1
CHEM-111CHEM-111
General ChemistryGeneral Chemistry
Unit-2Unit-2
Matter, Change and EnergyMatter, Change and Energy
by
C...
2
CONTENTS
1. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY
2. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
3. TEMPERATURE
4. PHYSICAL STATE OF MATTER
5. MIXTURES
6. P...
3
Chemistry is the study of, mainly theChemistry is the study of, mainly the
composition, structure, reactions andcomposit...
4
MATTERMATTER
Anything thatAnything that occupies spaceoccupies space andand has masshas mass isis
calledcalled mattermat...
5
Materials
Specific kind of matter
Steel, ocean water, glass, sand, blood
Homogeneous
Uniform distribution of
particles
H...
6
What are elements?What are elements?
All matter are made up of elements ,whichAll matter are made up of elements ,which ...
7
Elements and CompoundsElements and Compounds
Iron (Fe) andIron (Fe) and
CompoundsCompounds
Mercury (Hg) andMercury (Hg) ...
8
disorderdisordershort rangeshort range
orderorder
SolidSolid
States of MatterStates of Matter
GasGasLiquidLiquid
long ra...
9
StatesStates
ofof
MatterMatter
FluidityFluidity
oror
RigidityRigidity
CompresCompres
-sibility-sibility
VolumeVolume Sha...
10
Change of State of MatterChange of State of Matter
HH22OO
IceIce VaporVaporWaterWater
Water changes from solid to liqui...
11
MixturesMixtures
TheThe mixingmixing oror combinationcombination of two or moreof two or more
substances is known assub...
12
Mixture of gases constituting the earth's atmosphere. Some gases occur in steady concentrations.Mixture of gases const...
13
Two categories of mixtures are:Two categories of mixtures are:
1- HOMOGENEOUS1- HOMOGENEOUS (Uniform composition)(Unifo...
14
Difference betweenDifference between Compound and MixtureCompound and Mixture
1- The temperature of1- The temperature o...
15
Formation of compound is a chemical changeFormation of compound is a chemical change,,
Mixture is formed by physical ch...
16
Physical PropertyPhysical Property
Property which is observed without changing theProperty which is observed without ch...
17
The change that does not change the chemicalThe change that does not change the chemical
structure of a substance.struc...
18
Chemical Reactions
The study of changes that occur when chemicals interact with
each other to form entirely different s...
19
The symbolic representation of a chemicalThe symbolic representation of a chemical
substance in form of assembled symbo...
20
Chemical ChangeChemical Change
In, a chemical change the reacting substances change into newIn, a chemical change the r...
21
Evidences of Chemical ChangeEvidences of Chemical Change
•New substances produced, old substances destroyedNew substanc...
22
Comparison of Some Chemical andComparison of Some Chemical and
Physical ChangesPhysical Changes
Chemical ChangesChemica...
23
Energy and HeatEnergy and Heat
Energy:Energy: is defined as the ability to do workis defined as the ability to do work....
24
Kinetic Theory of MatterKinetic Theory of Matter
Matter is composed of small
particles; atoms, molecules.
They are in c...
25
Energy in Chemical Reactions
Reactions
Lost Gained
Exothermic Endothermic
Reversible
Chemical
equilibrium
with heat tha...
26
Heat Capacity of Matter
HeatHeat is the energy associated with the motion ofis the energy associated with the motion of...
27
Exothermic and Endothermic ReactionsExothermic and Endothermic Reactions
 Heat of Reaction:Heat of Reaction:
Energy di...
28
Exothermic and Endothermic ReactionsExothermic and Endothermic Reactions
ExamplesExamples
 Exothermic ReactionExotherm...
29
1.1. Which are homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures?Which are homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures?
Chips, Urine, Gas...
30
6.6. Identify elements, compounds and mixtures.Identify elements, compounds and mixtures.
a. aira. air b. waterb. water...
