03.08  Critical Factors IT Investment Success -- StratSnap Process Guidelines by Dr James A Robertson
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03.08 Critical Factors IT Investment Success -- StratSnap Process Guidelines by Dr James A Robertson

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Part 8 of presentations for Two Day Course The Critical Factors for IT and ERP Investment Success ...

Part 8 of presentations for Two Day Course The Critical Factors for IT and ERP Investment Success

The StratSnap Critical Issues business analysis method -- process guidelines

See also http://www.James-A-Robertson-and-Associates.com/

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03.08  Critical Factors IT Investment Success -- StratSnap Process Guidelines by Dr James A Robertson 03.08 Critical Factors IT Investment Success -- StratSnap Process Guidelines by Dr James A Robertson Presentation Transcript

  • JAMES A ROBERTSON AND ASSOCIATESEFFECTIVE STRATEGIC BUSINESS SOLUTIONSSTRATSNAP© - STRATEGIC SNAPSHOT© PROCESS Tactics StrategyProcess Guidelines Dr James Robertson Chief Executive Officer James A Robertson and Associates James@JamesARobertson.comTo thrive do the right things (strategy) well (tactics) Copyright 1993 - 2008 1
  • BEFORE THE START OF THE WORKSHOP1. Determine Workshop Sponsor2. Determine Workshop Objective3. Determine Focus Questions ) Concise ) Focussed ) May not be obvious ) The right questions to get the required answers ) e.g. Critical concerns or critical questions 2
  • BEFORE THE START OF THE WORKSHOP4. Agree Planning Period -- 3 years or other5. Agree Number of Planning Iterations6. Identify representative delegates7. Classify and Group Delegates if required (functional / locational or other grouping)8. Issue agenda with proposed focus questions / statements 3 View slide
  • BEFORE THE START OF THE WORKSHOPREQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME:1. Tool (2%)2. Facilitator and Facilitation Technique (3%)3. Method (4%) All are required for4. Focus Question (14%) a successful outcome but5. Delegate Group Representivity (17%) without the last three factors the6. Mandate (20%) first four cannot deliver a valuable7. Sponsor and leadership (40%) result 4 View slide
  • STRATEGIC SNAPSHOT© PROCESSSTART OF WORKSHOP PROCESS 5
  • OUTLINE OF THE STRATEGIC SNAPSHOT© PROCESSThe following items will take place one step at a time:1. Brainstorm all points relating to the focus question2. Based on the results of the brainstorming each person determines their personal view of the seven critical factors3. Collectively synthesize the seven critical factors4. Individually rank and weight the critical factors in terms of personal view of relative importance 6
  • OUTLINE OF THE STRATEGIC SNAPSHOT PROCESS5. As time permits discuss the different "views of the mountain" = different perceptions of the situation6. Individually score the seven critical factors in terms of: ) Historic - How well were we doing "n" years ago ) Current - How well are we doing today ) Forecast - How well will we be doing in "n" years if nothing changes ) Objective - How well would we like to be doing in "n" years 7
  • OUTLINE OF THE STRATEGIC SNAPSHOT PROCESS7. As time permits discuss the scores and the overall score trend8. Discuss the gap9. AS A SEPARATE PROCESS undertake a gap analysis to determine the actions required to close the gap - may form part of the current workshop OR a separate workshop OR be undertaken in-house 8
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESDETAIL FACTOR BRAINSTORMING 9
  • DETAIL FACTOR BRAINSTORMING1. List all thoughts regarding the focus question2. No discussion3. There are no wrong answers4. All thoughts, no matter how outrageous they may seem5. Everything that might possibly have a bearing Brainstorm Now Then Check Points Next Slide 10
  • DETAIL FACTOR BRAINSTORMINGTHE ELEPHANTS UNDER THE TABLE1. Check for blind spots ) What is missing? ) Other stakeholders? ) The awkward person who is missing? Look for ) Other perspectives? possible ) Specialists? causes of failure2. The elephants under the table -- undiscussables / unmentionables ) Blank sheet of paper with standard pens ) Write about the weather / sport if you have nothing to add Write your points privately and hand in 11
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESCRITICAL FACTOR DETERMINATION 12
  • WHAT ARE CRITICAL FACTORS?A DOWN TO EARTH EXAMPLETO TRAVEL 1,000 KILOMETERS FROM HERE BY MOTOR CAR TO A SPECIFICDESTINATION YOU NEED:1. Car (own, rent, taxi, etc)2. Driver3. Petrol / Money for Petrol4. Car in working order (engine works, tyres, etc)5. Map or directions to get there6. Experienced driver, roadworthy car7. Nice comfortable car, airconditioning, make, etcFIVE (5) ARE CRITICAL, TWO ARE NOT! Continued /... 13
