That is, we created such a learning network..called the handover toolbox and we are going to show you how we did this and we hope by sharing this knowlegde with you, you can learn from us And the other way around, that we can learn from you So we are all participating in an ad hoc learning network now And we hope that I will explain you this, bu showing you how we created such a learning network called the handover toolbox, which is a toolbox for training experts in the medical domain who have to provide a training in handover of patients between gp’s and hospital doctors.
Well, what will we be doing the folling 80 minutes.. First I will shortly tell you something about the context in which we created the toolbox, and that is the handover project. After that Hendrik and walk with you through the methodology and through 10 min. The HANDOVER project 45 min. Methodology 30 min. Discussion and questions
Who has been, or knows somebody who has been involved in a medical error?
Near misses and adverse events, mainly caused by miscommunication or communication errors
We investigated that question within the HANDOVER project, gotether with our partners. And we used a lot of very diverse methods to get to a solution..
All these methods used, we will show and discuss with you today, explaining you our methodology..and helping you a bit to see how you could apply this to your own research. Maybe you know already some of these methods and some of these methods have been used in business
for the qualitative analysis of large bodies of textual, graphical, audio and video data. I guess most of use are familiar with this type of data gatthering and gaining insight in the Not only the medical professinals, but also does who are experiencing the effect Not only the teachers but also involve the students Take a multiple perspective
Used often in business (flow charting) Proces improvement methodology Step 1: Determine the Boundaries Where does a process begin? Where does a process end? Step 2: List the Steps Use a verb to start the task description. The flowchart can either show the sufficient information to understand the general process flow or detail every finite action and decision point. Step 3: Sequence the Steps Use post-it notes so you can move tasks. Do not draw arrows until later. Step 4: Draw Appropriate Symbols Start with the basic symbols: Ovals show input to start the process or output at the end of the process. Boxes or rectangles show task or activity performed in the process. Arrows show process direction flow. Diamonds show points in the process where a yes/no questions are asked or a decision is required. Usually there is only one arrow out of an activity box. If there is more than one arrow, you may need a decision diamond. If there are feedback arrows, make sure feedback loop is closed; i.e. it should take you back to the input box. Step 5: System Model Draw charts using system model approach. Input - use information based upon people, machines, material, method, and environment. Process - use subsets of processes in series or parallel. Output - use outcomes or desired results. Control - use best in class business rules. Feedback - use information from surveys or feedback. Step 6: Check for Completeness Include pertinent chart information, using title and date for easy reference. Step 7: Finalize the Flowchart Ask if this process is being run the way it should be. Are people following the process as charted? Do we have a consensus? What is redundant; add what is missing. The purpose of process mapping is to use diagramming to understand the process we currently use and ask what is expected of us; what should we be doing to provide better customer focus and satisfaction. It will identify what best practices we need to incorporate and find appropriate benchmarks for measuring how we can arrive at better ways of communicating our services. As Dr. George Washington Carver put it – &quot;It is simply service that measures success.&quot;
Who has ever heard of Ishikawa diagrams? Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams or Fishikawa) are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event -- created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1990). Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include: People: Anyone involved with the process Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools etc. required to accomplish the job Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final product Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality Environment: The conditions, such as location, time, temperature, and culture in which the process operates
The previous methods were performed, using empirical data, provided by the professionals and the patient Cognitive mapping can be used to organise the information found in literature on a certain problem To identify emerging topics and thinking patterns in the literature about teaching and learning aspects of handover, cognitive mapping
handover practices Ishikawa diagrams Problems experienced with handovers Ishikawa Solutions to handover problems Ishikawa Training is needed…but on what? Patient roles differing between countries ─ Active/passive Barriers to handover ─ Unclear communication in handovers ─ Attitudinal aspects; wrong expectations/lack of knowledge of each others’ microsystems ─ Lack of information on patients’ medication Facilitators to handover ─ Direct contact between professionals ─ Shared IT platform systems Many literature on solutions, but not on how to train
There are many ways to identify the needs of users, such as usability testing, interviewing users, discussions with business stakeholders, and conducting surveys. However one technique that has grown in popularity and acceptance is the use of personas: the development of archetypal users to direct the vision and design of a web solution.