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02 matter, change and energy

  1. 1. 1 CHEM-111CHEM-111 General ChemistryGeneral Chemistry Unit-2Unit-2 Matter, Change and EnergyMatter, Change and Energy by CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
  2. 2. 2 CONTENTS 1. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY 2. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3. TEMPERATURE 4. PHYSICAL STATE OF MATTER 5. MIXTURES 6. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES & PHYSICAL CHANGES 7. CHEMICAL REACTION & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 8. ELEMENTS & COMPOUNDS 9. MASS CONVERSION 10. ENERGY INTERCONVERSION 11. EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC PROCESS Matter, Change, and EnergyMatter, Change, and Energy
  3. 3. 3 Chemistry is the study of, mainly theChemistry is the study of, mainly the composition, structure, reactions andcomposition, structure, reactions and properties of matterproperties of matter . Some main branches are-. Some main branches are- BiochemistryBiochemistry Study of biological chemicalsStudy of biological chemicals Organic chemistryOrganic chemistry Carbon based compoundsCarbon based compounds Inorganic chemistryInorganic chemistry All other elementsAll other elements Analytical chemistryAnalytical chemistry Methods of analysisMethods of analysis Physical chemistryPhysical chemistry Theory and conceptsTheory and concepts Branches of ChemistryBranches of Chemistry
  4. 4. 4 MATTERMATTER Anything thatAnything that occupies spaceoccupies space andand has masshas mass isis calledcalled mattermatter.. Specific kind of matter is calledSpecific kind of matter is called material.material. MassMass is the measurement of amount of matteris the measurement of amount of matter present in an object.present in an object. All the chemicals that make up our world areAll the chemicals that make up our world are example of matter,example of matter, whether they may be found in medicines,whether they may be found in medicines, pencils, food or people.pencils, food or people.
  5. 5. 5 Materials Specific kind of matter Steel, ocean water, glass, sand, blood Homogeneous Uniform distribution of particles Heterogeneous Non uniform distribution of particles Homogeneous mixtures Two materials present in uniform Composition throughout Heterogeneous mixture Two materials present in non uniform Composition throughout Substances Homogenous material with the Same composition, pure, Non mixtures Elements Composed of one kind of atoms Compounds Composed of more than one Kind of atoms Solutions Uniform distribution of two materials
  6. 6. 6 What are elements?What are elements? All matter are made up of elements ,whichAll matter are made up of elements ,which are primaryare primary substances, cannot be broken down by chemical meanssubstances, cannot be broken down by chemical means.. There are now 115 different kinds of elements. Of these,There are now 115 different kinds of elements. Of these, 92 elements occur naturally and are found in different92 elements occur naturally and are found in different combinations.combinations. Hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) areHydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) are the elements that make upthe elements that make up most living organismsmost living organisms.. Some other elements found in living organisms are:Some other elements found in living organisms are: Magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na),Magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (k)potassium (k)..
  7. 7. 7 Elements and CompoundsElements and Compounds Iron (Fe) andIron (Fe) and CompoundsCompounds Mercury (Hg) andMercury (Hg) and compoundscompounds Two or more elementsTwo or more elements chemically combinedchemically combined to form newto form new substance called asubstance called a compoundcompound.. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, water, salt, carbonProteins, carbohydrates, lipids, water, salt, carbon dioxide and hemoglobin are few examples of compounds.dioxide and hemoglobin are few examples of compounds.
  8. 8. 8 disorderdisordershort rangeshort range orderorder SolidSolid States of MatterStates of Matter GasGasLiquidLiquid long rangelong range orderorder havehave vibration motionvibration motion.. are inare in constant random motionconstant random motion.. free to move randomlyfree to move randomly MoleculesMolecules MoleculesMolecules MoleculesMolecules
  9. 9. 9 StatesStates ofof MatterMatter FluidityFluidity oror RigidityRigidity CompresCompres -sibility-sibility VolumeVolume ShapeShape Inter-Inter- molecularmolecular spacespace Inter-Inter- molecularmolecular forcesforces SolidsSolids RigidRigid NoNo FixedFixed FixedFixed Very LessVery Less StrongStrong LiquidsLiquids FluidFluid Very LowVery Low FixedFixed NotNot FixedFixed SlightlySlightly moremore LessLess strong orstrong or WeakWeak GasesGases FluidFluid Very HighVery High NotNot FixedFixed NotNot FixedFixed MoreMore ExtremelyExtremely WeakWeak Characteristics of MatterCharacteristics of Matter
  10. 10. 10 Change of State of MatterChange of State of Matter HH22OO IceIce VaporVaporWaterWater Water changes from solid to liquid & then gas byWater changes from solid to liquid & then gas by heating.heating. It is aIt is a physical changephysical change which changes thewhich changes the arrangement of water moleculesarrangement of water molecules only,only, not thenot the formula of water.formula of water. solidsolid gasgasliquidliquid
  11. 11. 11 MixturesMixtures TheThe mixingmixing oror combinationcombination of two or moreof two or more substances is known assubstances is known as a mixturea mixture.. There isThere is no chemical bonding existsno chemical bonding exists amongamong the substances present in mixturesthe substances present in mixtures.. AirAir is a mixture of many gasesis a mixture of many gases.. Plasma, urine and bloodPlasma, urine and blood are also few examplesare also few examples of mixturesof mixtures..
