PROF & HOD DR. R.K. BAISHYA
PROF DR. R.K. DEKA
PROF DR. A. AHMED
PROF DR. P.P. DAS
PROF DR. H.K. BHATTACHARYYA
ASSO PROF DR. K. BHUYAN
ASST PROF DR. S. SARMA
Dr. Sunil B,
Postgraduate ,General Surgery
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that
may impair health.
Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is
commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults.
Defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his
height in meters (kg/m2).
The WHO definition is:
a) a BMI greater than or equal to 25 is overweight.
b) a BMI greater than or equal to 30 is obesity.
What is Obesity?
What Is Morbid Obesity?
Clinically severe obesity at which point serious medical
conditions occur as a direct result of the obesity
Defined as, >100 lb above ideal body weight, >200% of ideal
weight, twice ideal body weight or a Body mass index of 40
Prevalence of Obesity
Data from NHANES shows that the percentage of the American adult population
with obesity (BMI >30) has increased from 14.5% (between 1976 and 1980) to
33.9% (between 2007 and 2008).
Extreme obesity (BMI 40) has also increased and affects 5.7% of the population.
Obesity is more common among women, poor and among blacks and Hispanics.
Obesity is estimated to cause 3,00,000 deaths annually in the U.S.
As per WHO’s The World health statistics 2012 report, one in six adults obese, one
in 10 diabetic and one in three has raised blood pressure
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in India in the 21st century, with
morbid obesity affecting 5% of the country's population
Etiology of Obesity
Debate is ongoing regarding the relative Genetic Vs Environmental components of the disease.
Clear familial predisposition.
Specific Genes: Hundreds of genetic loci have been associated experimentally to obesity in the so-called
Human Obesity Gene Map
1) FTO-Fat mass and Obesity-related gene
2) MC4R-Melanocortin 4 receptor gene
Associated with obesity, increased fat mass and insulin resistance.
Thrifty Gene Hypothesis: During human development, thrifty gene allowed for more efficient absorption
and use of the calories ingested. However, in modern society ,it helps increase the intake of calories in
excess of metabolic needs.
Role of genes versus environment
Pathophysiology Of Obesity
Obesity can result from increased energy intake, decreased energy expenditure, or a combination
of the two
The severely obese individual has, in general, persistent hunger that is not satiated by amounts of
food that satisfy the non-obese.
This lack of satiety or maintenance of satiety may be the single most important factor in the
Nutrient ingestion into the stomach or proximal intestine elicits hormonal signals that release
neuropeptides, which in turn alter body metabolism.
Leptin and Ghrelin are appetite stimulant, orexigenic.
Insulin and Cholecystokinin are anorexic.
Specific Syndromes Associated With
Craniopharyngioma and other disorders involving the
Guidelines for the Treatment of Overweight and
Pharmacotherapy is normally used only after lifestyle changes and dietary
therapies have failed.
Centrally Acting Anorexiant Medications
Sibutramine: Blocks presynaptic receptor uptake of norepinephrine and
serotonin, thereby potentiating their anorexic effect in the central nervous system
Peripherally Acting Medications
Orlistat: Inhibits pancreatic lipase and thereby reduces absorption of up to 30%
of ingested dietary fat.
Antiobesity Drugs in Development: completed phase III trials
Bupropion and naltrexone (Contrave)
Bupropion with zonisamide (Empatic)
Phentermine and topiramate (Qnexa)
• A maximum weight loss of up to 10% is seen.
• However, weight is regained within 12-18 months.
• Bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and
treatment of obesity.
• The word “bariatrics” was coined in 1965 from a German word that translates to
English as “large.”
• Bariatric surgery is the surgical discipline dealing with management of morbid obesity.
• NIH-Bariatric Surgery is permanent treatment of choice.
Surgical Treatment of Obesity
Bariatric surgery is also metabolic surgery, treating the varied
metabolic consequences of the comorbid diseases arising from
Example: Gastric bypass for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
History of Bariatric Surgery
Obesity surgery is not a new discipline.
The earliest Bariatric procedure performed was in 1954 at Minnesota. The procedure
was Jejuno-ileal bypass.
In 1966,Gastric Bypass was introduced as a surgical procedure for weight loss at the
University of Iowa.
In 1977,Griffen reported the first Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.
In 1980,surgeons with a more conservative approach developed the Vertical Banded
Other procedures with longer intestinal segment bypass were also introduced such as
Biliopancreatic Diversions. These complex procedures are recommended in super-obese
patients, i.e. BMI>60.