There was another memorable Sunday night as Barca beat Mallorca to stay at the top of the Spanish La Liga keeping the distance of 2 points ahead of the archenemy Real Madrid. As one of the Barca socios, Maria Gutierez &lt;change the name; it can be a man&gt; is happy with the Barca performance and result, but back to home she is starting to think of the new professional challenge she is facing. As a coordinator of the continuous education in the Institute of Medical Care for Municipal Personnel, Public Health and Quality Unit, she, was asked by the management to organise a training on handover. Maria does not need to be convinced that it is a very important topic but although she has about 10 years experience in quality of care and safety patient , she has not got any experience in training handover. She is not sure yet that handover should be a special subject for training. Maria will accept the challenge but will try to convince the management of the institute that handover should be considered within the more general framework of patient safety. Before starting to think about the content and design of the handover training, Maria needs to resolve one crucial issue: how to make this training attractive for the personnel. Her experience shows that material incentives such as compensations in terms of time and money work well. Increasing chances for career development through the Carrera profesional (where you also can get an increase in salary of about 400-500 EUR) is another option and in this respect certification/diplomas should be specially mentioned. Maria would like however to use some other channels for boosting motivation. For example, she would like to emphasise on the responsibility of every professional to constantly improve her/his qualification. To attract the attention of more people, the training should sound practical and closely related to the work people do. If they see a real practical value of the training to their work, they would come. And Maria has a trick that has always worked: make people to think they are special, to believe they have been selected for this training among many other candidates. For the content of the training, the first thing to do is to collect information. Maria would certainly use her experience on teaching communication and patient safety, but she also would look at all available information about the topic, with a special attention on currently running projects. For the structure of the content, there are a number of topics that are mandatory. Communication is one of them. Maria is a member of the association Communication and Health, so she knows how important communication for handover is. Knowing the processes, individual and groups workflows in handover and the coordination of handover activities is another important topic. The need for common and concise protocols for communication and coordination of handover processes can be included in the communication and coordination topics, but it also can be a separate topic. One issue that often gets insufficient attention, according to Maria, is professional responsibility of the staff involved in handover. It is not about “my patient” or “your patient”, she says, it is about a patient who needs to get the best quality of care. Maria recalls a case, which she has used in patient safety training and which example she would probably use in the handover training. “When I worked in primary care and we had a patient admitted in the hospital, we visited the hospital to make sure that the patient was all right. It was so unusual that when we went there all doctors and nurses were looking at us wondering what we are doing there thinking that we didn’t understand our role. We simply wanted to communicate to them all the information we had available in primary care about this patient. “ What concerns the design of training, Maria is
although there needs to be some standardisation of handover practices a standardized training
Iedereen heeft andere ideeen over een toolbox, hoe deze eruit moet zien. Blackboard, Moodle, omgeving met een e-learning cursus, alleen een checklist.\ Same values and aims
Based on writing personas and interviews a list of functionality options is created. Based on this list you compare potentional online environments After selection of the most suitable online environment, this environment is adapted to the needs of its users Liferay Ellg Moodle Ning
Emerging: iedereen voegt iets toe Zie animatie. Bij een gewoon netwerk volgt 1 lerende 1 pad. Maar in een leernetwerk volgen verschillende lerenden verschillende paden. En sommige connecties zijn groter dan anderen. En zo ontstaat steeds meer Anotate = editten Producers and consumers. Actieve lerenden die ook bijdragen Met name consumeren Een leermanagementsysteem
A methodology to design customized learning networks
A methodology to design
customized learning networks
How we designed a training toolbox to develop
customized trainings in handover…
What do we want to do in this workshop?
Show you how you can design a learning network
to help training specialists develop a customized
Take back home at least one interesting
method or idea for your own research
The HANDOVER project
Next steps to be taken
The HANDOVER project
Shorter hospitalizations, more frequent patient transitions
high demands on the quality of clinical handovers
• Missing information
• Incomplete information
• Wrong address
Referral from a GP to a hospital
Discharge from a hospital to GP
If handover is problematic..
what is then the solution?
3. The toolbox
4. The Evaluation
Training needs analysis
PMI – rating
Phase 1. Problem analysis and solution generation
Why are handovers problematic and what could we do
Aim of this phase
Identification of facilitators and barriers for effective
Interviews and focus groups
• 222 interviews with medical professionals and with 92
• Focus group with medical profesionals
– Experience with problematic handovers
– Possible solutions
- Open source: Weft QDA
A process map visually depicts the
sequence of events to build a product
or produce an outcome.