  12. 12. 12 Mixture of gases constituting the earth's atmosphere. Some gases occur in steady concentrations.Mixture of gases constituting the earth's atmosphere. Some gases occur in steady concentrations. The most important are molecular nitrogen (NThe most important are molecular nitrogen (N2), 78%2), 78% by volume, and molecular oxygen (Oby volume, and molecular oxygen (O2),2), 21%.21%. Small amounts of argon (Ar; 1.9%), neon (Ne), helium (He), methane (CHSmall amounts of argon (Ar; 1.9%), neon (Ne), helium (He), methane (CH4),4), krypton (Kr),krypton (Kr), hydrogen (Hhydrogen (H2),2), nitrous oxide (Nnitrous oxide (N22O), and xenon (Xe) are also present in almost constantO), and xenon (Xe) are also present in almost constant proportions. Other gases occur in variable concentrations: water vapour (Hproportions. Other gases occur in variable concentrations: water vapour (H22O), ozone (OO), ozone (O3),3), carbon dioxide (CO2carbon dioxide (CO22),2), sulfur dioxide (SO2sulfur dioxide (SO22),2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2and nitrogen dioxide (NO222(.(.
  13. 13. 13 Two categories of mixtures are:Two categories of mixtures are: 1- HOMOGENEOUS1- HOMOGENEOUS (Uniform composition)(Uniform composition) ExampleExample ––Plasma, sugar solution etc.Plasma, sugar solution etc. 2-HETEROGENEOUS2-HETEROGENEOUS ((Non-uniform composition)Non-uniform composition) ExampleExample ––Blood, Urine, Oil with water etc.Blood, Urine, Oil with water etc. Mixtures: Oil and waterOil and water forms aforms a heterogeneousheterogeneous mixturesmixtures before shakingbefore shaking after shakingafter shaking Oil water
  14. 14. 14 Difference betweenDifference between Compound and MixtureCompound and Mixture 1- The temperature of1- The temperature of compoundcompound will stay constantwill stay constant as it melts butas it melts but temperature, intemperature, in mixturemixture of aof a substance will change gradually.substance will change gradually. Example:Example: Ice melts at 0Ice melts at 0 00 C. While mixture of iceC. While mixture of ice with NaCl melts, at lower temperature than 0with NaCl melts, at lower temperature than 0 00 C.C. 2- The2- The identity & chemical propertiesidentity & chemical properties of substancesof substances are changed in preparation of compound. Whileare changed in preparation of compound. While component of a mixture retain their chemicalcomponent of a mixture retain their chemical properties.properties. Example:Example: A mixture of Cu and S can be observed before andA mixture of Cu and S can be observed before and after chemical change.after chemical change.
  15. 15. 15 Formation of compound is a chemical changeFormation of compound is a chemical change,, Mixture is formed by physical changeMixture is formed by physical change coil of red –coil of red – colored coppercolored copper wire andwire and yellow powderedyellow powdered sulfur.sulfur. When mixed inWhen mixed in the crucible, thethe crucible, the copper and sulfurcopper and sulfur retain theirretain their individualindividual propertiesproperties When the mixture ofWhen the mixture of copper and sulfur iscopper and sulfur is heated a reaction takesheated a reaction takes place and a newplace and a new substance calledsubstance called copper sulfide iscopper sulfide is formed.,formed., CuSCuS compoundcompound
  16. 16. 16 Physical PropertyPhysical Property Property which is observed without changing theProperty which is observed without changing the chemical makeup of a substance.chemical makeup of a substance. For example melting point of ice is 0For example melting point of ice is 000 C and boiling pointC and boiling point of water is 100of water is 10000 C which is always found same in normalC which is always found same in normal conditions.conditions. Formula of water , water vapors and ice remainsFormula of water , water vapors and ice remains same,Hsame,H22O, in all these physical sates..O, in all these physical sates.. Qualitative PropertyQualitative Property Quantitative PropertyQuantitative Property colorcolor densitydensity odorodor melting pointmelting point tastetaste boiling pointboiling point feel or touchfeel or touch compressibilitycompressibility
  17. 17. 17 The change that does not change the chemicalThe change that does not change the chemical structure of a substance.structure of a substance. e.g.e.g. Examples:Examples: 1.1. Change of ice to liquid,Change of ice to liquid, does not affect chemicaldoes not affect chemical formula of Hformula of H22O .O . 2.2. A beaker and brokenA beaker and broken beakerbeaker-composition remains-composition remains same, so physical change.same, so physical change. 3.3. Melting of wax on heating and again solidificationMelting of wax on heating and again solidification onon coolingcooling .. 4.4. Sublimation of iodine is also a physical changeSublimation of iodine is also a physical change Sublimation of iodineSublimation of iodine Physical ChangePhysical Change
  18. 18. 18 Chemical Reactions The study of changes that occur when chemicals interact with each other to form entirely different substances.