CLINICAL GUIDELINES DEVELOPED BY THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE
SOCIETY OF AMERICAN GASTROINTESTINAL & ENDOSCOPIC SURGEONS
THE AMERICAN GASTROENTEROLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (AGA)
THE U.S. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH
THE CONSENSUS GUIDELINES ON BARIATRIC SURGERY CALIFORNIAASSOCIATION OF HEALTH PLANS
OBESITY INITIATIVE WORKGROUP (CAHP) JUNE 2006
BARIATRIC SURGERY GUIDELINES
Recommended BMI values for
Bariatric Surgery in Asians
BMI ≥ 37.5
BMI ≥ 32.5
Bariatric surgery carries the potential for serious complications, morbidity and possibly
1. Severe medical disease that makes anaesthesia or prohibitively risky(ASA Class IV)
2. Surgery is contraindicated in patients who are unable to ambulate.
3. Pradder-Willi Syndrome is an absolute contraindication.
4. Cardiac complications with poor myocardial reserve.
5. Chronic obstructive airways disease or respiratory dysfunction.
6. Significant psychological disorders, or significant eating disorders.
7. Patients weighing more than 500 lb are at increased risk for mortality.
8. Age is a controversial contraindication to Bariatric surgery
Contraindications to Bariatric Surgery
Procedures that are solely restrictive by creating a small gastric pouch of volume 15 to 30 cc & a degree of
outlet obstruction leading to delayed gastric emptying. The goal is to reduce oral intake by limiting gastric
volume, produce early satiety, and leave the alimentary canal in continuity, minimizing the risks of
1.VERTICAL BANDED GASTROPLASTY
2.ADJUSTABLE GASTRIC BANDING (LAGB )
3. SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY
5. INTRA GASTRIC BALLOON (GASTRIC BALLOON)
Malabsorption is achieved by creating a short gut syndrome and/or by accomplishing distal mixing of bile
and pancreatic juice with ingested nutrients thereby reducing absorption.. Some purely malabsorptive
operations are no longer recommended due to their potential hazard to cause serious nutritional
1. BILIOPANCREATIC DIVERSION
2. THE JEJUNAL-ILEAL BYPASS
3. ENDOLUMINAL SLEEVE
1.GASTRIC BYPASS ROUX-EN-Y ( RYGBP)
2.SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY WITH DUODENAL SWITCH
3.IMPLANTABLE GASTRIC STIMULATION
The following procedures combine restrictive and malabsorptive approaches. By adding malabsorption,
food is delayed in mixing with bile and pancreatic juices that aid in the absorption of nutrients. The result
is an early sense of fullness, combined with a sense of satisfaction that reduces the desire to eat.
The stomach is partitioned along its axis with a non-
adjustable poly-urethane band and with linear &
circular staples to create a small upper stomach
pouch with a restrictive orifice to the rest of the
No malabsorption of micro or macro nutrients is
No longer done was practiced in 1980.
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG)
ADJUSTABLE GASTRIC BANDING
(LAP BAND SURGERY/ LAGB)
The procedure was first performed by Cadiere in 1992 but
was made popular by Belachew and Legrand in 1993.
An inflatable silicone BAND is placed around the top
portion of the stomach, to form a small stomach pouch &
This band is connected to a tube that leads to a port above
the abdominal muscles placed below the skin (FILL –
During follow up visits, we inject or remove saline solution
to make the band tighter or looser.
Adjustable Gastric Band
• Induces weight-loss in 3 ways:
1. The small stomach pouch causes a sensation of fullness
2. Squeezing of the stomach pouch like an hour glass prolongs the sensation of fullness.
3. Suppresses appetite by central action.
Complications of Gastric Lap-Band
• Perforation of Stomach
• Gastric Erosion(much less after Pars flaccida technique)
• Dilated Esophagus
• Tubing / access port problems
• Mal positioning
• Abdominal Pain
• Inability to Adjust the Band
• Failure to Lose Weight
• Infection of System
• Fatigue or malfunction
Comparison of Adjustable Gastric Banding and
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric
Simpler to perform laparoscopically
Sustained weight loss of >50% EBW >5 years
Complications: Gastric prolapse, band erosion,
rarely gastric perforation and access port
Vertical banded gastroplasty
Technically difficult by laparoscopy
Weight loss of 25-50% EBW and weight gain
after 2-3 years
Complications: suture line disruption, gastric
leak, weight gain.
Originally used as the first-stage operation for a proposed biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal
switch in high-risk patients.
The sleeve gastrectomy has caught on as a primary obesity treatment as surgeons are reporting weight
loss of 55% of excess body weight past 5 years in some patients.
The sleeve gastrectomy is also known as the greater curvature gastrectomy, vertical or longitudinal
gastrectomy or Pylorus preserving „gastric tube creation‟.