  • CRITICAL FACTOR DETERMINATIONWHY SEVEN FACTORS?1. Close to 80:20 (86:14) but have found that in practice seven works better than five or six2. Presentations - for ease of understanding, between five and ten slices on a pie chart are optimum - average - 7.53. The average person can manage seven plus or minus two abstract concepts simultaneously4. The average person can manage seven plus or minus two direct reports Continued /... 14
  • CRITICAL FACTOR DETERMINATIONSYNTHESIS1. Seven succinct (concise) statements effectively 80:202. The Seven Factors which most effectively summarize the Critical Issues addressed by the detailed list that has just been brainstormed3. Each factor must be unique and exclusive4. No overlap - meaningful, succinct statements5. Not necessarily on brainstorm list Determine your seven factors now 15
  • CRITICAL FACTOR DETERMINATIONCRITICIZE1. Capture one persons synthesis (sponsor if appropriate)2. Capture "most different" synthesis3. Determine if there is a second dimension4. Capture all other synthesis items5. Synthesize and integrate into one or two sets Synthesize Now 16
  • CRITICAL FACTOR DETERMINATIONCRITICIZE1. Check for logical consistency -- are there two dimensions?2. Composite or exclusive statements?3. Check for blind spots ) What is missing? ) Other stakeholders? Look for ) The awkward person who is missing? possible ) Other perspectives? causes of ) Specialists? failure Criticize Now 17
  • HEADINGS AND SHORT NAMES1. If necessary convert to postive action orientated statements2. Develop headings for each factor3. Develop short names if different from headings Headings and Short Names Now 18
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESFACTOR RANKINGPlease write your name and initials on the worksheet 19
  • FACTOR RANKING :1. Rank the factors in order of importance2. Number the MOST important factor 13. Number the LEAST important factor 74. All factors are important5. Avoid giving two factors the same rank unless you are firmly of the opinion they are of identical importance Rank Items Now 20
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESFACTOR WEIGHTING 21
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING :1. Refer to the ranking in allocating the weights - if when weighting you revise the ranking that is fine2. Total of weights for all seven factors must equal 100%3. Spread weights to reflect relative importance4. All seven factors are important but some are more important than others Continued /... 22
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING :5. Typically one or two, if not effectively addressed, will give rise to failure of the overall plan6. Typically one or two can only succeed if certain other factors succeed7. Try and spread the weights over a range of about 5% for the lowest and 30% for the highest Continued /... 23
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING :STEP 1: HIGHEST WEIGHT7. Select the factor that you consider MOST IMPORTANT a. If you consider it far MORE important than any other factor weight it between 30% and 50% b. If you consider it only slightly MORE important than several other factors, weight it between 20% and 30% Weight Most Important Factor Now 24
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING :STEP 2: LOWEST WEIGHT8. Select the factor that you consider LEAST IMPORTANT a. If you consider it far LESS important than any other factor weight it between 1% and 7% b. If you consider it only slightly LESS important than several other factors, weight it between 8% and 15% c. Only use 0% if you consider the factor totally irrelevant Weight Least Important Factor Now 25
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING :STEP 3: DISTRIBUTE WEIGHTS 9. Spread the remaining weight across the remaining factors10. Consider the relative importance of each two factors and ensure that the factor that is more important than the remaining factors has a greater weight11. Try and avoid giving two factors the same weight, generally one will be slightly more important than the other Continued /... 26
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING :STEP 3: DISTRIBUTE WEIGHTS CONTINUED12. If two factors are very close in relative importance the weight gap between them should be small13. If one factor is very much more important than another factor the weight gap between them should be large14. If you have difficulty with mental arithmetic then work with round numbers and as a second step incrementally adjust pairs of items one up and one down e.g. 10%, 10%, 10% => 8%, 10%, 12% Spread Remaining Weight Across Remaining Factors Now and then Hand In Worksheets 27
