Leadership in Islam

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Islamic perspective on leadership

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  • Making the efforts to come in a position that of a leader is the ultimate criteria for any person. A man achieving this strata is not only capable of making the right decisions for himself but is also capable to take appropriate decisions for the ones who are in his followings. To ascertain ones judgement one should be knowledgeable and prepared for all assortments of situations. He would be not only well versed in religion but also in diversified worldly fields.
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Leadership in Islam

  1. 1. Leadership in Islam Definition Lead to achieve an objective and Compete to be ahead of others to seek the pleasure of Allah and success in hereafter. Why? وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلا لِنَعْلَمَ مَنْ يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّنْ يَنْقَلِبُ عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qibla to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by Allah. And never would Allah Make your faith of no effect. For Allah is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful. 002.143 (Al-Baqara) Levels: Personal Jamaah Society Global
  2. 2. Part I- Characteristics of a Leader <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-requisites </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities/Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of a Leader <ul><li>Achieves set goals </li></ul>A Leader is one who: <ul><li>Organizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Quran on leadership <ul><li>الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الأرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الأمُورِ </li></ul><ul><li>(They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Qur'an, 022.041 (Al-Hajj [The Pilgrimage]) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quran وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلائِفَ الأرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ It is He Who hath made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth: He hath raised you in ranks, some above others: that He may try you in the gifts He hath given you: for thy Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. Al-Qur'an, 6.165 (Al-Anaam)
  6. 6. Leadership in Qur’an <ul><li>أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَةَ رَبِّكَ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ مَعِيشَتَهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا سُخْرِيًّا وَرَحْمَةُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>Is it they who would portion out the Mercy of thy Lord? It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this world: and We raise some of them above others in ranks, so that some may command work from others. But the Mercy of thy Lord is better than the (wealth) which they amass. Al-Qur'an, 043.032 (Az-Zukhruf) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Leadership in Hadith <ul><li>أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ كُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ الْإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ فِي أَهْلِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ رَاعِيَةٌ فِي بَيْتِ زَوْجِهَا وَمَسْئُولَةٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهَا وَالْخَادِمُ رَاعٍ فِي مَالِ سَيِّدِهِ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ قَالَ وَحَسِبْتُ أَنْ قَدْ قَالَ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ فِي مَالِ أَبِيهِ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَكُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Behold! Everyone of you is a leader and you shall be asked about those you lead. Imam is a leader over the people and shall be asked about them; a man is a leader of the house and shall be asked about his household ; a woman is a leader over her children and she shall be asked about them.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Reported Abdullah Ibn Omar in Bukhari and Muslim ). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hadith – Significance of Jamaah <ul><li>عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَامِرٍ يَعْنِي ابْنَ رَبِيعَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَنْ مَاتَ وَلَيْسَتْ عَلَيْهِ طَاعَةٌ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً فَإِنْ خَلَعَهَا مِنْ بَعْدِ عَقْدِهَا فِي عُنُقِهِ لَقِيَ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَلَيْسَتْ لَهُ حُجَّةٌ </li></ul><ul><li>أَلَا لَا يَخْلُوَنَّ رَجُلٌ بِامْرَأَةٍ لَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ فَإِنَّ ثَالِثَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا مَحْرَمٍ فَإِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ مَعَ الْوَاحِدِ وَهُوَ مِنْ الِاثْنَيْنِ أَبْعَدُ </li></ul><ul><li>مَنْ سَاءَتْهُ سَيِّئَتُهُ وَسَرَّتْهُ حَسَنَتُهُ فَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ </li></ul><ul><li>قَالَ حُسَيْنٌ بَعْدَ عَقْدِهِ إِيَّاهَا فِي عُنُقِهِ </li></ul><ul><li>Musnad Ahmad </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hadith- Best and worst amongst the leaders <ul><li>عَنْ عَوْفِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ خِيَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمْ الَّذِينَ تُحِبُّونَهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَكُمْ وَيُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَتُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَشِرَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمْ الَّذِينَ تُبْغِضُونَهُمْ وَيُبْغِضُونَكُمْ وَتَلْعَنُونَهُمْ وَيَلْعَنُونَكُمْ قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا نُنَابِذُهُمْ بِالسَّيْفِ فَقَالَ لَا مَا أَقَامُوا فِيكُمْ الصَّلَاةَ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مِنْ وُلَاتِكُمْ شَيْئًا تَكْرَهُونَهُ فَاكْرَهُوا عَمَلَهُ وَلَا تَنْزِعُوا يَدًا مِنْ طَاعَةٍ </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim: 3447 