Definition of health according to the World Health Organization "WHO
“ Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".
This widely accepted definition was expanded in the 1970's and 1980’s, as other components were included: intellectual, environmental, and spiritual health.
In more recent years, this statement has been modified to include the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life."
Critical analysis of these definitions
Health cannot be defined as a state at all, but must be seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living.
The WHO definition is therefore considered by many as an idealistic goal rather than a realistic proposition
Market forces advocate the importance of absolute individual freedom. They strongly resent any suggestion that the demands of society in general and the demands of family in particular must guide individual choices.
When there are demands to correct the ecology, environment to them just means air and water free of pollution; it has nothing to do with social practices and systems that are dangerous for the health
WHO definition does not explain spiritual health
Another glaring weakness of the WHO definition is that it fails to properly explain the “spiritual” component of health.
Some researchers tend to describe spiritual health as a feeling of happiness and contentment. They do not differentiate between “mental health” and “spiritual health”.
Mental health is "a state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life."
Spiritual health, on the contrary, means an individual’s ability to differentiate between right and wrong and resolve to lead a more righteous life, free of stratagems, deception, dishonesty and selfishness. Islam promotes Spiritual health.
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social wellbeing, which must be safeguarded not only through the maintenance of a health preserving regime at the personal/individual level, but also through the establishment of a health-protective and promoting family system and a health-protective and promoting social system.”
Say: Who hath forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of Allah, which He hath produced for His servants, and the things, clean and pure, (which He hath provided) for sustenance? Say: They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) purely for them on the Day of Judgment. Thus do We explain the signs in detail for those who understand.
Why were there not, among the generations before you, persons possessed of balanced good sense, prohibiting (men) from mischief in the earth - except a few among them whom We saved (from harm)? But the wrong-doers pursued the enjoyment of the good things of life which were given them, and persisted in sin.
They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider-
Let the women live (in 'iddat) in the same style as ye live, according to your means: Annoy them not, so as to restrict them. And if they carry (life in their wombs), then spend (your substance) on them until they deliver their burden: and if they suckle your (offspring), give them their recompense: and take mutual counsel together, according to what is just and reasonable. And if ye find yourselves in difficulties, let another woman suckle (the child) on the (father's) behalf.
On the basis of these verses, it is not difficult to conclude
In Islam, health is not a separate entity but one of the essential constituents of peace, which comprise peace at the individual, family and social level.
There are three tiers of society: individual, family and society. All three have equal importance and none can be sacrificed through the sword of the other. Health therefore too has to involve all the three.
Islam declares prohibited all those things and practices that do not form parts of the normal requirements of the body and can directly lead to the development of a disease, which more often than not becomes fatal or causes physical handicaps like blindness, paralysis, etc. (Alcohol, pork, unhealthy sexual practices
Makruh & Mustahab
Islam declares makruh or undesirable all those things and practices, which may harm the health but are neither usually fatal, nor lead to any physical handicap like blindness, paralysis etc
Islam declares Mustahab or desirable or obligatory all those things and practices that have beneficial effect on the health of the individual or society in general. (Circumcision, several foods, Ablution, Prayer, Istanja, etc.)
Islam’s multi-pronged strategy to promote health and to treat illness.
1. Primary Prevention
• Istanja (Washing of private parts after urinating), which has huge protective effects against the urogenital infection;
• Wudu (Ablution), which involves washing of the exposed organs and mouth reducing the risks of mouth infections, cardiovascular problems, skin infections and cancers and eye infections;
• Ghusal-Washing of private parts after intercourse and bathing as son as possible; which will decrease the chances of sex related diseases;
Primary prevention in Islam
• Total ban on premarital, extramarital sex and promiscuity, homosexuality and prostitution, which all are the leading factors responsible for propagation of various sex related disorders
• Avoidance of sex during menses, which again prevents from urogenital infections;
• A compulsory period of Iddah (waiting period) between two marriage partners, which again is very important in preventing sex transmitted diseases.
Primary prevention in Islam
• Total ban on the production, serving and use of alcoholic beverages,
• Total ban on all addicting substances including drugs and smoking,
• Total ban on gambling, which will prevent pathological gambling and suicides;
• Breast-feeding for two years that decreases the chances of a woman getting pregnant before the expiry of the 2 year period
safe drinking water,
use of pastes and creams to prevent skin diseases
Circumcision that prevents from Phimosis, Paraphimosis, sex transmitted diseases including AIDS and the Cancer of Cervix (among women); can also be included as a method of secondary prevention, as it involves a surgical procedure.
