GROUP 2

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A PLANE SURVEY OF 200 M. ZIGZAG ROAD OF BO. BALUYAN, MALALAG, DAVAO DEL SUR

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GROUP 2

  1. 1. SURVEYING, GEOHAZARDS AND ROAD MAPPING AT BALUYAN, MALALAG, DAVAO DELSUR<br />Presenters:<br />Barranco, Mirafe L.<br />Catan, Dean Mark L.<br />Patacsil, Daryl Sheen<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Baluyan, sometimes called Little Bagyo is found between the boundary of Sarangani Province and Davao del Sur, situated in the municipality of Malalag.Bo. Baluyan, Malalag, Davao del Sur is bounded by geographic coordinates 06°32’27’’ north latitude and 125°22’12.9’’ east longitude (Figure 1). It is southwest of central Davao City and approximately 45 km distance travel by commercial buses and other land vehicle for three (3) hours through Davao City – Sta. Cruz – Digos City – Padada – Sulop National Road Baluyan is known to its zigzag road.<br />
  3. 3. The Bo. Baluyan mountain formations are elevated at about 500 - 800m terrain. In lithology, mostly consists of detritus sedimentary rocks and intrusive, is dipped almost vertically along the road ways. In the area, existence of jointed, fractured, and deeply weathered rocks and rocks that are weak and delicate possesses about to happen risk to the vehicles that are travelling alongside the mountains and to the human infrastructures that are risk to landslide. Rock and debris fall will occur most probably due to its delicate state. Landslide exposures are observed with no tress, crops and shrub growing. <br />Dangers are highly risked in the thrust fault when dislocation or displacement takes place generating earthquakes causing to the unstable rocks and debris to stamp on down the road and afterward, landslides follow.<br />
  4. 4. Preparing for fieldwork<br /><ul><li>Work Plan</li></ul>In the fieldwork, students enrolled in the subject structural geology are assigned into six groups. The six groups visited the assigned area in Bo. Baluyan, Malalag, Davao del Sur in the first day and assigned in the specific area with range of 200 meters. Upon arriving to the resting area, every group discussed their plans and strategies for the upcoming survey<br />In the second day of the fieldwork, at approximately 9:00 in the morning the six groups arrived in the area. The instructor gives directions and information upon arriving to the area. After that, the six groups are dispersed into their assigned area to survey. Every group is given 3 hours allotment in order to take some important additions to the fieldwork.<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Equipment and Supplies</li></ul>Equipments that are used in the fieldwork study are brunton compass, measuring tape, pick, zip lock and digital cameras. All the equipments mentioned are all necessary and assigned by the instructor in order to make the work unflawed. <br />
  6. 6. The table below explains the synchronic activity done by the group in the surveyed area in Baluyan, Malalag Davao del Sur.<br />Table 1.1: The synchronic activity done in Baluyan, Davao del Sur <br />
  7. 7. Methodology<br /><ul><li>Data Collection</li></ul>The 2nd group was assigned to survey road with a distance of 200 meters. The group recorded all the data and structures that are observed during the survey. After performing the task, the 2nd group tabulated and recorded all the data taken from the surveyed area <br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. The data in the table above was gathered by the second group using brunton compass and measuring tape. Each group was assigned to survey a distance of 200 meters and divided into ten points. Each group was also tasked to record structures and geologic formations in the covered distance. They were also tasked to take down the structures, objects or natural things in each station to serve as the name of the station<br />
  10. 10. <ul><li>Findings </li></ul>In this part, structures are discussed and observed in the covered area within the 200 meters assigned. The structures are the following:<br />
  11. 11. In the covered area, rocks are typically consists of detritus sedimentary rocks and intrusive igneous rocks, is dipped nearly vertically along the pathways. The presence of jointed, cracked and deeply weathered rocks possesses hazards to the alongside abodes, vehicles and human infrastructures. Falling rocks and debris are possibly occurring in the area. Landslides contacts are observed with no tress and shrub growing. Road slips are also observed in the area; mostly sedimentary rocks are present in the structure which are brittle that tend to be easily breaks because of weathering.<br />
  12. 12. Slope failures are probably occurring as the slopes sustain is limited for road ways construction. Talus deposits alongside the road ways replicate the continual weathering of the rocks that possess dangers in lengthened duration of rainfalls.<br />Heavy rains in the area are mostly the reason why landslide is always occurring. Another factor that relates the problem in the area is the brittleness of the rocks situated in the lower and upper part of the road ways. Boulders are the good example for the brittleness of the rocks in the area; because of the earthquakes caused by the active faults in the area rocks are tend to cracked and detached and fall alongside the road ways that could trigger incident to the people living in the area. Stations 8 and 9 are the good examples.<br />
