marijuana Meth & IV Other Drugs Use What is the cost of human suffering to School SD SD LD LD LD SED Dropout Labels Medical Notes & Prenatal Unintentional Injuries Smoking Ashtma Sexually Serious Transmitted Car Crash Hepatitis C this family, victims, Intentional and society? Low Birth Weight Diseases Gunshot Bio Fussy,Irritable Injuries at Fathers Wound Fathers School Markers Mom is 16.5 years old Underactive Child Child Low omega-3 Beh. Inhibition Reduced Prefontal Function Serotonin System Lower Resting Heart Rate Case study Police Mom DV Abused Assault Various Drug sales; Armed from Reclaim- What are the costs of Records Has Calls by Moms at School Theft Felony Assault Robbery Multiple Live-in Witness Complaints; ing Wyoming Offenses Homicde Truancy Blueprint by ADHD = Legend Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder SA = Substance Abuse Embry and evidence-based TS ODD = = Tourettes Syndrome (tics diagnosed) Oppositional Defiant Disorder SD LD = = Speech Delay Learning Disabilityr Rodgers, 2002, for Wyoming practices to avert? A/D = Antisocial Personality Disorder SED = Severe Emotional Disorder CD = Conduct Disorder Legislature
    50. 50. If modern society is to flourish for all,we must alter the predator-preyrelationships between human groups.This means fewer humans as prey,This means fewer humans as predators;This means more humans as cooperators.
    51. 51. Whether the talon, claw or weaponcarries human rank or authoritymatters not to the blind engine of evolutionwhen trying to suppress one group ofhumans in favor of another.Life finds a way.
    52. 52. Hypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes
    53. 53. Redness, rubor, a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat. Excitation, excitement, fervor, fervour the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up Inflaming arousal to violent emotion Firing, ignition, kindling, lightingHypothesis: Evolutionary “inflammatory” processes
    54. 54. Human Infectious/Biological Threats Human Predatory Threats Evolutionary Adaptive Responses Evolutionary Adaptive Responses (Simplified) Neuro-Hormones (Simplified) Mood Modulators Reward Threat Attributional Delay Intra-GroupGeneralized Localized Modulators Affiliation Bias (Inflammatory)Inflammatory Inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory) Out-GroupResponse Response Stress Aggress. (Inflammatory) Modulators Intra-Group Cooperation Tit-for-Tat Beh. Bias Anti-Inflammatory Regulators Puberty/Sex (Anti-Inflammatory) Modulators (Inflammatory)
    55. 55. Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life
    56. 56. K R Path Path Evolutionary Path of a Child’s Life Probability of short-life andProbability of long-life and doubtful reproductive success reproductive success
    57. 57. Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body ResponseMajor Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Illnesses Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal Relations more for anti-social cue anti-social influences trigger occasion perceived than prosocial acts and threats adverse biological threats and related behaviors mechanisms reactions
    58. 58. Mood Lo Reward Lo Executive Lo Behavioral Inattention Delay Function Instability Competencies Poor Immune- Motor Healing Skills Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body Response DysfunctionMajor Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Illnesses Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal Relations more for anti-social cue anti-social influences trigger occasion perceived than prosocial acts and threats adverse biological threats and related behaviors mechanisms reactions
    59. 59. Substance Work Obesity, Early Mental Illness Violence Cancer School Abuse Problems etc Sex Failure Mood Lo Reward Lo Executive Lo Behavioral Inattention Delay Function Instability Competencies Poor Immune-STD’s Motor Healing Special Skills Multi-Inflammatory Brain & Body Response Dysfunction Ed Major Connected Ecologic Causes of the Adverse Trends Predicting MEBs & Related Illnesses Reinforcement Antecedents Physiological Verbal Relations more for anti-social cue anti-social influences trigger occasion perceived than prosocial acts and threats adverse biological threats and related behaviors mechanisms reactions
    60. 60. Obesity Conduct Disorders Homicide & Suicide Early Sex Early Pregnancy Addictions Aggression AsthmaDisabilitiesR PATH = risky adolescence, predator and prey
    61. 61. The metaphor of stopping a past epidemic…
    62. 62. Epidemiological survey of mental, emotional,and behavioral disorders…an epidemic?
    63. 63. Depression Onset By Birth Cohort
    64. 64. Depression Onset By Birth CohortBornNow?