Miswak (Brushing of teeth), which has a remarkable preventive effect on the infective diseases of teeth, gums and several internal organs, is also a part of secondary prevention
Whatever good, (O man!) happens to thee, is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to thee, is from thy (own) soul. and We have sent thee as a messenger to (instruct) mankind. And enough is Allah for a witness.4.079 (An-Nisa)
Many of the common chronic illnesses, coronary heart disease, hyper-tension, diabetes, peptic ulcer disease, obesity and depression have common man-made etiology, that is rich food, too much food, too much salt, too much sugar, smoking, stress and alcoholism
Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere,
A-In Islam, we do not have concept of the ownership of goods and life. Everything belongs to God and returns to him. So if we don't own that thing why mourn our loss? B- Our destiny is predetermined. We do not have control on that part. What we have control over is a limited free will, that is our actions, our choice to do good or bad, to believe in God or not to believe in Him. Worrying over such things is of no use. C. Rejection of faith in Quran is called a disease. This denial of truth is due to arrogance
3 stages of spiritual development of soul
a. Nafsul Ammara: -The Passionate soul
"I do not absolve myself Lo the (human) soul is prone to evil, save that whenever my Lord has mercy. Lo, Lord is forgiving; merciful." 12:53 (Surah Yusuf)
This soul inclines toward sensual pleasure, passion and self gratification , anger, envy, greed, and conceit. Its concerns are pleasure of body, gratification of physical appetite, and ego.
b. Nafsul Lawamah (The Reproaching Soul). "Nay, I swear by the reproaching soul" 75:1 This soul is conscious or aware of Evil, resists it, asks for God's grace, and pardon, repents and tries to amend and hopes to achieve salvation. Hadith "These are two impulses within us. One spirit which calls towards good and confirms the truth. He who feels this impulse should know that it comes from Allah. Another impulse comes from our enemy (Devil) which leads to doubt and holds untruth and encourages evil. He who feels this should seek refuge in Allah from the accursed devil."
c. The satisfied soul (Nafsul Mutmainnah). "O (you) soul in (complete) rest and satisfaction. Come back to your Lord, will pleased (yourself) and will pleasing unto him. Enter you then among my devotees, enter you in my heaven." 89:27-30 This is the highest state of spiritual development. satisfied soul is the state of bliss, content and peace. The soul is at peace because it knows that inspite of its failures in this world, It will return to God. Purified of tension, it emerges from the struggle with obstacles blocking the peace of mind and heart.
What should we do in panic and despair?
a. Increase dhikr (Remembrance of God) "who have believed and whose heart have Rest in the remembrance of God. Verify in the remembrance of God, do hearts find rest." 13:28 b. Increase their prayer. "O you who believe, seek help with steadfastness and prayer. For God is with those who are steadfast." 2:153 c. Ask forgiveness "And I have said: seek forgiveness from your Lord. Lo He was ever forgiving." 71:10
The spiritual care involves the acts of worship
A. Iman-The essence of belief is to rid ourselves of all false Gods around us, or within us, and to worship no one except God alone.
B.Salat: There are three health aspects of Salat I. Wadu: Washing all the exposed areas of the body, hand, feet, face, mouth, nostrils etc. 5 times a day is a healthy preventive procedure
2. Recitation of Quran : Has a healing effect on body, mind and heart. These healing effects are due to the effect of sound (Echo) and the meaning.
3-The movement in Salaat are mild, uniform, and involve all muscles and joints.
D. Sawm : The Islamic fasting: Islamic fasting is prescribed as way training of our mind, and body in self-restraints. "O you who believe is prescribed to you, as it was prescribed to those before you, so that you can learn self-restraint."
Zakat (Charity) : The word itself means purification and growth. Here it is meant to imply the purification of legitimately earned wealth.
Many of our crimes are committed with money or for love of money, and in the love of money one becomes violent in behavior.
Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) :
Few of the spiritual and health benefits are:
Learn Prophet lbrahim's submission and absolute surrender to God's will, the opportunity for repentance.
The social and political gathering of the Ummah
Depicting brotherhood, and equality
Programming and testing us for physical endurance, a requirement for all able men and women
Finding social solutions to problems arising out of social practices or changes. The medical solutions should be an important supplement to the social solution. It is this approach, which is consistent with the System envisaged in the Quran.
Aims of therapeutic sociology
• To ensure that the supremacy of health is never compromised with in the affairs at different levels: individual, family, social, national and international; • To campaign for establishing and strengthening a health-protective and promoting family system; • To campaign for establishing and strengthening a health-protective and promoting social system;
Aims of Therapeutic Sociology
To ensure that the national and international laws are rewritten to safeguard health; • To ensure that substances and practices that are decidedly dangerous for human beings are not allowed to exist or at least prosper; • To conduct health impact studies of different socio-economic developments and spread awareness about them; • To aggressively campaign against the institutions that are involved in practices that increase dangers for the lives of human beings; • To create atmospheric and environmental conditions suitable for promotion of health;
Aims of Therapeutic Sociology
• To promote a model of family health that is conducive for the health of men, women and children;
• To focus on both the primary and secondary preventive methods;
• To unveil the designs of economic and political forces, so that they are not able to do anything that endangers health in any way;
• To promote such customs and rituals as are beneficial for individual’s health, family health and the health of the masses; • To lay an equal stress on the survival and health of all the human beings in different stages of lives: fetus, pediatric, adolescent, youth, middle aged and geriatric;
• To lay an equal stress on the health of both the genders: men and women.
Described the WHO definition of health and healing and their critical analysis
In the light of Quranic verses, presented Islamic principles of health and healing.
Quran’s injunctions regarding Health including Fundamental Duties and Fundamental Prohibitions were presented
Islam’s strategy for health and healing includes the following:
a-Primary . Tahara . Nutrition .Exercise
2-Treatment of Diseases
a- Natural therapy like food and herbal products
b- Medical and surgical therapies discovered by research and studies.