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESFACTOR WEIGHTING SHARES 28
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING SHARESKNOWLEDGE & EXPERIENCE PERSPECTIVESIt is almost certain that at this moment, every person in this room thinksthat they have understood exactly what has been said.BUTIf we were to analyse in detail what each person is thinking about thesetopics we would find drastically different views! Continued /... 29
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING SHARESTHE DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE MOUNTAIN Impossible!! A few challenges but nothing insurmountable! x Objective Hard but we will make it! Easy!! What a deep gorge! Continued /... 30
  • FACTOR WEIGHTING SHARESTHE DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE MOUNTAIN x Objective Reality: Each person has a unique view It is desirable to choose ONE view for designing the solutionTogether we can find the best way to the objective : once we have agreed it we must stick to it! REMEMBER TIME IMPACT Shares Now 31
  • PROCESS GUIDELINES1. Make notes as necessary of what other people say2. Draw conclusions3. Document 32
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESRevise weights (choice) Revise Weights Now If You Want To 33
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESFACTOR SCORING 34
  • FACTOR SCORING :1. Factor scores are allocated on a range of 0 to 10 a. Where 0 (zero) indicates that the performance could NOT BE WORSE - in the world (or other benchmark you agree) b. and 10 indicates that the performance could NOT BE BETTER - in the world (or other benchmark you agree)2. Each factor is scored separately from 0 to 10 Continued /... 35
  • FACTOR SCORING(A BROAD INTERPRETATION)0 = Abysmal - could not be worse anywhere in the world1 = Extremely weak2 = Very weak3 = Weak4 = Mediocre5 = Average - could be better / could be worse6 = Acceptable7 = Strong8 = Very strong9 = Extremely strong10 = Exceptional - could not be better anywhere in the world Continued /... 36
  • FACTOR SCORING (A BROAD INTERPRETATION)0 = Abysmal - could not be worse anywhere in the world Cause for serious1 = Extremely weak2 = Very weak3 = Weak4 = Mediocre 3.3 } concern } One third to two5 = Average - could be better / could be worse thirds 68% probability6 = Acceptable of occurence7 = Strong 6.7 }8 = Very strong9 = Extremely strong World Class10 = Exceptional - could not be better anywhere in theworld Decimal values (fractions) such as "4.7" can be used if required Continued /... 37
  • THE CHALLENGE OF YOUR PARADIGMWHAT DO YOU NOT KNOW 10 Absolute world scale 0 Continued /... 38
  • THE CHALLENGE OF YOUR PARADIGMMOUNTAINS 10 Absolute world scale Mount Everest -- highest mountain in the world Bowling Green -- absolutely 0 FLAT -- ZERO SLOPE Continued /... 39
  • THE CHALLENGE OF YOUR PARADIGM LIVING CONDITIONS10 ?Absolute world scale Extreme luxury Shanty town ? ? Survival under a tree0 ? Concentration Camp Continued /... 40
  • THE CHALLENGE OF YOUR PARADIGM BUSINESS STANDARDS10 ?Absolute world scale ? International Exceptional Local High Standard ?0 Shanty town Continued /... 41
  • STRETCH YOUR WORLDVIEW WHILESCORING 10 10 10 0 0 0 Continued /... 42
  • FACTOR SCORING : 4. Objective X Score1. Historic 2. CurrentScore Score X X X 3. Forecast Score -n (3) Years Today + n (3) Years Continued /... 43
  • HISTORIC SCORING :1. Rating of performance at a time equal to the planning period in the past2. HISTORIC3. How well were we doing then?4. Keep in mind how bad it could have been and how good it could have been5. Blank if you do not know how it was 0 = Could not be worse Score Historic Now 10 = Could not be better 44
  • CURRENT SCORING :1. Current rating of performance2. TODAY3. How well are we doing now? 0 = Could not be worse Score Current Now 10 = Could not be better 45
  • FORECAST SCORING :1. What you expect the score would be if this planning exercise: a. Did not happen b. Did not lead to any action c. Does not deal with what you consider to be the critical issues2. The forecast represents where this organization will be without meaningful and effective NEW action 0 = Could not be worse Continued /... 10 = Could not be better 46
  • FORECAST SCORING :3. Equal to CURRENT if you think that there will be NO material change in the planning period4. Less than current if you think that the situation is deteriorating with no sign of other actions likely to give rise to improvement5. Greater than current if you think that the situation is improving as a result of other actions 0 = Could not be worse Score Forecast Now 10 = Could not be better 47
