A. SADNESS, Grief or Normal DepressionFeeling depressed can be a reaction to
• Life's struggles, or
• An injured self-esteem
B-Major Clinical Depression• Feelings of intense sadness -- including feeling
helpless, hopeless, and worthless which lasts for
many days to weeks and
• Keeps you from functioning normally,
Depression occurs when you have at least five of the following
symptoms at the same time:
• A depressed mood during most of the day, particularly in the
• Fatigue or loss of energy almost every day
• Feelings of worthlessness or guilt almost every day
• Impaired concentration, indecisiveness
• Insomnia (an inability to sleep) or hypersomnia (excessive
sleeping) almost every day
• Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities
nearly every day
• Recurring thoughts of death or suicide (not just fearing death)
• A sense of restlessness or being slowed down
• Significant weight loss or weight gain
Periods of sadness and disappointment may feel guilt
An increase in or loss of appetite
An overall lack of energy
In response to negative situations, e.g., the loss of a job, an
argument with a friend, a poor mark on an exam, insecurity, poor
communication with others, and the rise of problems for which
the individual cannot find a solution, or of an inability to cope.
Sometimes there is no apparent reason
Depressed person is aware of a problem, but feels powerless
Depression may be quite pronounced and persistent, but the
individual in question is still able to function reasonably well in
everyday life. This is ordinary, simple neurotic depression.
But since it is not disabling, it is not regarded as a mental illness
• 1-Futile and self-defeating when it is based on a
condition that one cannot possibly do anything
about. An example is ‘worry’ about age
• 2-Feelings of guilt where an individual is either
consciously or subconsciously accepting blame for
something that is not his fault
• 3-The deeper the depression, the more likely he is
to retreat from everyday life.
• 4-The more extreme the depression, the more it
becomes calculated self-punishment.
• Abnormal depression is comprised of one or more
major depressive occurrences where there is a
feeling of extreme elation or euphoria
• Abnormal depressive occurrences may take weeks
or months to appear, and can last for several
• Person exhibits extreme changes in mood,
motivation, thinking, and physical and motor
• 1.A depressed mood, complete despair, loneliness,
• 2.Feeling of worthlessness and guilt- the individual sees
himself without intelligence, attractiveness, health, or social skills;
• 3.Reduced motivation, general interest and pleasure disappear from
previously enjoyed activities;
• 4.Disturbances of appetite, sleep, a person can neither eat nor
sleep or eats and sleeps in excess;
• 5.Psychomotor retardation or agitation, where people
commonly become lethargic or become fidgety, pacing and moaning
• 6.Reduced energy- a person feels chronic
• 7.Difficulties in thinking- retarded cognitive
processes and difficulty in thinking, concentrating,
or remembering; and recurrent thoughts of death
or suicide, which do sometimes result in suicide.
• Psychiatrists thus diagnose depression as an illness
that has biological causes and consider it a medical
disorder (just like diabetes, high blood pressure, or
• Day after day, these disorders affect the individual’s
thoughts, feelings, physical health, and behavior
• ■Major depressive disorder (also known as clinical
depression or major depression)
• This is a specific diagnosis from the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders by the American Psychiatric
• Here are some sub-categories of major depression:
• ■Atypical depression, a cyclical sub-type of major
depression where sleep, feeding and perception of pleasure
are normal but there is a feeling of lethargy
• ■Melancholic depression a sub-type of major depression
characterized by an inability to feel pleasure combined with
physical agitation, insomnia, or decreased appetite
• ■Psychotic depression, a sub-type of major depression
combined with psychotic or delusional perceptions
• ■Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
• ■Postpartum depression, a depressive episode
occurring within a year of childbirth
• ■Dysthymia, a long-term low-grade depressive
• ■Adjustment disorder with depressed mood,
previously known as “reactive depression”
• ■ Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a depressed
mood related to the seasons
• Other major categories include Bi-polar Depression
• Dual Diagnosis (Depression along with Substance
•Certain life conditions- like loss of a loved one, a
•Family history and genetics
•Other general medical illnesses
•Drugs or alcohol
•Other psychiatric conditions.
• Important neurotransmitters—chemicals that brain
cells use to communicate—appear to be out of
A. Medical treatment (the use of medicine)
o SSRI’s-Prozac (fluoxetine), Celexa (citalopram), and
o SNRIs (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) - are
similar to SSRIs. Effexor (venlafaxine) and Cymbalta
o MAO Inhibitors-inhibit the activity of the
monoamine oxidase enzyme family. These are
reserved as last class when others fail.
o TCA- were first discovered in the early 1950s. These
are drugs like Amitriptyline, Nortriptyline, Doxepin.