Rapid and less traumatic operation
Good resolution of co-morbidities and good weight loss.
A further second surgical step is then easily feasible, if necessary.
A sleeve gastrectomy involves resection of
approximately 80% of the greater curvature
side of the stomach.
Smaller tubular gastric “sleeve” created
along the lesser curve that is based on the
lesser curvature blood supply.
Ideal approximate capacity of the stomach
after the procedure is about 30- 60 ml pouch
1.MECHANICAL RESTRICTION by reducing the volume of the stomach and
impairing stomach mobility. Also called „Food limiting‟ operation.
2.HORMONAL MODIFICATION by removing a great part of the Ghrelin
(Hunger Hormone) production tissue.
(Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid-peptide, secreted by the oxyntic glands of the gastric
fungus. It is a potent orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) peptide mediated by the
activation of its receptors in the hypothalamus or pituitary area.)
The gastric fundus contains 10 to 20 times more ghrelin per one gram of tissue than
the duodenum. In the SG, resection of the fundus removes the major portion of
ghrelin release, therefore, appetite decreases.
The sleeve gastrectomy (SG) induces weight loss by 2
Intragastric balloon involves placing a deflated balloon
into the stomach, and then filling it to decrease the
amount of gastric space.
The balloon can be left in the stomach for a maximum of
6 months and results in an average weight loss of 5–
9 BMI over half a year.
The intragastric balloon may be used prior to another
bariatric surgery as a step-down procedure.
INTRA GASTRIC BALLOON
The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner
mimics the effects of gastric bypass surgery.
It‟s designed to work by inserting a flexible
tube-like barrier into the duodenum & prox.
The barrier is placed endoscopically via the
mouth and thus helps patients to loose
weight by delaying digestion.
.Has to be removed after 6 months
ENDO BARRIER LINER SYSTEM
B. MAL- ABSORPTIVE PROCEDURES
Malabsorptive surgeries rearrange and/or remove part of digestive system which then limits
the amount of calories and nutrients that body can absorb. Treatment with a large
malabsorptive component results in the most weight loss but tend to have slightly higher
1.JEJUNAL ILEAL BYPASS – no longer performed for high complication rates.
2.ILEAL TRANSPOSITION- New malabsoptive procedure on trial for
treatment of DM type 2 and metabolic disorders.
C. COMBINATION PROCEDURES
RESTRICTIVE + MALABSORBTIVE
1.LAP. GASTRIC BYPASS – ROUX-EN- Y – more malabsorption than the restrictive
2.MINI- GASTRIC BYPASS- mainly restrictive
3.DUODENAL SWITCH – the sleeve stomach is the restrictive portion &the intestinal
bypass (duodenal switch) is the malabsorptive component
When surgery combines both restrictive and malabsorptive techniques, it is know as a “combination”
procedure. Most types of bariatric surgery carry at least a small element of both components, but the
following surgeries achieve a notable portion of weight loss from each…
1. LAP. GASTRIC BYPASS/ LGB
The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
(known simply as the LRYGBP) is
the most commonly performed
It primarily causes
weight loss by restricting the
food intake, however there is
more amount of mal absorption that
occurs with this operation.
•The stomach is stapled into2
pieces, one small and one large. The
small piece becomes the “new”
• The larger portion of the stomach
stays in place, however will lie
dormant for the remainder of the
GASTRIC BYPASS/ LGB
• The small intestine (the jejunum) is
divided using a surgical stapler
Approx. 50-70 cm from the DJ Junction.
GASTRIC BYPASS/ LGB
Y- LIMB/ BP
• The end of the Roux limb is then attached to the newly
formed stomach pouch .
• The Roux limb carries food to the distal intestine.
• The Y limb or BPD limb carries digestive juices from
the pancreas, gall bladder, liver and duodenum to the
• The food and the digestive juices mix where the Roux
limb and Y limb meet much below say 100-170 cm from
Roux limb or alimentary limb
1. Most commonly performed.
2. Most reliable operation for long term weight loss.
3. Long term weight loss averages 60 to 75 percent of EBW.
6. Malnutrition is unusual.
7. Substantial improvement & resolution in many co-morbid obesity conditions:
Type 2 DM – 90%
Sleep apnea -90%
Heartburn from GERD- all patients.
Urinary stress incontinence-75%
89% reduction in mortality over 5 yrs. Following surgery, compared to non-surgically treated
ADVANTAGES OF RYGBP
1. Not reversible.
2. Mortality 0.5- 1%
3. Perioperative complications 5-10%
4. Stricture of gastrojejunostomy.-10% (long term)
5. Long term risk of protein & vitamin deficiency, and marginal ulceration of GJA.
6.Long term risk of intestinal obstruction – 2%.