    65. 65. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% Merikangas et al., 2010 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in Years
    66. 66. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35% Anxiety 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% Merikangas et al., 2010 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in Years
    67. 67. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35% Anxiety 30% 25% Behavior 20% 15% 10% 5% Merikangas et al., 2010 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in Years
    68. 68. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35% Anxiety 30% 25% Behavior 20% Mood 15% 10% 5% Merikangas et al., 2010 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in Years
    69. 69. Lifetime Prevalence of Disorders in US Adolescents (N=10,123) 35% Anxiety 30% 25% Substance Behavior 20% Mood 15% 10% 5% Merikangas et al., 2010 0% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in Years
    70. 70. Nearly 3 out of 4 of United States 17- to 24-year-olds areineligible for military service for based on nationalepidemiological data (not service entrance exams) Medical/physical problems, 35 percent. Illegal drug use, 18 percent. Mental Category V (the lowest 10 percent of the population), 9 percent. Too many dependents under age 18, 6 percent. Criminal record, 5 percent. Army Times, Nov 5, 2009 • www.missionreadiness.org/PAEE0609.pd
    71. 71. Cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders byyoung adulthood: a prospective cohort analysisfrom the Great Smoky Mountains Study.By 21 years of age,61.1% of participantshad met criteria for awell-specified psychiatricdisorder. An additional21.4% had met criteriafor a not otherwisespecified disorder only,increasing the totalcumulative prevalencefor any disorder to82.5%.
    72. 72. The US has 75 million children and teens. 40.4 million are on psychotropic medicationsWall Street Journal, 12-28-2010
    73. 73. Participant brain buzz…a) What does these trends mean for the future?b) What must change to fix these trends?
    74. 74. Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Consequences Change in Increased Genes Cancer Rise in Increased Obesity Autism Rates Rise in Rise in ATOD Addictions Increased Depression Aggression Rates Rates Schizo.New cultural trends predict new challenges and risks
    75. 75. Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Consequences Change in Increased Genes Cancer Lower Rates Rise in Increased of Positive Obesity Reinforcement Autism Rates Rise in Rise in ATOD Addictions Increased Depression Aggression Rates Rates Schizo.New cultural trends predict new challenges and risks
    76. 76. Evolutionary Mismatches Evolutionary Consequences Fear of ReducedViolence & Outdoor Vitamin D Change in Increased Deficiency Genes Crime Activities CancerIncreased Lower Rates Rise in IncreasedElectronic of Positive ObesityMedia Use Reinforcement Autism Rates Rise in Rise in ATODOmega 3 Addictions IncreasedFatty Acid Depression AggressionDeficiency Rates Rates Schizo.New cultural trends predict new challenges and risks
    77. 77. Inukshuk points the way
    78. 78. Apparent consumption ofl inoleic acid (% of dietary energy) among Australia, Canada, UK and USA for the years 1961–2000 10 Australia Canada UK USA Apparent consumption of linoleic acid 9 8 7 (% energy) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Evolution Neonates Breast Milk “Risky” Beh. In the Rife Valley, the Successful human American infants have Almost all adolescent human brain neonates born with been getting steadily risky behaviors have evolution the result of 60-day supply of less omega-3 (n3) and now been documented eating fish high in omega-3 in more pro-inflammatory to be related to low n3 omega-3 not subcutaneous fat omega-6 (n6) in breast and high n6 in US diet savannah animals from mother’s diet milk change in last 50 years See Broadhurst, Cunnane, & See HIbbeln et al. (2007).Maternal See Ailhaud et al. (2006).Temporal Crawford (1998). Rift Valley lake seafood consumption in pregnancy changes in dietary fats: Role of n6 fish and shellfish provided brain- and neurodevelopmental outcomes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in Hibbeln et al. (2006). Healthy intakes specific nutrition for childhood (ALSPAC study): an excessive adipose tissue of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations early Homo observational cohort study development and relationship to considering worldwide diversity. obesityPhysiological Adaptation
    79. 79. Out of Africa migration Stringer, C. Nature 2000; 405: 24-26
    80. 80. Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources
    81. 81. Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources Omega-3 O C- OH 20:5n-3,eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA Seafood Breast milk (DHA) O C- OH 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA (brain, retina, testis)
