Seerah of Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alehe Wasallam) Part II (Life in Madina)

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Seerah of Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alehe Wasallam) Part II (Life in Madina)

  1. 1. Seerah of Prophet Mohammad(SAW) Madani Period
  2. 2. Challenges before the Islamic Movement in Madina. <ul><li>Islamic state in Madina emerged needing: </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative structure,laws,justice,family laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive efforts at Dawah and attack on the false ideologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement of the migrants in Madina with their financial support but also their Islamic education and moral training. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for Jihad and armed resistance against the enemies of Islam. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Initial Steps <ul><li>Treaties with Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocrites in Madina. </li></ul><ul><li>Change of Qibla. </li></ul><ul><li>Warning for pagans that their trade route to Syria could be blocked. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdullah bin Hajash led an ambush upon a Pagan’s caravan.Omar bin Hadarmi died.This happened without the Prophet’s approval. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Battle of Badar <ul><li>A big trade caravan of pagans was en route from Syria to Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Sufyan sent a man to Mecca to get help </li></ul><ul><li>He announced in Mecca that Muslims attacked the caravan. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the pagan leaders prepared for fight </li></ul><ul><li>1000 men strong army prepared to march to Madina. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Battle of Badar Prophet’s(SAW) concerns <ul><li>Decisive battle with impact on future </li></ul><ul><li>Muhajiroon came with no assets </li></ul><ul><li>Ansaars had no experience of battle. </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes of Jews had hidden animosity </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocrites and some pagans in Madina </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims resources and numbers were disproportionately less than pagans. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Battle of Badar Prophet’s (SAW) consultation <ul><li>He presented the situation before Sahaba </li></ul><ul><li>He asked whether we should go after the trade caravan or face pagan’s army </li></ul><ul><li>Many opined to go after the caravan </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet asked the question again </li></ul><ul><li>Miqdad bin Amar ® from muhjiroon said we shall go with you where Allah’s order is </li></ul><ul><li>Saad bin Muaaz from ansaar supported </li></ul>
  7. 7. Battle of Badar Comparison of forces <ul><li>Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>.313 men </li></ul><ul><li>.3 horses </li></ul><ul><li>.70 camels </li></ul><ul><li>.60 shields </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Pagans </li></ul><ul><li>. 1000 men including 100 leaders </li></ul><ul><li>.Several horses, camels, swords and shields. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Battle of Badar Glimpses of fighting <ul><li>Prophet’s dua before the battle. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult test for muhajiroon, stood against their family members. </li></ul><ul><li>Pagans were defeated.70 of their men killed including leaders.70 became POW’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan’s left lot of valuables behind. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comments on the Battle of Badar Sura Anfaal -8 <ul><li>Purpose of Qital is not bounties but making Islam prevalent and to please Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience of ameer is pivotal in Jamaah. </li></ul><ul><li>Victory in Badar was due to Allah’s Help. </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad is the ultimate test for a believer. </li></ul><ul><li>Your money and families are a test. </li></ul><ul><li>Sabar is the essence of any movement </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to achieve the objectives should never allow you to compromise the Islamic guidelines. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Battle of Uhad <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>1-Defeat of pagans in Badar alarmed tribes </li></ul><ul><li>2-Pagans of Meccah wanted revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Jews of Madina encouraged pagans to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Pagans advance to Madina in Shawwal,3 Hijra with 3000 men. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet consulted the sahaba. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet gathered army of 1000 people.Hypocrites withdrew 300 men. </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm of youth. Story of Rafe and Samra. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Battle of Uhad <ul><li>Prophet placed his army in front of uhad mountain. </li></ul><ul><li>He appointed 50 archers led by Abdullah bin Jubair to guard corridor in the mountain. </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the pagan army sang and beat the drums to encourage their fighters. </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning, Muslims defeated the pagan army. Then they started gathering bounties. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Battle of Uhad <ul><li>Most of the archers at the Uhad coridoor left to get bounties except few. </li></ul><ul><li>Khalid bin Walid, leader of one of pagan’s fighting group attacked from the poorly guarded Uhad coridoor. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims were now attacked from back and front. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim army was dispersed and many were on the run. </li></ul><ul><li>Rumor was spread that the Prophet was killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many lost their will to fight when got the rumor. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Battle of Uhad <ul><li>Prophet was guarded by few sahaba. </li></ul><ul><li>He was moved up to the mountain. </li></ul><ul><li>When Muslims heard about Prophet’s safety, they gathered again and fought. </li></ul><ul><li>Pagans at that time left the battlefield. </li></ul><ul><li>Latter, they thought of returning but did not. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet even chased them till Hamra ul Asad. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Battle of Uhad Comments in Ale Imran:122-144 <ul><li>Dependence on the Help of Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>Love of material wealth was one reason for initial defeat. Allah forbade Riba. </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranty of success if you are believers. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic movement does not depend on personalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of death is the root cause of cowardice.There is appointed time of death. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tribal Revolts <ul><li>Uhad’s setback encouraged hostile tribes to stand up against Muslims and fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Jofeed tribe tried to attack in Muharram,4H. </li></ul><ul><li>Lahyan tribe attacked same month. </li></ul><ul><li>Safar,4H.70 learned sahaba were sent to the Kallab tribe for teaching Islam & got killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Two other tribes took 10 sahaba for teaching.7 were killed and 3 were imprisoned.Khabbab and Zaid were sold in Mecca and latter killed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Jewish Enmity <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>1-Jewish leaders felt threat to their business. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Quran was openly criticizing Jew's behavior </li></ul><ul><li>3-Fear of living under Islamic rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Banu Qanqa- exiled Shawwal, 2H for declaring war against Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaab bin Ashraf executed Rabil Awwal,3H by Mohammd bin Muslima. </li></ul><ul><li>Banu Nazeer.Broke treaties and conspired to kill the Prophet. Exiled to Kheyber. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Battle of Ahzab <ul><li>Jews in Kheyber conspired and incited pagans to bring a 10.000 army to Madina. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet consulted sahaba.Salman Farsi suggested to dig a ditch on open part of city. </li></ul><ul><li>8 Ziqad,5H digging started.10 yards of ditch was assigned to 10 people.It was 5 yard deep. </li></ul><ul><li>3000 people dug it in 20 days. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Battle of Ahzab <ul><li>Pagans attacked Madina from 3 sides.33:10 </li></ul><ul><li>Hard test of Iman.Hypocrites exposed.33:12 </li></ul><ul><li>Enemy kept blockade for one month. </li></ul><ul><li>They threw stones and arrows. </li></ul><ul><li>They tried to cross the ditch. </li></ul><ul><li>With Allah’s sent windstorm, enemies fled. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Battle of Ahzab Commentary in Sura Ahzab <ul><li>Trust in Allah’s Help. </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Iman. </li></ul><ul><li>Root cause of weakness- fear of loosing life and property. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent example in the Prophet’s conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Banu Qureza’s punishment for breaking the treaty.Blockade.Decision according to their book. 400 people killed, rest made POW. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hudabeya Treaty- 6 Hijra <ul><li>Zeqad, 6 H, Prophet announced intention to visit Kaaba.1400 Muslims joined him. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet sent someone to find pagan’s plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pagans started gathering forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet continued travel and stopped at Hudabeya. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet sent Osman to negotiate. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hudabeya Treaty <ul><li>News came that Osman has been killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Bait Ridwan.Prophet gathered Muslims under a tree and took a pledge that we shall fight till we die or win. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Treaty. Pagan released Osman and sent Suhail bin Amar for peace talks. </li></ul><ul><li>A peace treaty was concluded and written. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hudabeya Treaty Terms <ul><li>Muslims shall go back this year. </li></ul><ul><li>They shall return next year and stay for 3days </li></ul><ul><li>They shall not have any weapons except one sword in the shield. </li></ul><ul><li>They can’t take Muslims left in Mecca and shall not stop any Muslim from coming back to Meccah. </li></ul><ul><li>If someone goes to Madina, he shall be returned but if someone returns to Mecca, shall not be returned. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hudabeya <ul><li>Tribes shall have the choice to enter into treaty with Muslims or pagans. </li></ul><ul><li>This treaty shall be in effect for 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>-------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Jandal’s matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Hudabeya. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Letters to Kings and Emperors 6-7 Hijra <ul><li>Roman Emperor. Wahya Kalbi </li></ul><ul><li>Persian Emperor. Abdullah bin Huzafa Sahmi. </li></ul><ul><li>Aziz Misr.(Egyptian Emperor) Hatib bin Abi Baltah </li></ul><ul><li>Najjashi, King of Abysenia. Omar bin Umayyah. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Strengthening of Islamic State and Society <ul><li>Attack on Khyber. Muharram, 7 Hijra. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws and regulations for Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Suras Nisaa and Maida. </li></ul><ul><li>Family laws,rights of men and women,inheritance law,prohibition of alcohol and gambling, law of testimony,general moral instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet performed Umra in 7 Hijra. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Victory of Mecca <ul><li>Violation of Hudabeya Treaty by pagans. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation to invade Mecca.10 Ramadan,8H. </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Sufyan is arrested and released. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry in Mecca.(Minimal fighting.) </li></ul><ul><li>Peace declaration in Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry in Kaaba.Removal of idols and pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Victory address by the Prophet. </li></ul><ul><li>General amnesty. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Battle of Hunain 10 Shawwal, 8 Hijra <ul><li>Hawazan and Saqeef tribes prepared for war </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet took 12000 men and weapons to fight in Hunain (between Mecca and Taif) </li></ul><ul><li>Some Muslims said who could defeat us. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, Muslims faced severe arrow attack </li></ul><ul><li>Latter, they gathered around the Prophet and fought well defeating the enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>Surah Tauba, 9:25,26. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Battle of Tabook Rajab, 9 Hijra. <ul><li>Conflict with Roman empire already started in battle of Mota (Jamadi ula, 8 H).Sharjeel the ruler of Basra brought army of 100,000 which fought against 3000 Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Farwa bin Amar Jizami, a Roman commander became Muslim.Latter, he was killed by the emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Many tribes under Roman rule accepted Islam. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Battle of Tabuk <ul><li>Cesar prepared to gather his forces on Syrian border to punish Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet decided to go forward and stop this build up. </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifices of Muslims and excuses by hypocrites. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet left Madina with 30,000 army </li></ul><ul><li>Cesar ordered his forces to retreat. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Steps taken after Tabuk. <ul><li>Dealings with hypocrites. </li></ul><ul><li>Demolition of Masjid Zirar </li></ul><ul><li>Not to accept their donations </li></ul><ul><li>No family or friendly relations with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet should not attend their funeral. </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary action against 3 sahabas. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear political policy of the State.(Haj,9 H) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Last Haj 10 Hijra Khutbah <ul><li>All methods of Jahileya are under my feet. </li></ul><ul><li>No Arab has superiority over non Arab.You are children of Adam and he was created from clay. </li></ul><ul><li>All muslims are brothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed and clothe your slaves same what you eat or wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Killings and Riba of Jahileya are cancelled. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Khutbah Last Haj <ul><li>Fear Allah in the matter of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Your blood and your money is forbidden for each other. </li></ul><ul><li>If you hold fast to the book of Allah, you will not be misguided. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked,”Have I passed to you Allah’s message?” Everyone answered,”Yes”. </li></ul><ul><li>He said,”Now, you must pass on this message to those who are not here.” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Death of the Prophet <ul><li>Safar,18, 11 H, he became sick. </li></ul><ul><li>He appointed Abu Bakr to lead the salaat. </li></ul><ul><li>When he was feeling a little better,he came to the masjid and gave last Khutbah. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabiul Awwal, 12, 11 H, he passed to Rafiq Ala. </li></ul><ul><li>May Allah’s blessings be upon him. </li></ul>

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