  13. 13. <ul><li>Survey Sites</li></ul>The fieldwork study was conducted in the mountainous place of Baluyan, Malalag, Davao del Sur. Baluyan is known for its zigzag road that is also the exact site to be surveyed. It is southwest of central Davao City and approximately 45 km distance travel by commercial buses and other land vehicle for three (3) hours through Davao City – Sta. Cruz –Digos City –Padada–Sulop National Road. Its outcrop formations are elevated within the distance at about 200-800m.<br />The second group was assigned to allocate 200 meters; the starting point was in the road slip with 2 signboards named excavation and detour. The remaining point are measured also as the same as the first point.<br />
  14. 14. <ul><li>Field Sheet</li></ul>In this part, field sheets are used for recording and gathering the data from the surveyed area. Usual engineering sheets are used, with grid lines and intervals. All the data from the surveyed area are put together in the field sheet but unlike the table 1.2, data are arranged and specified by its descriptions.<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>Participants</li></ul>The participants of this fieldwork were 3 students named MirafeBarranco, Dean Mark Catan and Daryl Sheen Patacsil who are currently enrolled in the course of Bachelor in Science in Mining Engineering at the University of Southeastern Philippines in Bo. Obrero, Davao City. All participants are from the third year level and taking up the same subject called Structural Geology. Participants of this fieldwork are assigned to survey the allocated area by partner with a distance of 200 meters. In the activity, students are expected to take data from the assigned area and make a investigative report.<br />
  16. 16. Sample Storage, Plastic Bags and Sample Labels<br /><ul><li>Sample Storage</li></ul>Samples gathered by the group are stored in an individual zip lock bag and later, assemble in a wood or a hard carton to be used as an illustration or presentation. Samples are carefully stored in a closed container to refrain from mixing into common rocks and to avoid unfairness to other groups.<br />
  17. 17. <ul><li>Plastic Bags</li></ul>Samples are gathered from the surveyed area and carefully put into individual zip lock in order to be not confused in naming the rocks later. After that, samples that are put in an individual zip lock are put in a closed container to keep it safe before identifying it. This procedure helps in avoiding misplaced and confuse in identifying.<br />
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sample Labels</li></ul>Samples are labeled by the used of adhesive tape or a masking tape. The adhesive tape is also used in marking the points in the surveyed area. Adhesive tapes are used as labels for the sample because it could easily marked by any marking pen and also, it really stick in the samples, a small possibility of get rid of the sample.<br />
  19. 19. Transporting Samples, Preparing Samples for Transport and Chain of Custody<br /><ul><li>Transporting Samples</li></ul>The samples taken from the surveyed area are transported from the first point of the setting with a distance of 200 meters; samples are collected by the group mate in-charged and transported to the service van. From the service van, the collected samples are stored by the group mate in charged and transported to the meeting point (Obrero, Davao City). From the meeting point, samples are transported to the house of the group mate in-charge to keep it safe.<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Preparing Samples for Transport</li></ul>Samples taken from Malalag, Davao del Sur are prepared after collecting it from the surveyed area. Samples are being observed and identified whether it is a mineral or a common rock before putting it in plain cellophane. Preparation are storing it from an individual zip lock and placing it to a closed container in order to refrain from seep out.<br />
  21. 21. <ul><li>Chain of Custody</li></ul>The samples gathered from the surveyed area are cared by the group mate in charge. He is the one responsible of the samples taken from the surveyed area and also, he is the one in-charge in identifying the samples collected and the one to present it to the class. The samples are stored in a closed container. After that, the samples are cared by the group mate in-charge. The samples are stored by the said person, waiting to prepare it to a presentation to the class.<br />
  22. 22. Quality Assurance and Quality Control<br /><ul><li>Quality Assurance</li></ul> Assurance of the quality of a rock sample is very significant in presenting it. The group carefully gets the samples from the surveyed area, assuring that the sample is not mixed with any other sample or the associated mineral in the sample are not detached in the area. Then, the samples are put in an individual zip lock bag and stored it in a closed container. Before presenting the samples to the class, each sample is rechecks to assured its excellent quality.<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>Quality Control</li></ul> Quality control of a rock sample is very important, in order to assure its good quality. Samples are attached thoroughly in a strong wood to refrain it to broken or damaged leading to its associated minerals to detach in the rock sample. Washing or wiping of cloth are prohibited in the rock sample taking consider the associated minerals attached in the sample.<br />