  19. 19. 19 The symbolic representation of a chemicalThe symbolic representation of a chemical substance in form of assembled symbolssubstance in form of assembled symbols MOLECULAR REPRESENTATIONSMOLECULAR REPRESENTATIONS HH22O-waterO-water Formula are used to represent : 1. How many are there of each element 2. How the elements are connected to each other. 3. The names of elements in a compound. CHCH33CHCH22OH-ethyl alcoholOH-ethyl alcohol 2 hydrogen2 hydrogen 1 oxygen1 oxygen 2 carbon,2 carbon, 6 Hydrogen6 Hydrogen 1 oxygen1 oxygen Chemical FormulaChemical Formula ExamplesExamples
  20. 20. 20 Chemical ChangeChemical Change In, a chemical change the reacting substances change into newIn, a chemical change the reacting substances change into new substances that have different formulas and different properties.substances that have different formulas and different properties. For instance , when silver tarnishes, the bright silver metalFor instance , when silver tarnishes, the bright silver metal becomes dull because it changes into Agbecomes dull because it changes into Ag22S.S. Tarnishing of silverTarnishing of silver 2 Ag + S Ag2 Ag + S Ag22SS silver sulphidesilver sulphide Rusting of ironRusting of iron 4 Fe + 3 O4 Fe + 3 O22 2Fe2Fe22 OO33 ironiron oxygenoxygen iron oxideiron oxide
  21. 21. 21 Evidences of Chemical ChangeEvidences of Chemical Change •New substances produced, old substances destroyedNew substances produced, old substances destroyed •Heat added or absorbedHeat added or absorbed •Water formedWater formed •Color changeColor change •Odor changeOdor change •Gas ProducedGas Produced•Light added or absorbedLight added or absorbed •Precipitation (solid formed)Precipitation (solid formed) •Explosion (fast gas)Explosion (fast gas) LightLight GasGas ExplosionExplosion
  22. 22. 22 Comparison of Some Chemical andComparison of Some Chemical and Physical ChangesPhysical Changes Chemical ChangesChemical Changes Physical ChangesPhysical Changes Rusting nailRusting nail Melting iceMelting ice Bleaching a stainBleaching a stain Boiling waterBoiling water Burning woodBurning wood cutting woodcutting wood Tarnishing silverTarnishing silver Tearing paperTearing paper Fermenting grapesFermenting grapes Breaking a glassBreaking a glass Souring of milkSouring of milk Pouring milkPouring milk
  23. 23. 23 Energy and HeatEnergy and Heat Energy:Energy: is defined as the ability to do workis defined as the ability to do work.. Classification of EnergyClassification of Energy 1-Potential energy (stored energy)1-Potential energy (stored energy) 2-Kinetic energy (energy of motion)2-Kinetic energy (energy of motion) The food you eat has potential energy.The food you eat has potential energy. When you digest, you convert its potential energyWhen you digest, you convert its potential energy to kinetic energy to do work in the body.to kinetic energy to do work in the body.
  24. 24. 24 Kinetic Theory of MatterKinetic Theory of Matter Matter is composed of small particles; atoms, molecules. They are in constant & random motion. Particles due to continuousParticles due to continuous motion possess kinetic energy.motion possess kinetic energy. K.E=1/2mvK.E=1/2mv22 K.E (K.E (avav) T () T (absabs).).∝ molecules Magnified view of
  25. 25. 25 Energy in Chemical Reactions Reactions Lost Gained Exothermic Endothermic Reversible Chemical equilibrium with heat that is are are and reach that occur in both directions are
  26. 26. 26 Heat Capacity of Matter HeatHeat is the energy associated with the motion ofis the energy associated with the motion of particles in a substanceparticles in a substance  An energy change often shows that a chemical reaction is happening.  Sometimes heat energy isSometimes heat energy is given outgiven out and theand the chemicals getchemicals get hothot.. These reactions areThese reactions are calledcalled ExothermicExothermic reactions.reactions.  In other reaction, heat energy isIn other reaction, heat energy is taken intaken in andand the chemicals getthe chemicals get coldercolder.. These are calledThese are called Endothermic reactions.Endothermic reactions.