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hadith- Obedience of Ameer <ul><li>عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ السَّمْعُ وَالطَّاعَةُ عَلَى الْمَرْءِ الْمُسْلِمِ فِيمَا أَحَبَّ وَكَرِهَ مَا لَمْ يُؤْمَرْ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ فَإِنْ أُمِرَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ فَلَا سَمْعَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا طَاعَةَ Tirmidhi وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leadership in Hadith <ul><li>Prophet (SAW) said the following regarding leadership in an Islamic Jamaah: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whosoever obeyed the leader, he obeyed me and whosoever disobeyed the leader, he disobeyed me.” (Muslim) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I order you of five things: to be with Al Jamaah, to listen (to the leaders), to obey (the leader’s orders), Hijrah (migration) and Jihad .” (Ahmad , Tirmizi) </li></ul><ul><li>“ If one dies and there is no ring of Bayah (pledge of allegiance) in his neck, he died in jahiliyyah ( that is out of Islam.). (Muslim). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whenever three of you are traveling, you should elect one as your leader.” (Abu Dawood) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Listening to and obeying ( the commands of the leader) is obligatory upon a Muslim whether he likes it or not as long as it is not in the disobedience of Allah (SWT).When a command is given in the disobedience of Allah (SWT), then there is no listening and no obedience.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Bukhari and Muslim). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Leadership- Quotes <ul><li>“ Leadership: The art of getting someone else to do something you want done by making him believe he wants to do it.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Dwight D Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you wish to know what a man is, place him in authority.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Proverb </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ The authority of a group is no stronger than the Leader who leads it.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>“ Real Leadership does not demand allegiance…..it earns it” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To be a leader one must be trustworthy…to be trustworthy, one must be truthful” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pre-requisites <ul><li>Ta’aluq Billah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taqwah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No desire </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Qualities of effective leadership <ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>- Creates a vision of the future </li></ul><ul><li>- Rational strategy to move to the vision </li></ul><ul><li>-Enlists the support of workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to motivate core group of people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear authority must be given by the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and/or by the by-laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respect & Popularity (due to character </li></ul><ul><li>and conduct) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The effectiveness of leadership depends on the following: <ul><li>Personality and character of the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of the workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and atmosphere of the Jamaah. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The importance of the personality and characteristics of a leader: <ul><li>Leader is the symbol of the organization and represents its nature and quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader is the center of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader is the driving force for the Jamaah. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Detailed Characteristics <ul><li>1. Taqwah with excellent conduct and character. </li></ul><ul><li>This is to be done through a constant struggle to develop: </li></ul><ul><li>A. close relation with Allah (SWT) </li></ul><ul><li>B. love of the Prophet (SAW), Sahaba and Ulama </li></ul><ul><li>C. concern and fear of the accountability in the Akhirah. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>2. Knowledge and practice of Islam, administrative experience, and wisdom (hikmah) of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom (hikmah) includes the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Understanding the specific thinking and situation of individuals and deal with them at their level. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Knowing how to perform best with the best abilities and talents and deal with the difficulties in the way </li></ul><ul><li>C. Know the circumstances and makes an appropriate strategy </li></ul><ul><li>D. In depth understanding of the deen and its application in the changing environment. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>3. Establishing Al Islam is the true objective of his life. He must have true love and priority for his mission and the Jamaah. And must be an example of utmost sacrifice for this mission. </li></ul>4. Honesty , integrity and trustworthiness, with history of selfless service. 5. Competence. He should have the critical skills of leadership, i.e., observation, analysis, coaching, recognizing the potentials, delegation, feed back.
  20. 20. <ul><li>6. Decision making ability after appropriate consultation and then ability to implement the decision. </li></ul>7. Ability to motivate and discipline when necessary. 8. He should be flexible in his attitude with Hikmah depending upon the situation but he should be firm in his decisions and zeal to move to the objectives. 9. Humility and recognition of his limitations. 10. Ability to speak, write and use modern techniques of communication. 11. Good physical health.
