Predisposing Factors. The following predisposing
factors for oral candidiasis have been defined by clinical
1. Marked changes in oral microbial flora (due to the use of
antibiotics [especially broad-spectrum antibiotics],
use of antibacterial mouth rinses, or xerostomia).
2. Chronic local irritants (dentures and orthodontic
3. Administration of corticosteroids (aerosolized inhalant
and topical agents are more likely to cause candidiasis
than systemic administration)
4. Poor oral hygiene
6. Immunologic deficiency
— congenital or childhood (chronic familial
candidiasis ± endocrine candidiasis syndrome
and immunologic immaturity of infancy)
— acquired or adult (diabetes, leukemia, lymphomas,
— iatrogenic (from cancer chemotherapy, bone marrow
transplantation, and head and neck radiation)
7. Malabsorption and malnutrition
1.Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis
-Patchy white plaques or flecks on
- can be scraped – leave area of
Painful lesion .
Rapid onset of bad taste and loss of taste
Burning sensation of mouth and throat.
habitual cheek biting
Acute atrophic candidiasis
presents as a red patch of atrophic
or erythematous raw and painful mucosa,
with minimal evidence
of the white pseudomembranous .
Antibiotic sore mouth- a common form of
symptoms of oral burning, bad taste, or
sore throat during
chronic iron deficiency anemia
Three clinical stages :-
First stage consists of numerous palatal
petechiae The second stage displays a
more diffuse erythema involving most (if
not all) of the denture-covered mucosa
The third stageincludes the development
of tissue granulation or
commonly involving the central areas of
the hard palate and alveolar ridges
Final diagnosis Design treatment
Sample collection – from oral scraping
Imprint culture :-
Sample--- Piece of foam soaked in liquid growth
medium--- pressed on mucosal surface - then
Culture medium:- Sabouraud’sAgar
At 37. For 48-72 hr
Creamy white colonies, flat or
hemispherical in shape
( Beer like aroma in sabouraud’s agar)
2.MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION BY
----Heat fixed smear is prepared
Staining by :-
Periodic acid-Schiff stain
Brown and brenn stain
Gomoris methanamine silver
3. HISTOPATHOLOGIC EXAMINATION:-
fixing with 10% formalin + staining
hyphal penetration down to spinous cell
layer, may invade entire epithelium,
4.HUMAN SALIVARY MUCIN
MUC7-12-mer-L and 12-mer-D peptide
---- show potent antifungal activity
---- Their level is detected.
5.Rapid identification by DNA probe:-
- species specific probes are used to
6.RAPID IDENTIFICATION BY ORAL
Rinsing of mouth with 10 ml of sterile
phosphate buffered saline
Collect saliva after 1min.
Centrifuge for 10 min.
Incubation in serum at 37.C for 3 hr.
Germ tubes are seen.
7. IDENTIFICATION BY SPECIFIC PROBES:-
-By polynucleotide and Oligonucleotide
8.ELECTROPHORESIS & WESTERN BLOT
Sodium dodecyl SO4 -2 polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis & western blot
demonstrate outer cell wall layer of
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