LAPAROSCOPIC GASTRIC BYPASS
Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD)
Primarily malabsorptive but restrictive component also.
The alimentary tract beyond the proximal part of stomach is rearranged to
include only distal 200 cm of ileum including common channel
Common channel-Distal 50 cm of terminal ileum for absorption of fat and
The proximal end of ileum anastomosed to proximal end of stomach after
performing distal hemigastrectomy.
Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch
Modification to lessen high incidence of marginal ulcer after BPD.
This procedure involves a sleeve gastrectomy that is then diverted at the
duodenum into the ileum at a point measured proximally from the ileocecal
valve (usually 250 cm).
The distal duodenum and jejunum, the biliopancreatic limb, are then
anastomosed to the ileum at a point measured proximally from the ileocecal
valve (usually 100 cm).
Common channel is 100cm
Entire alimentary tract is 250 cm.
This is the most aggressive bypass procedure commonly offered today.
Major difference-Sleeve gastrectomy instead of distal hemigastrectomy.
Anastomosis leaks or staple line leaks
Pulmonary Embolism or DVT
Iron deficiency anemia
Calcium and Vitamin D deficiency
Not seen with purely restrictive surgeries
• Bariatric surgery ameliorates metabolic abnormalities.
• BMI and excess body weight decreases substantially after surgery .
• Marked improvement is noted in glucose abnormalities, dyslipidemia and hypertension.
• Improvement of DM II @ 2YR follow up after surgery is proportional to weight loss.
• Fasting glucose and insulin resistance measured by (HOMA-IR i.e.; HOMEOSTASIS MODEL
ASSESMENT INSULIN RESISTANCE) can decrease > 50% within 1 month of surgery.
• Whereas INSULIN SENSITIVITY measured by the euglycemic –hyper insulinemic clamp does not
change as quickly.
• Hypertension – 75% saw improvement, in 50% there was complete resolution.
METABOLIC IMPROVEMENTS AFTER
• Most women regained normal menstrual function and most had documented
• Significant improvement in hirsutism, androgen profiles and about a 50% reduction in
• Follow up for more than 2 years showed that all women resumed normal menstrual
cycles, HbA1C decreased from 8.2% to 5.1% in < 3 months.
• 78% saw improvement in metabolic syndrome & 48% showed improvement in PCOS .
2. ROLE OF BARIATRIC
SURGERY IN PCOS PATIENTS
Key features of polycystic ovarian syndrome and improvements seen after bariatric surgery. BMI: Body mass index.
• 35% reduction in BMI and resolution of hypertension.
• BMI decreases by more than 10 units
• Reduction in glucose abnormalities > 80%
• Excess weight loss > 80%
• Reduction in Metabolic Syndrome
• Improved Insulin Sensivity.
3. BARIATRIC SURGERY IN ADOLESCENTS
• Decrease menstrual irregularities.
• PCOS women have less hyper androgenism
• Sex hormone binding globulin increases
• LH and FSH levels have been reported to increase
• Ovulatory function measured by luteal LH and Progesterone secretion improved .
• Leptin levels decrease , reflecting improved reproductive metabolic status.
• Subclinical hypothyroidism significantly reduced.
THE SAFE TIMING OF PREGNANCY
optimal or minimal time: >12 months after bariatric surgery before becoming pregnant in order to allow the rapid
weight loss and metabolic changes to subside.
4. BARIATRIC SURGERY IN
Bariatric surgery represents the main option for substantial and long-term weight loss
in morbidly obese subjects..
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the early effects of bariatric surgery
The Hindgut hypothesis theory- Diabetes control results from the more rapid delivery
of nutrients to the distal small intestine, thereby enhancing the release of hormones
such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
The foregut hypothesis theory – Exclusion of the proximal small intestine reduces or
suppresses the secretion of anti-incretin hormones, leading to improvement of blood
glucose control as a consequence increases GLP-1 plasma levels which stimulate beta
cells to produce insulin secretion and suppress glucagon secretion, thereby improving
Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Diabetes Mellitus
SUMMARY OF ALL TYPES OF SURGERY
• LRYGBP – worlds best procedure, 60-70% WL, dumping syndrome, malnutrition.
• LAGB- low complications, varying range of wt. loss, frequent post-op visits ( 10)
• DS/BPD- more wt. loss , high complications, good for high BMI > 50, malabsorption +
• VBG – longest available results, good wt. loss, improved co-morbidities, right for some pts.risks too
high to justify rewards
• SG- needs long term research, 1st step procedure, low risks, higher wt. loss, pouch could Stretch over
time, long staple line could cause problems in future.
RESOLUTION OF DISEASES FOLLOWING BARIATRIC SURGERY