Tip 35: Motivational Interviewing with Patients with Substance Abuse Issues

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Review of motivational interviewing techniques and strategies most useful at each phase of change. NBCC, NAADAC, CAADAC, and California Board of Behavioral Sciences approved Mental Health continuing education and addictions counselor training series. Narrated versions and CEUs available at http://www.allceus.com

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  • Tip 35: Motivational Interviewing with Patients with Substance Abuse Issues

    1. 1. Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Abuse Treatment Based on TIP 35 Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>‘ FRAMES' and Other Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Precontemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Motivational Approaches </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is a key to change </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is dynamic and fluctuating </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is influenced by social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation can be modified </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is influenced by clinician's style </li></ul><ul><li>The clinician's task is to elicit and enhance motivation </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    4. 4. Why enhance motivation? <ul><li>Inspiring motivation to change </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing clients to enter treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging and retaining clients in treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing participation and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Improving treatment outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging a rapid return to treatment if symptoms recur </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    5. 5. Desirable attributes for the counselor <ul><li>Nonpossessive warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Friendliness </li></ul><ul><li>Genuineness </li></ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    6. 6. Help Increase Motivation <ul><li>Focusing on client strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Using empathy more than authority </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing co-occurring disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Employ client centered treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Respecting the client's autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For more detailed information, see TIP 35, pp. xvi–1. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    7. 7. Elements Of Current Motivational Approaches <ul><li>The FRAMES approach </li></ul><ul><li>Decisional balance exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancies between personal goals and current behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible pacing </li></ul><ul><li>Personal contact with clients in treatment </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    8. 8. FRAMES <ul><li>Feedback regarding personal risk or impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for change is placed squarely and explicitly on the client </li></ul><ul><li>Advice is clearly given to the client by the clinician in a nonjudgmental manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Menus of self-directed change options and treatment alternatives are offered to the client. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphatic counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy is engendered in the client to encourage change. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    9. 9. Decisional Balance <ul><li>Individuals naturally explore the pros and cons of any major life choices </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    10. 10. Discrepancies Between Goals and Current Behavior <ul><li>Help clients recognize a discrepancy or gap between their future goals and their current behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The clinician might clarify this discrepancy by asking, &quot;How does drinking fit in with having a family and a stable job?&quot; </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    11. 11. Flexible Pacing and Personal Contact <ul><li>Pacing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meet clients at their levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use as much time as necessary with the essential tasks of each stage of change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Contact: letters or telephone calls </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    12. 12. Precontemplation <ul><li>The client is unaware, unable, or unwilling to change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselor can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish rapport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise doubts about patterns of use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give info on risks, pros and cons of use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The client is likely to be wary of the counselor and of treatment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should not rub the client the wrong way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should try to keep the interview informal. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    13. 13. Goals/Actions <ul><li>Explore the meaning of events that brought the client to treatment or the results of previous treatments. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit the client's perceptions of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer factual information about the risks </li></ul><ul><li>Provide personalized feedback about assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the pros and cons of substance use. </li></ul><ul><li>Help a significant other intervene. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine discrepancies between the client's and others‘ perceptions of the problem behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Express concern and keep the door open. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    14. 14. <ul><li>Many clients are ambivalent about change. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalence is expressed in several ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argue: challenge or discount statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt: take over or cut off conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny: blame, disagree, excuse, minimize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore: not respond, not pay attention </li></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    15. 15. Ways to Respond <ul><li>Simple: Rephrase the client statement, neutrally. </li></ul><ul><li>Amplified: Exaggerate statement without sarcasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Double-sided reflection: Acknowledge statement, but use contradictory information client reported earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement with a twist: Agree, but change direction. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    16. 16. Contemplation <ul><li>The client is ambivalent or uncertain, considering the possibility of change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselor can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss and weigh pros/cons of using </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize client's free choice and responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elicit self-motivational statements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>At this stage, the client usually meets the counselor halfway, and is willing to look at the &quot;cons&quot; of using. </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure the client that no one can force him to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions that prompt motivation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, &quot;When you want to keep up your motivation for doing something, what are some of the things you say to yourself?&quot; </li></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    17. 17. Goals/Actions <ul><li>Help the client recognize the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client acknowledge concern </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client generate intention to change: </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client develop optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Convey feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients see a difference </li></ul><ul><li>Show curiosity about client strengths. Explore how those skills and competencies may be negated by drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Reframe negative statements. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    18. 18. Highlight Reasons for Change <ul><li>Summarize concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Explore specific pros and cons </li></ul><ul><li>Allow client to explain benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Assure client conflicting feelings are normal </li></ul><ul><li>Review feedback from assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what client expects from treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide info </li></ul><ul><li>Help client connect core values to committing to treatment </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    19. 19. Strengthen the client's personal choices. <ul><li>Nudge the client to make positive choices. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;No one can decide this for you. You can choose.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client set goals and take steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Remind client of &quot;triggers,&quot; including negative emotions (anger), social pressures (peers), physical concerns (headache) and extended withdrawal symptoms (craving). </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    20. 20. Reinforce the client's commitment <ul><li>What do you think has to change? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you going to do? </li></ul><ul><li>How are you going to do it? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some benefits of making a change? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you like things to turn out, ideally? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For more detailed information, see TIP 35, pp. 54–92. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    21. 21. Preparation <ul><li>The client asks questions, indicates willingness and considers options to make specific changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore treatment expectancies and the client's role. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit from the client what has worked in the past either for him or others whom he knows. </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage, the client shifts from &quot;thinking about it&quot; to &quot;planning first steps.