Islamic guidance on leadership

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Islamic guidelines for leadership is outlined. Relevant ayahs from Quran and Prophet's instructions on the subject selected from Hadith are provided.

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Islamic guidance on leadership

  1. 1. Islamic Guidance on Leadership<br />
  2. 2. الحمد لله و الصلاة و السلام على رسول الله<br />
  3. 3. Quranوَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلائِفَ الأرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌIt is He Who hath made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth: He hath raised you in ranks, some above others: that He may try you in the gifts He hath given you: for thy Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.Al-Qur'an, 6.165 (Al-Anaam)<br />
  4. 4. Definition of leader in Islam<br />A- At individual level: strives to be ahead of others to seek the pleasure of Allah (SWT)<br />. سَابِقُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا كَعَرْضِ السَّمَاءِ وَالأرْضِ أُعِدَّتْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ<br /> Be ye foremost (in seeking) Forgiveness from your Lord, and a Garden (of Bliss), the width whereof is as the width of heaven and earth, prepared for those who believe in Allah and His messengers: that is the Grace of Allah, which He bestows on whom he pleases: and Allah is the Lord of Grace abounding. Hadid 57:21<br />
  5. 5. B- A Leader in Islamic Organization<br />A Leader is one who:<br /><ul><li>Organizes
  6. 6. Physical assets
  7. 7. Intellectual assets
  8. 8. Provides guidance
  9. 9. Influences
  10. 10. Actions
  11. 11. Behaviors</li></ul>Achieves set goals<br />
  12. 12. Goal of Islamic Organization<br />وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا <br /> Thus, have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; Al Baqarah 2:143<br />
  13. 13. Quran on leadership<br />الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الأرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الأمُورِ<br />(They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.<br />Al-Qur'an, 022.041 (Al-Hajj [The Pilgrimage])<br />
  14. 14. Leadership in Qur’an<br />أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَةَ رَبِّكَ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ مَعِيشَتَهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا سُخْرِيًّا وَرَحْمَةُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ<br /> Is it they who would portion out the Mercy of thy Lord? It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this world: and We raise some of them above others in ranks, so that some may command work from others. But the Mercy of thy Lord is better than the (wealth) which they amass. Al-Qur'an, 043.032 (Az-Zukhruf)<br />
  15. 15. Leadership in Hadith<br /> أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ كُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ الْإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ فِي أَهْلِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ رَاعِيَةٌ فِي بَيْتِ زَوْجِهَا وَمَسْئُولَةٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهَا وَالْخَادِمُ رَاعٍ فِي مَالِ سَيِّدِهِ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ قَالَ وَحَسِبْتُ أَنْ قَدْ قَالَ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ فِي مَالِ أَبِيهِ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَكُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ<br />“Behold! Everyone of you is a leader and you shall be asked about those you lead. Imam is a leader over the people and shall be asked about them; a man is a leader of the house and shall be asked about his household ; a woman is a leader over her children and she shall be asked about them.” <br />(Reported Abdullah Bin Omar in Bukhari and Muslim ).<br />
  16. 16. Hadith- Best and worst amongst the leaders<br /> عَنْ عَوْفِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ خِيَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمْ الَّذِينَ تُحِبُّونَهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَكُمْ وَيُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَتُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَشِرَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمْ الَّذِينَ تُبْغِضُونَهُمْ وَيُبْغِضُونَكُمْ وَتَلْعَنُونَهُمْ وَيَلْعَنُونَكُمْ قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا نُنَابِذُهُمْ بِالسَّيْفِ فَقَالَ لَا مَا أَقَامُوا فِيكُمْ الصَّلَاةَ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مِنْ وُلَاتِكُمْ شَيْئًا تَكْرَهُونَهُ فَاكْرَهُوا عَمَلَهُ وَلَا تَنْزِعُوا يَدًا مِنْ طَاعَةٍ<br /> Muslim: 3447<br />
  17. 17. Leadership in Hadith<br />Prophet (SAW) said the following regarding leadership in an <br />Islamic Jamaah:<br />“Whosoever obeyed the leader, he obeyed me and whosoever disobeyed <br />the leader, he disobeyed me.” (Muslim)<br />“I order you of five things: to be with Al Jamaah, to listen (to the leaders), <br />to obey (the leader’s orders), Hijrah (migration) and Jihad .” <br />(Ahmad , Tirmizi)<br />“If one dies and there is no ring of Bayah (pledge of allegiance) in his neck,<br />he died in Jahiliya ( that is out of Islam.). <br />(Muslim).<br />
  18. 18. Ahadith related to leadership<br />“Whenever three of you are traveling, you should elect one as your leader.” <br />(Abu Dawood)<br />“Listening to and obeying ( the commands of the leader) is obligatory upon a Muslim whether he likes it or not as long as it is not in the disobedience of Allah (SWT).When a command is given in the disobedience of Allah (SWT), then there is no listening and no obedience.” <br /> (Bukhari and Muslim).<br />
  19. 19. Pre-requisites <br />Taqwah<br />يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ<br /> O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). Hujurat,49:13<br />No desire or struggle to seek leadership<br />
  20. 20. Qualities of effective leadership<br /><ul><li>Influence</li></ul> - Creates a vision of the future<br /> - Rational strategy to move to the vision<br /> -Enlists the support of workers<br /><ul><li>Ability to motivate core group of people
  21. 21. Authority
  22. 22. Clear authority must be given by the people </li></ul> and/or by the by-laws<br /><ul><li>Respect & Popularity (due to character </li></ul> and conduct)<br />
  23. 23. The effectiveness of leadership depends on the following:<br />I-Personality and character of the leader.<br />II-Quality of the workers.<br />III-Quality and atmosphere of the Jamaah.<br />
  24. 24. Effectiveness of Leadership<br />