Could you use the process mapping for your
research / practical issues?
E.g.,Why do (my) students not update their portfolio (regularly)
Systematic review – Ishikawa diagrams
Cause-and-effect diagrams of fishbone diagrams
Show the causes (i.e., factors) of a certain event. Causes
are usually grouped into the following categories:
Systematic review – Cognitive mapping
To identify emerging topics and thinking
patterns in the literature about the
topic of interest
(i.e., teaching and learning aspects of
Can these methods be useful
for your research?
To whom were these
Conclusion phase 1
High diversity of
- handover practices
Training is needed…but on what and how?
More insight into the training as a means to
train the diverse solutions
Phase 2. Content and design of the training
What are the needs and preferences of the trainees (i.e,
medical professionals) regarding the content and the
design of a training?
Gain insight into the training needs of the trainees
2.The training Training needs analysis
Questionnaire on training
96 Medical professionals (prim/sec. care doctors/nurses)
Questions on content and design of the training (NL,ES,SE,PL)
• How important is it to include the following topics in the training?
- Communication skills
- Tool use
- Other, namely..
• What factors contribute to the succes a training?
Would or wouldn’t you advise the following design/delivery options
4 hours of training
1 day of training
Several days of training
Training on the job
Yes I would No I would not
19 Training specialists in the medical domain (NL,ES,PL)
Questions pertained to
– Content of the training
– Design/delivery of the training
– Promotion to attend the training
– Evaluation of the training
– Preconditions / promoting transfer
Creation of an archetypal user of a website that represent
the needs of larger groups of users, in terms of their goals
and personal characteristics.
They help guide decisions about functionality and design
Although personas are fictitious, they are based on
knowledge of real users
Maria, barcelona (ES)
Coordinator of continuous education institute
Maria does not need to be convinced that handover is a
very important topic but although she has about 10
years experience in quality of care and safety patient,
she has not got any experience in training handover.
She is not sure yet that handover should be a special
subject for training. She thinks that the institute needs
to put necessary structure, regulations, guidelines
policy, and tools in place. A culture of safe handovers
needs to be created.
What are the characteristics
of your target group?
Could you use a
writing persona for
Conclusion phase 2
Diversity of training needs and solutions
A standardized training is not suitable
We will need something like a TOOLBOX for training
specialist. So they can build the training themselves
Phase 3. Creation of the toolbox
• How should the toolbox look like?
• What should be its content?
• How should it be structured?
• How to meet the needs of the users?
Develop an environment in which training specialists can
find all kinds of solutions to create themselves a training
that fits the needs of their trainees
3. The toolbox
Training needs analysis
1. Writing personas
2. List of functionalities
3. Comparison of potentional
4. Customization of the
Conclusion phase 3
A toolbox is also not fully adequate..
it does not address the awareness of the
target group for the diversity of the problem
A learning network is more suitable to reach
Features of a learning network
• Distributed learning environment
• Emerging content
• User-created content Prosumers: Producers and consumers
• Users blog, rate, anotate, tag, and share
• Support of informal and
• Information filtering
Most important features of this LN
- the sharing of knowledge and experiences
- customizing solutions for problematic
handovers to local needs and conditions
Result phase 3
The European Handover Learning Network
(a.k.a. Handover toolbox)
…which we will show you in a minute
Who is involved in a
Why aren’t you involved
in a learning network?
Phase 4. Evaluation
What is the first impression of the toolbox of
experts in the medical domain?
Gather feedback to further improve the
handover learning network
3. The toolbox
Training needs analysis
PMI – rating
Plus Minus Interesting rating
Look at and listen to the presentation
of the Handover learning network
Meanwhile…create notes on
Write down everything that comes to your mind, generate
as many ideas as possible, do
not filter your ideas
And then now…the toolbox
Please apply the PMI-rating
Use Case scenario
Role: Training expert on patient safety unit in
Task: Create a training for handover for the GPs
1.Explore possible interventions
2.Create a training outline with topics and
Hint: Look at the Handover Training Toolbox
Use Case scenario
Result: Peter found enough information for his
task. In addition, he extended his professional
network and started his own group on handover
training for GPs. In this way he extended his
reputation in the field.
Hint: Look at the Handover Training Toolbox
Next step to be taken
How to structure the handover learning
for your attention ;-)
Wendy.Kicken@ou.nl or Hendrik.Drachsler@ou.nl