A. Interpersonal -helps the patient through uneasy
personal relationships that could be exacerbating the
B. Cognitive/behavioral therapies -is a form of
psychotherapy that treats problems and boosts
happiness by modifying dysfunctional emotions,
behaviors, and thoughts. It helps the patient alter his
negative way of thinking and behaving
C. Psychodynamic therapies-is a form of depth
psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the
unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to
alleviate psychic tension. In this way, it is similar to
• It is used for severe depression or when depression
medicines fail to work.
• ECT has improved greatly over the years and does
provide significant benefits for some patients.
• Side effects, such as memory loss, confusion and
disorientation generally go away not long after
treatment is administered.
• 1. We have shifted our focus from Allah (SWT)
towards our abilities and resources, and towards
people around us.
• Thus, when everything around us fails us, we lose
hope in life and sink into a state of depression.
• We have forgotten that our Allah(SWT) alone has
placed us in that condition and our Allah(SWT)
alone will remove us from that condition.
• Our attention and focus should constantly be
directed towards the unlimited treasures of
Allah(SWT) and not towards our endless weakness.
• We worry and concern ourselves over such things that
are beyond our reach, and they are not in our control.
• We become overwhelmed thinking about matters that
have already been decided by our Allah (SWT)
• Mortal man, however, fails to accept that he has
absolutely no say in such issues.
• Hence we become so involved in matters and things
that are beyond our control that we end up neglecting
what is in our control.
• The end result is disorder and helplessness which
leads to depression.
• Sins also lead to depression.
• It is impossible to be happy if Allah (SWT) is
unhappy with us.
• Our evil actions are the fuel to the fire of
destruction and depression.
• Righteous actions will fill the heart with happiness.
• Sadness is part and parcel of human life and part of
• Even Prophets like Moses, Jesus and
Muhammad(SAW) went through deep sadness.
• They all went through pain, suffering and the resulting
sadness in their lives
• Allah says that HE grants happiness and sadness:
IT IS HE WHO MAKES YOU LAUGH AND CRY” (Najm,53:43)
• That immense sadness of Prophets didn’t stop them
from pursuing their missions even more vigorously
• 1.No human being is burdened with trouble and
difficulties they cannot bear.
• “(God) will never place a burden on a soul that it can
not bear”. (Baqarah,2:286)
• This shows that the human being can bear many
unthinkable burdens, that one initially feels that they
• How many humans go through great difficulties in life
but live through it?
• It is important to know that while life tests us, there
is ease after hardship.
• Tough times only mean, the times of ease are near.
• The Quran teaches, “The morning light after the
stillness of darkness”….when its dark everything
seems still as if it will never go away.
• The Quran teaches, “There is ease after hardship,
Indeed there is ease after hardship.”
• but (all this was) that Allah might test what is in your
chests and purge what is in your hearts: for Allah knows
well the secrets of your hearts. (Ale Imran,3:154)
• When we go through difficult times it brings out the
real humanity in us
• We learn the frailty of human beings.
• The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said, “Look at the ones
who are less fortunate than you, not at the ones who
are more fortunate then you.”
• Most depression occurs because of external situations
and how we allow external situations to affect our
• Perhaps, it’s a good time to turn to the One Who does
• Pray to Allah(SWT) and you will feel so comforted in
• We are taught that by turning to God, we restore
ourselves like a dying plant becomes green with
• Say to Allah(SWT) , “All admiration belongs to you, if
good comes to me its from you, and if some trouble
comes to me its from you, I submit to you, and this
situation to you.”
• The life in this world is short, our time for this life is
constantly running out.
The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had lived but
a single evening or (at most till) the following
• Most Change is Spontaneous losing a job, death of a
loved one, an accident, a terminal illness, etc.
• People in health will soon face illness, people in illness
will soon have relief.
• Those that are happy today will soon undergo some
sadness, and those that are sad will have happiness.
• This means that your situation will not be the same
• Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and
men by turns (Al Imran,3:140)
• "He is my Lord! There is no god but He! On Him is my
trust and to Him do I turn!“(Raad,13:30)
• Belief can give you the ability to handle all sorts of
• It can give a person the ability to see the positive in
the overwhelmingly negative situation.
• Belief in God helps you to cope with your situation.
• There must be good in what you are going through, So
your worth is that God thought of you to begin with.
• Also, God does not forsake His care over his creation
and you are His creation.
To the righteous (when) it is said "What is it
that your Lord has revealed?" they say "All
that is good." To those who do good there is
good in this world and the Home of the
Hereafter is even better. And excellent indeed
is the Home of the righteous. (Nahal,16:30)
Ibn Qayyam says,” Grief weakens the heart, weakens the
resolve and harms the determination.
