Opportunistic infections

  • 868 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
868
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Opportunistic Infections In Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome By Dr. Vijay Bhushanam
  • 2. Objectives • Discuss basic factors regarding Opportunistic infections (OIs) • See the frequency with which these OIs occur & Clinical features, Diagnosis & treatment of some OIs. • Discuss patient education messages for preventing OIs.
  • 3. AIDS Definition • CDC definition of an HIV +ve person as having AIDS -- Has had at least one of over 21 AIDS defining OIs and/or --Has had a CD4 cell count of 200 or less • NACO Definition: AIDS has been defined as the occurrence of life threatening opportunistic infections, malignancies, neurological diseases and other specific illnesses in patients with HIV infection and/or with CD4 count less than 200/cmm
  • 4. HIV Related infections and illnesses BACTERIAL VIRAL FUNGAL PARASITIC OTHER ILLNESSES Tuberculosis Varicella zoster Candidiasis Isosporiasis AIDS -dementia Bacterial respiratory infections Oral leukoplakia Cryptococcosis Microsporidi-osis Invasive cervical cancer Bacterial enteric infections HSV CMV Penicilliosis Cryptosporid-iosis Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Human herpes virus type 8 Giardiasis Toxoplasmosis Kaposi's sarcoma Atypical mycobacteriosis Human papilloma virus Strongyloidiasis
  • 5. The basics of OIs • HIV infects a type of WBC called CD4 cells • When the immune system loses too many CD4 cells OIs are more likely to develop • Different type of OIs develop at different levels of CD4 count, depending on the microbes or pathogens endemic in that particular region
  • 6. % of OIs in AIDS cases in INDIA NACO reported cases (n=5204) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 TB Can Cryp. Dia HZ Tox Bact. Inf. PCP Cryp. Men KS
  • 7. Presenting symptoms & signs in AIDS patients NACO reported cases (n=5204) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Wt. loss Diarrhea Fever Asthenia Cough LAP
  • 8. Tuberculosis • Major world wide co-infection. • Clinical features:-cough, -hemoptysis, - weight loss, -evening rise of temp. • Diagnosis: sputum for AFB, chest X-ray, culture of specimen from the site (in case of extra PTB), Skin test (PPD) • Treatment: DOTS as per RNTCP
  • 9. Candidiasis • Oral Candidiasis may be the initial sign of HIV infection. • Clinical features: -oral thrush, -dysphagia • Diagnosis: C/F, KOH preparation of the scrapings • Treatment: Gentian violet, Clotrimazole, Miconazole in mild cases (Oral Can.) & Fluconazole in severe cases (esophageal Can.)
  • 10. Cryptosporidiosis • Found in about 35% of AIDS diarrheal cases. • Clinical features: -watery diarrhea, -Abdominal bloating, -profound weight loss . • Diagnosis: Microscopy • Treatment: Paromomycin/ Azithromycin. Response is poor with all available therapies. Prevention of malnutrition & symptomatic relief vital in management.
  • 11. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia • Occurs in advanced HIV disease, when CD4 falls below 250 • Clinical features:-fever, -dry cough, -chest pain, -shortness of breath. • Diagnosis- C/F, sputum tests, X-ray • Treatment-TMP-SMZ (co-trimoxazole)
  • 12. Cytomegalovirus • Never occurs unless CD4 cell count less than 50 • Most typically affects the eyes • Clinical features:-Blurry vision, - Respiratory, CNS & Gastrointestinal complications. • Diagnosis: specialist (ophthalmologist) examination • Treatment: Gancyclovir, Foscarnet.
  • 13. Cryptococcal meningitis • Most common cause of meningitis in AIDS • Clinical features: -headache, fever, -nausea and vomiting, -confusion and impaired consciousness, -signs of meningism (only in about 40%) • Diagnosis: CSF examination (Indian ink staining, Ag Titre) • Treatment: Amphotericin B/Fluconazole with or without 5-flucytosine.
  • 14. Toxoplasmosis • Commonest cause of focal cerebral lesions in HIV/AIDS • Clinical features: -focal neurological deficit (FND), -Seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, -altered mental state and coma • Diagnosis: CT Brain • Treatment: Sulfadiazine or Clindamycin, plus Pyrimethamine & Folinic acid.
  • 15. Mycobacterium Avium Complex • Usually occurs only if the CD4 count is less than 75 • Clinical features:-Flu like fever, -chills, sweats, -anemia, fatigue. • Treatment-Clarithromycin, ethambutol • Note: certain infections like Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Mycobacterium Avium intra cellular (MAC) have not been reported from our country so far
  • 16. Patient Education • Best way to prevent OIs is to keep immune system strong • Appropriate medication at certain CD4 cell levels can prevent many OIs (prophylaxis) • Treatment options available if OIs develop • After recovery from OIs on-going maintenance treatment is still needed • Can stop prophylaxis or maintenance treatment if CD4 cell count goes up • Should not discontinue any treatment without discussing first with Doctor
  • 17. &… General preventive measures: • Prevent exposure to ill patients. • Personal hygiene (washing hands etc.) • Avoid contact with raw food, soil, cats, bird excreta, litter boxes etc. • Wash vegetables before cooking, avoid raw meat intake, drink boiled water. • Use condoms during sexual contact.
  • 18. Thus…. • OIs develop in an HIV infected individual depending on the CD4 count & microbial environment • Most common OIs are TB, Candidiasis, Cryptosporidiosis, Herpes zoster, Toxoplasmosis, PCP • Patient education plays vital role in preventing OIs
  • 19. Thank you