  • OBJECTIVE SCORING :1. How you would like it to be after the planning period2. Aim for the Stars in order to Hit the Tree Tops (set a stretch target)3. Take account of the practical limitations on improvement (i.e. be optimistically realistic) 0 = Could not be worse Continued /... 10 = Could not be better 48
  • OBJECTIVE SCORING :4. Recognize that you would probably be satisfied if your child obtained 60% at the end of their school career and would be very happy if they obtained 80%5. The objective should be EQUAL to or LARGER than the forecast score6. Objective less than forecast is NOT valid 0 = Could not be worse Continued /... 10 = Could not be better 49
  • OBJECTIVE SCORING :7. It is easier to achieve major improvement on a very low forecast score than on a high forecast score8. Major improvement is probably not necessary for a high forecast score 0 = Could not be worse Score Objective Now and then 10 = Could not be better Hand In Worksheets 50
  • FACTOR SCORING : RECAP 4. Objective X Score1. Historic 2. CurrentScore Score X X X 3. Forecast Score -n (3) Years Today + n (3) Years 0 = Could not be worse 10 = Could not be better 51
  • FACTOR SCORING (A BROAD INTERPRETATION)0 = Abysmal - could not be worse anywhere in the world Cause for serious1 = Extremely weak2 = Very weak3 = Weak4 = Mediocre 3.3 } concern } One third to two5 = Average - could be better / could be worse thirds 68% probability6 = Acceptable of occurence7 = Strong 6.78 = Very strong9 = Extremely strong10 = Exceptional - could not be better anywhere in theworld } World Class Decimal values (fractions) such as "4.7" can be used if required 52
  • FACTOR SCORING VALUE INTERPRETATION Notional value High value at low cost is of achieving achievable only by highly score creative measures taken by empowered and motivated Notional cost people who are properly of achieving equipped, failing which score costs will be high. Can you see clearly how to Probability achieve affordable high distribution value?0 3.33 6.67 10 Is your objective score Score realistic? 53
  • SCORE EVALUATIONPERSPECTIVES OF STATUS1. Make notes as necessary of what other people say2. Draw conclusions3. Document 54
  • WEIGHTED SCORE EVALUATIONPERSPECTIVES OF STATUS1. Make notes as necessary of what other people say2. Draw conclusions3. Document 55
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESITERATE IF PLANNED OR NECESSARY(May be a separate workshop with a smaller working team) 56
  • PROCESS GUIDELINESANALIZING THE OBJECTIVE GAP(May be a separate workshop with a smaller working team) 57
  • RECAP : SCORING : THE OBJECTIVE GAP : Objective X } Score Current Score GAP X Forecast X Score Today + n (3) Years0 = Could not be worse Continued /...10 = Could not be better 58
  • PLANTHE TRAJECTORY OF CHANGE TO CLOSE THE GAP } Objective X Score Plan GAP Current Score X X Forecast Score Today + n (3) Years Continued /... 59
  • TACTICS / PROJECTS / PLAN ACTIONSCOMPONENTS OF THE PLAN TO CLOSE THE GAP } Objective X Score Strategy Tactics / Projects / GAP Current Score Plan Actions X Forecast X Score Today + n (3) Years Continued /... 60
  • DEVELOPING THE PLAN =CLOSING THE GAP :1. Specific projects and plan actions to close the gap2. Identify all possible projects3. Evaluate broad resource requirements4. Evaluate broad impacts5. Prioritize6. Iterative if planned or required Undertake Gap Analysis Now OR Schedule For A Later Date 61
  • FURTHER STEPS1. Analyse all components of the strategic context (strategic map)2. Develop a governance model for implementation of the plan3. Develop a detailed action plan4. Develop implementation categories and remap the plan5. Develop detailed project plans6. Implement7. Manage progress and success against defined BUSINESS OUTCOMES Part of Long Term Execution of the Plan 62
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND DEDICATIONI would like to acknowledge the contributions and inputs of all my clients,associates, staff and families without whom the work on which thispresentation is based would not have been possibleParticularly my father and mother, Angus and Thelma, whose love andsupport for all my endeavours made it possible for me to gain thisknowledge.I also acknowledge Fiona and Ingrid for all they contributed and Sandraand Helene for their unreserved love and givingThis presentation is dedicated to the glory of the Eternal Creator who is thesource and reason for our existencePsalm 136:5 "To Him who by wisdom made the heavens, for Hismercy endures forever;" 63
  • STRATSNAP PROCESS GUIDELINES QUESTIONS?Dr James Robertson PrEngJames A Robertson & AssociatesTelephone: +27-11- 782-5997Cell: 083-251-6644 (preferred)P O Box 4206, Randburg, 2125, South Africawww.JamesARobertson.comemail: James@JamesARobertson.com Finding the missing pieces of your I.T. and strategy puzzles 64