There is nothing more beloved to Shaytan than the grief of a
• ■Defining Goal of life: Islam teaches us that we should
focus our goal on succeeding in our life to come after
He will forgive you your sins and admit you to Gardens
beneath which rivers flow and to beautiful mansions in
Gardens of Eternity: that is indeed the supreme
• If we emphasize on the transitory nature of this worldly
life-then most of our problems of this life lose it’s
importance in our lives and subsequently lose their
power of a having negative impact on us
• And for those who fear Allah He (ever) prepares a
way out. And He provides for him from (sources) he
never could imagine. And if anyone puts his trust in
Allah sufficient is (Allah) for him. For Allah will
surely accomplish His purpose: verily for all things
has Allah appointed a due proportion.
• (Talaq, 65:2,3)
• So verily with every difficulty there is relief:
• Verily with every difficulty there is relief. (94:5,6)
• Allah does not charge a soul except [with that
within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence
of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the
consequence of+ what *evil+ it has earned.” – Quran
Those who have believed and whose heart have rest in the
remembrance of Allah. Verily in the remembrance of Allah, do
hearts find rest. (13:27-28)
• Quranic Recitation
"O mankind! There has come to you a direction from you Lord,
and a healing for (the disease in your) heart, and for those who
believe a guidance, and mercy. (Qur'an 10:57)
• We bestowed (in the past) wisdom on
Luqman: "Show (thy) gratitude to Allah."
Any who is (so) grateful does so to the
profit of his own soul: but if any is
ungrateful verily Allah is free of all wants
worthy of all praise. (Luqman, 30:12)
• Develop gratitude for the blessings that
Allah has given us. One should say “alhamdu lillah” a few hundred times a day.
■A depressed person needs a source to turn to, turn
to Allah for help, support, mercy and forgiveness.
Turn you to your Lord (in repentance) and bow to His (Will) before
the Penalty comes on you: after that you shall not be helped.
"And follow the Best of (the courses) revealed to you from your
Lord before the Penalty comes on you of a sudden while you
perceive not. (Zumar,39:54-55)
• ■Only good will become of the negative situation
one finds themselves in.
• But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is
good for you and that you love a thing which is bad
for you. But Allah knows and you know not.(2:236)
• Find out purpose and value in your life and in
everything that you’re going through.
• Begin with focusing on the Fard (obligatory) prayers,
and ensuring that you perfected every moment of
• Find connection with Allah in every prayer
• O you who believe, seek help with steadfastness
and prayer. For God is with those who are
steadfast". (Qur'an 2:153)
■Surrender your unmanageable problems and things over which you’ve
lost control of to Allah.
• Not that I can profit you aught against Allah (with my advice): none can
command except Allah: on Him do I put my trust and let all that trust put
their trust on Him.
■Always Hope in Allah’s mercy.
• And never give up hope of Allah's Mercy. Certainly no one despairs of
Allah's Mercy, except the people who disbelieve. (Qur'an 12: 87)
• ■Get involved with your religious organizations,
charities, or some other volunteer work
• We know from Ahadith that Allah admitted a
prostitute from Bani-Israel into Paradise because
she showed mercy and gave a drink to a dog who
• So what will be the case for the one who removes
hardships for his or her fellow humans
■Write a Journal
■Reconnect with your lost relationships
■Spend time in nature
■REMEMBER “SOME BASIC TRUTHS”
• Things won’t always work out your way, but rather will
be balanced with going your way and going another
• Everything you face is a challenge to make you a
greater and better person,
• Allah wouldn’t have you face anything you can’t
handle, which means that He, the All-Knowing, Most
Wise, has confidence in you being able to fight through
• There is no calamity that strikes a believer, even if it as
small as the prick of a thorn, except that it expiates the
sins of that believer.” – Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
1. Do not hate anyone even if your rights are violated
Do not worry and make frequent dua
Live with happiness in spite of your situation
Hope for goodness in face of many hardships
Give a lot even though you are deprived
Smile even when your heart is weeping bloody tears
Do not discontinue dua for your brother behind his back
Smile, one who has left shall not return
One who harmed you shall be harmed one day
One who made you cry will find one who will make him cry
If you feel disheartened, prostrate before your Lord, He shall turn to
• Ya Allah! I seek your protection from sadness and
grief. I seek your protection from cowardice and
miserliness. I seek your protection from overtaking
of loan and aggression of people.
• Ya Allah! I ask you a soul satisfied with you,
believing in meeting you, happy with your destiny
and satisfied with your giving.