Human-Centered Design for     Development          Susan Dray     Dray & Associates, Inc.     http://www.dray.com     susa...
Human-Centered Design for       Development (HCD4D)•   Introductions•   What’s it like in the “developing” world?•   A bri...
Who Am I?•   First international ethnographic study in 1994•   Work in 24 countries since then    – On every continent exc...
What’s it like for the urban poor in the        “Developing” World?* *Caveat: These are not universal; conditions vary wid...
Poor (or lacking) infrastructure
Informal Dwellings
No sanitary facilities or Shared sanitation               (pit latrines)
No indoor water(Must bring from communal tap)
Washing and bathing outside(Must heat water on stove)
Informal markets
Open-air markets with no refrigeration
Crime
Electricity – not always available  (May be pirated or prepaid)
Cell phonesPhone kiosks in containers
Public phones outdoors
Public transport
Two-wheelers, bicylces, foot
Animal-powered rather than motor-powered
Human-powered
Other characteristics• Lack of access to adequate healthcare• Illiteracy or partial literacy• Poor schools• High levels of...
What’s it like for the rural poor in the       “Developing” World?* *Caveat: These are not universal; conditions vary widely
Smaller traditional dwellings
No indoor water(Must bring from water source)
Water source may be miles away(It’s women’s work to bring it to the home)
Transport unreliable and infrequent
Livelihood based on agriculture, little cash
No indoor stove
No electricity
Other characteristics
Other characteristics• Lack of access to adequate healthcare• Illiteracy or partial literacy• Children left with grandpare...
A Product Fails• Product concept was a battery-operated  device to eliminate odors in refrigerators• Engineers and executi...
Research For Product Development•   Ethnographic visits to 12 homes    – Focus on “video tour” of fridge    – Researcher p...
Did It Change Anything?• Research was presented to client  –   Videos of fridge “tours”  –   Photos of interiors and of pe...
And Yet…One year later, the project was cancelled having      spent over $1 million USD more on it
A Development Project Fails*  •     Internationally funded aid project to provide        modern concrete dam and canals to...
What Happened?• Traditionally, irrigation was small dams and crude  canals requiring maintenance    • Canal maintenance re...
What Do These Failures Have In Common?
Human              InternationalCentered   HCD4D   Economic &Design             Community                   Development
Early Community-Building•   Workshop at CHI 2007 (April, 2007; San Jose, US): UCD4D (1    day)    – 50+ participants from ...
For more on the history (and more resources),                 check out:           http://www.dray.com
Sharing Experiences•   Garren             •   Ben•   Michael            •   Jackie•   Ming               •   Anant•   Anat...
Just Remember To…Keep your heart on your feet (rather than on yoursleeve) so they take you in the right direction!
Human-Centered Design for Development (HCD4D): Workshop at U(X)PA2012
Human-Centered Design for Development (HCD4D): Workshop at U(X)PA2012
Human-Centered Design for Development (HCD4D): Workshop at U(X)PA2012
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Human-Centered Design for Development (HCD4D): Workshop at U(X)PA2012

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Workshop on Human-Centered Design for Development at UPA2012

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Human-Centered Design for Development (HCD4D): Workshop at U(X)PA2012