  24. 24. Data Management<br />Each group mate in a group have individual tasked. Decided by the group, one are tasked to get the bearing and angle of depression by the used of brunton compass, the other one is tasked to used the measuring tape to get the exact measurement and lastly, the other one is tasked to record the distance, the bearing, the angle of depression and the structures observed in the surveyed area.<br />Data are all together gathered after the surveying. Each data are checked in order to refrain from mistakes. Then, all the data and information are put together in the engineering field book. After that, the samples collected from the surveying are stored in a container. <br />
  25. 25. After checking the data, the group will now assigned each group mate a task. First person is assigned to make the map by using the bearings and measurements from the data. Second person is assigned to make the written report and the visual presentation of the group from the data collected. The last person is tasked to custodies the samples and also tasked to present it to the class.<br />After assigning the tasks, all necessary data are taken. Re-checking of the data is necessary to execute. Final discussion is being followed.<br />
  26. 26. Health and Safety<br />In a hazardous place like the zigzag road of baluyan, mitigation measures should be implemented. The group observed that the rip-rap alongside the road way is made up of common cement that would closely to be wrecked in anytime. The rip-rap alongside the road should be altered with stronger resistance refraining from road slip. <br />Authorities also should made a strong supporting walls in the depressed part of the road way. Strong support in the elevated part of the area should be implemented and made in order to avoid falling debris and boulders and could also avoid landslides.<br />
  27. 27. Geologists should also conduct investigations and observations in the area to locate mass movements or moving faults in order to moderate and to minimize hazards and incidents. Citizens affected by the area should have also warning signals in case of incoming geological phenomena. <br /> Building infrastructures in the area should be concerned in the site where it would be place. Surveying the area is a highly recommended before building an infrastructure. Reconstruction of the road and the maintenance of it should be practiced in order to avoid road accident<br />
  28. 28. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Baluyan, Malalag, Davao del Sur is typically consists of detritus sedimentary rocks and intrusive igneous rocks, is dipped nearly vertically along the pathways.
  29. 29. Anticlinal folded structures are generated by the active faults and fault gouge present in the area.
  30. 30. The presence of jointed, cracked and deeply weathered rocks possesses hazards to the alongside abodes, vehicles and human infrastructures. Falling rocks and debris are possibly occurring in the area.
  31. 31. Landslides contacts are observed with no tress and shrub growing. Road slips are also observed in the area; mostly sedimentary rocks are present in the structure which are brittle that tend to be easily breaks because of weathering.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Factor that relates the problem in the area is the brittleness of the rocks situated in the lower and upper part of the road ways. Boulders are the good example for the brittleness of the rocks in the area; because of the earthquakes caused by the active faults in the area rocks are tend to cracked and detached and fall alongside the road ways that could trigger incident to the people living in the area.
  32. 32. Because the topography of the region in the Baluyan is elevated; resorts, restaurants, and other socially enriching businesses is a good profitable marketplace to be established in the area.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The general structure of the region is thrusted sedimentary layers and andesite bodies. The thrust fault is located at the eastern part of the SarangganiPenisula trending at NW-SE direction. ( from the field study of Geology Students)
  33. 33. Talus deposits alongside the road ways replicate the continual weathering of the rocks that possess dangers in lengthened duration of rainfalls. Heavy rains in the area are mostly the reason why landslide is always occurring.</li></li></ul><li>Quaternary Alluvium Deposit <br />Late Miocene<br />Plutonic Rocks<br />Late Oligocene<br />Sedimentary Rocks<br />
  34. 34. The two images above are the igneous intrusion alongside the road ways, the igneous intrusion in the outcrop is basalt.<br />
  35. 35. The image above is a diagonal strata. This is found in the frontward of station 10. This strata is not covered within the 200 meters assigned but it explains the formation of igneous intrusion in its left side. This strata is composed of sandstone and shale.<br />
  36. 36. Basalt<br />Andesite<br />Shale<br />Calcareous Sandstone<br />Sandstone<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. The End<br />

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