    82. 82. Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources Omega-3 O C- OH 18:3n-3 alfa-linolenic acid, ALA Flax ~ Canola Leaf plants FADS 1-2 O C- OH 20:5n-3,eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA Seafood Breast milk (DHA) O C- OH 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA (brain, retina, testis)
    83. 83. Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources Omega-6 Omega-3 O O C- OH C- OH 18:2n-6 linoleic acid, 18:3n-3 alfa-linolenic acid, LA - Competition - ALA Flax Soy bean oil ~ Canola Safflower oil Leaf plants FADS 1-2 Corn oil O O C- OH C- OH 20:4n-6, arachidonic acid 20:5n-3,eicosapentaenoic acid, AA EPA Seafood Breast milk Meat, (DHA) Organs O O C- OH C- OH 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid, 22:5n-6 DPA n-6 DHA (brain, retina, testis)
    84. 84. Essential Fats: Metabolism and Dietary Sources Omega-6 Omega-3 O O C- OH C- OH 18:2n-6 linoleic acid, 18:3n-3 alfa-linolenic acid, LA - Competition - ALA Flax Soy bean oil ~ Canola Safflower oil Leaf plants FADS 1-2 Corn oil O O C- OH C- OH 20:4n-6, arachidonic acid 20:5n-3,eicosapentaenoic acid, AA EPA Seafood Breast milk Meat, (DHA) Organs O Series 2 Series 3 O Prostaglandins Prostaglandins C- OH Thromboxanes Thromboxanes C- OH Series 4 Series 5 Leukotrienes Leukotrienes 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid, 22:5n-6 DPA n-6 DHA immune - metabolic - developmental (brain, retina, testis) responses
    85. 85. DHA dietary deficiency impairs synapse development Adequate DeficientHippocampal DHA 6.6 ± 0.7% 0.5 ± 0.1%Fatty Acids DPAn-6 0.4 ± 0.1% 4.7 ± 0.1% Cao et al. J. Neurochem. 2009
    86. 86. DHA dietary deficiency impairs synapse development Adequate DeficientHippocampal DHA 6.6 ± 0.7% 0.5 ± 0.1%Fatty Acids DPAn-6 0.4 ± 0.1% 4.7 ± 0.1% Synapes in Hippocampal Neurons 30 µm Mother mice fed adequate of deficient diets, embryo neurons harvested day 18 Cao et al. J. Neurochem. 2009
    87. 87. Low maternal omega-3 consumption from seafood and suboptimal verbal IQ among their children 34 32 30 28 - UK , 8y 26 III r = 0.97Percentage of children with 24 r2 = 0.95 F=27.2 p<0.02. low verbal IQ, WISC 22 20 18 16 14 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 - Estimated omega 3 fatty acids from seafood (en %) Mother at 32 wk gestation Hibbeln et al, Lancet 2007: 369: 578-585
    88. 88. Oilseeds in the US Food Supply in the 20th Century 12 10 Soybean 8 Cottonseed Corn 6 Olive Coconut 4Disappearance (kg/person/y) 2 0 Canola 0.9 0.8 Peanut 0.7 Palm/Palm 0.6 Kernel 0.5 0.4 Safflower 0.3 0.2 Sunflower 0.1 Sesame 1989 1999 1969 1979 1949 1959 1929 1939 1909 1919 Year
    89. 89. 3500 All Cause Mortality (M) Stroke Mortality (M) CVD Mortality (M) 400 1400 3000 350 1200 300 2500 1000 250 2000 800 200Total mortality (M) /100,000 Total mortality (M) /100,000 1500 Total mortality (M) /100,000 600 150 1000 400 100 Japan Japan 500 Japan Iceland 50 200 Iceland Iceland 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) 1200 All Cause Mortality (F) Stroke Mortality (F) CVD Mortality (F) 250 700 1000 600 200 800 500 150 400 600 Total Mortality (F)/100,000 Total mortality (F) /100,000 300 Total mortality (F) /100,000 100 400 Japan 200 Iceland 50 200 Japan 100 Japan Iceland Iceland 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) Hibbeln et al Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83; 1483S-93S
    90. 90. 800 CHD Mortality (M) 300 CHD Mortality (F) Homicide Mortality 12 700 250 10 600 200 8 500Total mortality (M) /100,000 400 150 Total mortality /100,000 6 Total mortality (M) /100,000 300 100 4 200 Iceland 50 2 Japan 100 Iceland Iceland Japan Japan 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) Postpartum Depression 30 Major Depression Bipolar Disorder 7 12 25 6 10 5 20 8 4 Lifetime prevalence (%) 15 6 Annual prevalence (%) Point prevalence (%) 3 10 4 2 Iceland 5 2 1 Japan Japan Japan Iceland 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) n-3 LCFA from commodities (en%) Hibbeln et al Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83; 1483S-93S
    91. 91. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 4 United 2000 Kingdom 2 1961 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    92. 92. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 4 United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 1961 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    93. 93. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 4 United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 2000 1961 1961 Australia 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    94. 94. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 10 8 6 1988 4 1961 Argentina United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 2000 1961 1961 Australia 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency
    95. 95. Increasing Mismatch Causes HomicidesHomicide Rate 1985 10 United 8 States 6 1988 1999 1961 4 1961 Argentina United 2000 2000 1961 Kingdom Canada 2 2000 1961 1961 Australia 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Lo Hi Omega 3 Deficiency

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