  1. 1. Human-Centered Design for Development Susan Dray Dray & Associates, Inc. http://www.dray.com susan.dray@dray.com
  2. 2. Human-Centered Design for Development (HCD4D)• Introductions• What’s it like in the “developing” world?• A brief history of HCD4D• Sharing experiences• What do we want to tell UXPA about this (and how?)
  3. 3. Who Am I?• First international ethnographic study in 1994• Work in 24 countries since then – On every continent except Antarctica• Involved in multiple overlapping professional communities – UPA, SIGCHI, HFES, etc.• Intense personal interest in “making a difference”• Getting more and more involved in Human-Centered Design For Development (HCD4D) community
  4. 4. What’s it like for the urban poor in the “Developing” World?* *Caveat: These are not universal; conditions vary widely
  5. 5. Poor (or lacking) infrastructure
  6. 6. Informal Dwellings
  7. 7. No sanitary facilities or Shared sanitation (pit latrines)
  8. 8. No indoor water(Must bring from communal tap)
  9. 9. Washing and bathing outside(Must heat water on stove)
  10. 10. Informal markets
  11. 11. Open-air markets with no refrigeration
  12. 12. Crime
  13. 13. Electricity – not always available (May be pirated or prepaid)
  14. 14. Cell phonesPhone kiosks in containers
  15. 15. Public phones outdoors
  16. 16. Public transport
  17. 17. Two-wheelers, bicylces, foot
  18. 18. Animal-powered rather than motor-powered
  19. 19. Human-powered
  20. 20. Other characteristics• Lack of access to adequate healthcare• Illiteracy or partial literacy• Poor schools• High levels of unemployment, especially among youth (many of whom have dropped out of school)• Food insecurity• Etc.
  21. 21. What’s it like for the rural poor in the “Developing” World?* *Caveat: These are not universal; conditions vary widely
  22. 22. Smaller traditional dwellings
  23. 23. No indoor water(Must bring from water source)
  24. 24. Water source may be miles away(It’s women’s work to bring it to the home)
  25. 25. Transport unreliable and infrequent
  26. 26. Livelihood based on agriculture, little cash
  27. 27. No indoor stove
  28. 28. No electricity
  29. 29. Other characteristics
  30. 30. Other characteristics• Lack of access to adequate healthcare• Illiteracy or partial literacy• Children left with grandparents while parents work in cities to send money home• High levels of unemployment, especially among youth (many of whom have dropped out of school)• Food insecurity• Etc.
  31. 31. A Product Fails• Product concept was a battery-operated device to eliminate odors in refrigerators• Engineers and executives were very excited about it• Positive responses in focus groups• D&A was hired by client to do study of refrigerators to support product development
  32. 32. Research For Product Development• Ethnographic visits to 12 homes – Focus on “video tour” of fridge – Researcher paid particular attention to odors – both observed and mentioned• No one perceived an odor in their fridge – Even fridges that the researcher found to be stinky• No one thought the proposed product was a good idea either during tour or during post-tour interview – “Why would I spend $30 to put something that uses batteries in my fridge, when I can buy a box of baking soda for 50 cents?”
  33. 33. Did It Change Anything?• Research was presented to client – Videos of fridge “tours” – Photos of interiors and of people placing the product – Audio clips from interviews – Negative fit and response was “loud and clear”• Response was polite but cool – Thanks a lot – here’s the door
  34. 34. And Yet…One year later, the project was cancelled having spent over $1 million USD more on it
  35. 35. A Development Project Fails* • Internationally funded aid project to provide modern concrete dam and canals to Nepalese farmers • Large project with professional design, materials, and construction – Consultation from top engineering firm – State of the art • Despite all this and massive funding, dam did not deliver more water to farmers downstream*As described in FreakonomicsLevitt & Dubner, 2009
  36. 36. What Happened?• Traditionally, irrigation was small dams and crude canals requiring maintenance • Canal maintenance requires clearing obstructions and brush • Traditionally, this work was shared by all farmers• Although the dam did not require maintenance, the distribution canals still did• However, the traditional agreement between upstream and downstream farmers broke down • Farmers near the dam no longer motivated to maintain canals because they got all the water they needed • Therefore, downstream farmers got less water
  37. 37. What Do These Failures Have In Common?
  38. 38. Human InternationalCentered HCD4D Economic &Design Community Development
  39. 39. Early Community-Building• Workshop at CHI 2007 (April, 2007; San Jose, US): UCD4D (1 day) – 50+ participants from 14 countries – NSF grant to cover “developing country” attendees from universities and NGOs (Africa, S. Asia, Asia)• SIG and Panel at INTERACT 2007 (September, 2007; Rio, Brazil)• Workshop at DIS 2008 (February, 2008; Cape Town, South Africa) (2 – 3 days – optional “immersion” day preceding workshop) – Plan to video tape visits and create a documentary for use at CHI• Workshop at CHI 2008 (April, 2008; Florence, Italy): HCI for Community and International Development (2 days)
  40. 40. For more on the history (and more resources), check out: http://www.dray.com
  41. 41. Sharing Experiences• Garren • Ben• Michael • Jackie• Ming • Anant• Anat • Narender• Brian • Keita• Ryan • Andy• Kami
  42. 42. Just Remember To…Keep your heart on your feet (rather than on yoursleeve) so they take you in the right direction!
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