  27. 27. 27 Exothermic and Endothermic ReactionsExothermic and Endothermic Reactions  Heat of Reaction:Heat of Reaction: Energy difference between reactants and theEnergy difference between reactants and the productsproducts  Exothermic reaction:Exothermic reaction: Energy of the product isEnergy of the product is lowerlower than thethan the reactant and heat isreactant and heat is given outgiven out..  Endothermic reaction:Endothermic reaction: EnergyEnergy of the product isof the product is higherhigher than thethan the reactant and heat must bereactant and heat must be absorbedabsorbed forfor products to form.products to form.
  28. 28. 28 Exothermic and Endothermic ReactionsExothermic and Endothermic Reactions ExamplesExamples  Exothermic ReactionExothermic Reaction CHCH44 + 2O+ 2O22 COCO22 + 2H+ 2H22O + 213kcalO + 213kcal Endothermic ReactionEndothermic Reaction HH22 + I+ I22 + 12 kcal of heat 2HI+ 12 kcal of heat 2HI ReactionReaction Energy ChangeEnergy Change Heat in the EquationHeat in the Equation Exothermic Heat releasedExothermic Heat released Product sideProduct side Endothermic Heat absorbedEndothermic Heat absorbed Reactant sideReactant side Heat absorbedHeat absorbed MethaneMethane Heat releasedHeat released
  29. 29. 29 1.1. Which are homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures?Which are homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures? Chips, Urine, Gasoline,Chips, Urine, Gasoline, Salad dressingSalad dressing Homogenized milk , sugar solution, butter, Raisins,Homogenized milk , sugar solution, butter, Raisins, nuts.nuts. 2.2. Identify each of the following as a solid, a liquid, or a gas.Identify each of the following as a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Water, iron , oil, helium, salt, vinegar, air, Ice, water vapor.Water, iron , oil, helium, salt, vinegar, air, Ice, water vapor. 3.3. Classify each of the following changes as chemical orClassify each of the following changes as chemical or physicalphysical.. a. drying clotha. drying cloth b. digesting a chocolate barb. digesting a chocolate bar c. breaking a chocolate barc. breaking a chocolate bar d. burning paperd. burning paper 4.4. Solve the following temperature conversions.Solve the following temperature conversions. a. 37.0a. 37.0 00 C = ----------C = ----------00 FF b. 65.3b. 65.3 00 F = ---------F = ---------00 CC c. 545K = ---------c. 545K = ---------00 CC d. 224K = ----------d. 224K = ----------00 CC ExerciseExercise
  30. 30. 30 6.6. Identify elements, compounds and mixtures.Identify elements, compounds and mixtures. a. aira. air b. waterb. water c. Pepsic. Pepsi d. carbond. carbon e. milke. milk f. bloodf. blood g. goldg. gold h. table salth. table salt 7.7. Identify each of following changes of the state as evaporation,Identify each of following changes of the state as evaporation, boiling, or condensation.boiling, or condensation. a. a shallow pond dries up in the summera. a shallow pond dries up in the summer b. the water vapors in the cloud changes to rain.b. the water vapors in the cloud changes to rain. c. your tea kettle whistles when water is ready for tea.c. your tea kettle whistles when water is ready for tea. 8.8. Classify the following as exothermic or endothermic reaction.Classify the following as exothermic or endothermic reaction. a. combustion of propane:a. combustion of propane: CC33HH88 + 5O+ 5O22 3CO3CO22 + 4H+ 4H22O + 531 kcalO + 531 kcal b. the formation of “table” salt:b. the formation of “table” salt: 2Na + Cl2Na + Cl22 2NaCl + 196 kcal2NaCl + 196 kcal c.c. decomposition of phosphorous pentachloride:decomposition of phosphorous pentachloride: PClPCl55 + 16 kcal+ 16 kcal PClPCl33 + Cl+ Cl22
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