  25. 25. I-The importance of the personality and characteristics of a leader:<br />Leader is the symbol of the organization and represents its nature and quality.<br />Leader is the center of authority.<br />Leader is the driving force for the Jamaah.<br />
  26. 26. Moral basis of leadership in Islam<br />
  27. 27. 5 Required Qualities of Leadership<br /> AMANAH<br /> BIRR MUJAHIDA <br />A’HAD A’DAL <br />
  28. 28. Characteristics of Leader<br />Shar’i ( Spiritual)<br />Tab’i ( Administrative)<br />Iman or faith in Allah<br />Islam or practice of Islam<br />Taqwah or conscious of Allah<br />Ihsan or love of Allah<br />Itqan or excellence<br />Amanah or trustworthiness<br />Birr or righteousness<br />Mujahida or constant struggle<br />A’hador keeping promises<br />A’dalor justice<br />Innovation<br />Proper management of people<br />Judicious use of organizational assets<br />Keeping good organizational environment<br />Quality of management<br />Financial soundness<br />Long term plan<br />Quality of services<br />Global thinking<br />
  29. 29. Habits of successful leader<br />
  30. 30. Styles of Leadership<br />4 Styles<br />1. Autocrat- issues orders to be fulfilled with no questions.<br />2. Benevolent Autocrat- listens to others, gives impression of being democratic and makes his own decisions.<br />3- Democrat- Shares decision making, explains reasons for personal decisions, objectively communicates criticism and praise.<br />4- Laissez-faire- has little confidence in himself, sets no goals for the group, minimizes communication and group interaction. <br />
  31. 31. 3 Basic operational principles of Islamic leadership<br />Shura <br />وَالَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُوا لِرَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلاةَ وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَى بَيْنَهُمْ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ<br />Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance. Shura,42:38<br />Justice and fairness in dealing with individuals and dispute solving.<br />يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَى أَلا تَعْدِلُوا اعْدِلُوا هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ<br /> ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. 5:8<br />Freedom of thought and Muhasibah<br />
  32. 32. Responsibilities of Leadership<br />Participation<br />This includes:<br />Planning- leader should chalk out a plan answering the what, when, where, how and who questions.<br />Implementation of plans- This will include assignments and allocation of resources in order to carry out the plan which is meant to accomplish set goals. <br />Follow up<br />
  33. 33. Communication<br />Leader must communicate at three levels:<br />With higher bodies<br />With workers<br />With experts of different fields<br />With different ages/ethnicities/genders<br /><ul><li>Problem Solving</li></ul>Leader must address problems:<br /><ul><li>By proper place/time/setting/forum
  34. 34. With proper mutual understanding/consultation
  35. 35. With authority when necessary </li></li></ul><li>Develop resources and fulfill needs with those resources<br /><ul><li>Maintain discipline</li></ul>This includes:<br />Ways to strengthen Jama’t by strengthening membership ties <br />Preventative measures<br />Implement disciplinary action against violators appropriately-efficiently and effectively<br />
  36. 36. II-Follower’s characteristics<br />1-Obedience of Ameer<br />يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الأمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلا<br />O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination. Nisa 4:59<br />
  37. 37. Hadith on Obedience of Ameer<br /> عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ السَّمْعُ وَالطَّاعَةُ عَلَى الْمَرْءِ الْمُسْلِمِ فِيمَا أَحَبَّ وَكَرِهَ مَا لَمْ يُؤْمَرْ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ فَإِنْ أُمِرَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ فَلَا سَمْعَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا طَاعَةَ <br />Tirmidhiوَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ<br />Ibn-Umar (R) reported that the Prophet (SAW) said,” Listening to and obeying (the Ameer) is obligatory upon a Muslim whether he likes it or dislikes it as long as he is not commanded something sinful. If it is sinful command then he does not have to listen or obey. <br />
  38. 38. 2-Dynamic Following<br />الَّذِينَ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقَوْلَ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ أَحْسَنَهُ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمْ أُولُو الألْبَابِ<br />Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding. <br />Zumar, 39:18<br />
  39. 39. 3-Unity<br />وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلا تَفَرَّقُوا وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنْتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُمْ بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنْتُمْ عَلَى شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِنَ النَّارِ فَأَنْقَذَكُمْ مِنْهَا كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ<br /> And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. Ale-Imran, 3:103<br />
  40. 40. Types of followers<br />
  41. 41. Understanding of Workers and Followers<br />leader must understand:<br />Level of knowledge and understanding of the organization<br />Level of attachment to the cause<br />Level of commitment for the mission<br />Areas of interest<br />Productive focuses<br />Sensitivities<br />
  42. 42. Points to remember aboutworkers<br />Some workers need clear guidelines for their assignment.<br />Workers who have the knowledge and experience like to work with some broad guidelines.<br />Those who are less active may need motivation.<br />Those who violate the principles may need<br />disciplinary action when appropriate.<br />
  43. 43. III- Situation characteristics or atmosphere of the organization<br />1- Leader/worker relation: When there is trust and respect of the leader, situation is favorable.<br />2- Task structure: Tasks could be simple or complex, routine, temporary or of emergent nature. Leader has to assume a greater role in guiding the process.<br />3- Work groups stage of development: In initial stages, workers need more direction than when they become cohesive and autonomous.<br />
  44. 44. Situation Characteristics<br />4-Organization’s climate and policies: Islamic organization with proper climate and training will not need that much check up for Islamic behavior. <br />5-Maturity level of members: It relates to their ability to set challenging goals and then willingness to accept responsibility. Example of Hudhayfa Ibn Yaman ®.<br />

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