  21. 21. Characteristics that should not exist <ul><li>Pride and arrogance. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek recognition and notoriety. </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to seek leadership or other benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Considering him perfect or better than others. </li></ul><ul><li>This can lead to: </li></ul><ul><li>a- discouragement of muhasiba </li></ul><ul><li>b-jealousy </li></ul><ul><li>c- suspicion about others </li></ul><ul><li>d- backbiting </li></ul><ul><li>e- false accusation and reporting </li></ul><ul><li>f- evil najwah </li></ul><ul><li>g- grouping. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Imbalance in thoughts and actions. It leads to: </li></ul><ul><li>a- looking at one side of the issue </li></ul><ul><li>b- extremism and unnecessary insistence upon one’s opinion and condemning other’s viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>c-unpleasant argumentation </li></ul><ul><li>d- grouping. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak determination. This leads to: </li></ul><ul><li>a- lack of interest in the work of the Jamaah. b- lack of activity </li></ul><ul><li>c- giving priority to other personal matters </li></ul><ul><li>d- when asked , gives excuses </li></ul><ul><li>e- blames weaknesses of the individuals and the Jamaah as the reason for his inactivity </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Narrow-mindedness. (Shuh Nafs) .This can express itself as </li></ul><ul><li>a-ignoring one’s mistakes but not forgiving other’s </li></ul><ul><li>b-considers his difficulties important but other’s difficulties are just excuses </li></ul><ul><li>c-enforcing one’s liking upon others but not give any value to others liking </li></ul><ul><li>d- unnecessary criticism of others stands </li></ul><ul><li>e- intolerance to others opinion </li></ul><ul><li>f- bitterness in the relations and mutual arguments and insights. </li></ul>In any organization, 20% workers accomplish 80% work and 80% of workers accomplish 20% work.
  24. 24. Atmosphere <ul><li>In every Jama’t an atmosphere must be developed and/or maintained by its leadership </li></ul>
  25. 25. 5 different elements which determine the atmosphere in a Jamaah. <ul><li>Directions and expectations of the higher bodies ( Shura and the General Assembly). </li></ul><ul><li>Type of work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership has to allocate their attention depending upon the type of work, i.e., regular, emergency, or temporary work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions established by other leaders in the </li></ul><ul><li>Jamaah or organizations of similar nature. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3 Basic operational principles of Islamic leadership <ul><li>Shura </li></ul><ul><li>Justice and fairness in dealing with individuals and dispute solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of thought and Muhasibah </li></ul>
  27. 27. Responsibilities of Leadership <ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning- leader should chalk out a plan answering the what, when, where, how and who questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of plans- This will include assignments and allocation of resources in order to carry out the plan which is meant to accomplish set goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader must communicate at three levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With higher bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With experts of different fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With different ages/ethnicities/genders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader must address problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By proper place/time/setting/forum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With proper mutual understanding/consultation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With authority when necessary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Develop resources and fulfill needs with those resources </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to strengthen Jama’t by strengthening membership ties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement disciplinary action against violators appropriately-efficiently and effectively </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Understanding of Workers </li></ul><ul><li>leader must understand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive focuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Points to remember of workers <ul><li>Some workers need clear guidelines for their assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers who have the knowledge and experience like to work with some broad guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are less active may need motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who violate the principles may need </li></ul><ul><li>disciplinary action when appropriate. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Styles of Leadership <ul><li>4 Styles </li></ul><ul><li>1. Autocrat- issues orders to be fulfilled with no questions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Benevolent Autocrat- listens to others, gives impression of being democratic and makes his own decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Democrat- Shares decision making, explains reasons for personal decisions, objectively communicates criticism and praise. </li></ul><ul><li>4- Laissez-faire- has little confidence in himself, sets no goals for the group, minimizes communication and group interaction. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 7 Substyles <ul><li>Styles that are a combination of the above 4 types: </li></ul>1- Leader makes his decision, announces it and then implements it. 2- Leader makes his decision and then tries to convince the workers. 3- Leader tells his ideas to the workers and then through discussion implements his decision. 4- Leader presents possible decision before the workers and with their consultation, he is willing to make some changes.
  34. 34. <ul><li>5- Leader tells the objective to the workers, gets </li></ul><ul><li>their opinion and then makes his decision. </li></ul><ul><li>6-Leader tells the objective, consults the workers and then makes a collective decision. </li></ul><ul><li>7- Leader tells the objective and then leaves up to the workers to discuss and make a decision. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Positive leadership habits <ul><li>Know where your time goes. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on concrete results </li></ul><ul><li>Build on strengths and not weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on few major areas or priorities where consistent hard work will produce results </li></ul><ul><li>Put complete trust in Allah and be afraid of nothing. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Who is not a leader? <ul><li>One who comes to assembly unprepared, has done no home work and says tell me what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>One who has no alternative plans or strategy to discuss. </li></ul><ul><li>One who is not willing to take any risks, is timid and is intimidated. </li></ul><ul><li>One who wants to please everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Some “leaders” just follow the followers or a group of followers. </li></ul>

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