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor guides the steps by offering help but not yanking the client forward. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    22. 22. Helps The Client To Get Ready <ul><li>Negotiating a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Offering a menu of options </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a behavior contract </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and lowering barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Enlisting social support </li></ul><ul><li>With permission offer advice </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the client to negotiate finances, child care, work, transportation, or other potential barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the client publicly announce plans </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    23. 23. Client Indicates Readiness <ul><li>Stops arguing, interrupting, denying </li></ul><ul><li>No longer asks questions about the problem, </li></ul><ul><li>but more about how to change </li></ul><ul><li>Appears calm, peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>States openness to change (&quot;I have to do something&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses optimism (&quot;I can beat this&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Talks about how life will be after the change </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments between sessions </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    24. 24. Barriers <ul><li>Ask what has gone wrong in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Find out if clients anticipate problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide all necessary information </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of barriers may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression or other negative feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy: Waiting lists, paperwork, legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    25. 25. Action <ul><li>The client takes steps toward change, but is still unstable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselor can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate action plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge difficulties and support attempts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify risky situations and coping strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help client find new reinforcers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support perseverance (&quot;Sticking to the plan&quot;) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In this stage, clients are receptive to the full range of counselor techniques, but motivation can wax and wane </li></ul><ul><li>If relapse occurs, the counselor &quot;backs up&quot; and applies techniques from an earlier stage. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    26. 26. Goals/Actions <ul><li>Engage the client in treatment and reinforce the importance of remaining in recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Support a view of change through small steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge difficulties for the client in early stages of change. </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client identify high-risk situations and develop appropriate coping strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the client in finding reinforcers </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client assess levels of social support. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    27. 27. Explore Expectations <ul><li>Explore past experiences, hopes, and fears regarding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontation, judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs; in money; in changed behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family involvement; shame, guilt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications; will have to withdraw from or take </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules; too strict, no &quot;wiggle room.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immunize against difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve barriers to treatment </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    28. 28. Increase motivations <ul><li>Help the client to see the value of both internal and external motivating factors </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest to the client that external coercions are compatible with the client's best interests </li></ul><ul><li>Support signs of internal motivation </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    29. 29. Examine and interpret noncompliant behavior <ul><li>Noncompliant behavior is a thinly veiled expression of dissatisfaction with treatment or the therapeutic process. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    30. 30. Maintenance <ul><li>Client has met initial goals, made changes in lifestyle and now practices coping strategies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselor can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support and affirm changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearse new coping strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In this stage, clients &quot;keep on keeping on.&quot; </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    31. 31. Cont… <ul><li>The counselor reminds the client about new tools to maintain and reinforce recovery, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of risky situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping strategies for each situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in 12-Step programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuit of hobbies and cultural activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer opportunities </li></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    32. 32. Goals/Actions <ul><li>Help the client identify and sample drug-free sources of pleasure (i.e., new reinforcers). </li></ul><ul><li>Support lifestyle changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm the client's resolve and self-efficacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Help the client practice/use coping strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain supportive contact </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a &quot;fire escape&quot; plan if the client resumes substance use. </li></ul><ul><li>Review long-term goals with the client. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    33. 33. Form a Plan. <ul><li>Identify triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify effect/benefits of using in response to the trigger </li></ul><ul><li>Identify appropriate coping response </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    34. 34. Developing Reinforcers <ul><li>Competing </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent (If/Then) </li></ul><ul><li>Community (natural consequences) </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    35. 35. Recurrence <ul><li>Help the client reenter the change cycle and commend any willingness to reconsider positive change. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the meaning and reality of the recurrence as a learning opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the client in finding alternative coping strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain supportive contact. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    36. 36. Other Tools <ul><li>Consciousness raising increases information about the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reevaluation involves assessing how one feels and thinks about oneself with respect to problem behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-liberation means choosing and committing to act or believing in ability to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Counterconditioning involves substituting coping alternatives </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    37. 37. Cont… <ul><li>Stimulus control means avoiding or countering stimuli that elicit problem behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement management is being rewarded for making changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Helping relationships are created by being open and trusting about problems with caring people </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional arousal and dramatic relief involve experiencing and expressing feelings about one's problems and solutions </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    38. 38. Cont… <ul><li>Environmental reevaluation is the process of assessing how one's problems affect the personal and physical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Social liberation involves increasing alternatives for nonproblematic behavior. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    39. 39. Applications of Motivational Approaches <ul><li>A means of rapid engagement in the general medical setting to facilitate referral to treatment </li></ul><ul><li>A first session to increase the likelihood that a client will return and to deliver a useful service if the client does not return </li></ul><ul><li>An empowering brief consultation when a client is placed on a waiting list, rather than telling a client just to wait for treatment </li></ul><ul><li>A preparation for treatment to increase retention and participation </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    40. 40. <ul><li>A help to clients coerced into treatment to move beyond initial feelings of anger and resentment </li></ul><ul><li>A means to overcome client defensiveness and resistance </li></ul><ul><li>A stand-alone intervention in settings where there is only brief contact </li></ul><ul><li>A counseling style used through the process of change </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    41. 41. Other Things to Remember <ul><li>Often there is a relatively short period of time to make a beneficial impact on the client </li></ul><ul><li>The average length of stay in substance abuse treatment is very short </li></ul><ul><li>If clinicians do not make an impact in the first session or two with clients, they may not be able to make an impact at all </li></ul><ul><li>Make the best use of the first contact </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually a mistake to start a session with filling out forms </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC
    42. 42. Summary <ul><li>There are different goals and tools for each stage of change </li></ul><ul><li>Even one session can make a positive impact on a client </li></ul><ul><li>Lasting change takes time and effort </li></ul><ul><li>All clients have the ability to learn to make positive choices and changes </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs.com A subsidiary of CDS Ventures, LLC

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