Substance exposure infants 2 hours

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SAMHSA Powerpoints for NBCC approved continuing education courses on addiction and co-occurring disorders.

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Substance exposure infants 2 hours

  1. 1. Session 4: Methamphetamine and Cocaine 4-
  2. 2. Differences Between Cocaine and Methamphetamine <ul><li>Cocaine effects: 1 to 2 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Methamphetamine effects: 8 to 12 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal from methamphetamine can cause more intense symptoms and last longer. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  3. 3. Dopamine <ul><li>Is a chemical that is always present in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Plays an important role in </li></ul><ul><li>- Body movement </li></ul><ul><li>- Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- Motivation and reward </li></ul><ul><li>- Pleasure responses </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  4. 4. Example of Dopamine’s Effect <ul><li>Eating  Dopamine  Pleasure  </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation ( desire ) to eat again </li></ul><ul><li>when hungry </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  5. 5. Dopamine Imbalance <ul><li>Too much dopamine causes nervousness, irritability, aggressiveness, paranoia, and bizarre thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Too little dopamine causes low mood, fatigue, tremors, and problems with muscle control. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  6. 6. Dopamine and Stimulant Drugs <ul><li>Meth/cocaine = Dopamine = </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Pleasure + Some Negative Effects </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  7. 7. Dopamine and Stimulant Use Over Time <ul><li>Stimulant use = Damaged dopamine system = </li></ul><ul><li>Some pleasure + many negative effects </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  8. 8. <ul><li>Use  Depression  Craving  Use </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle = Addiction </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  9. 9. Route of Administration <ul><li>How a drug is taken influences </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly it produces an effect </li></ul><ul><li>The strength of the drug’s effects, both positive and negative </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of negative effects a person will experience </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  10. 10. Methamphetamine Matrix IOP 4-
  11. 11. Street Names <ul><li>Known on the street as </li></ul><ul><li>Meth </li></ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Crank </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk </li></ul><ul><li>Tweak </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  12. 12. Popularity of Meth <ul><li>Meth use more than doubled between 1994 and 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2002 to 2004 the number of people using meth and starting to use meth has been constant. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2002 to 2004, the average age when people start using jumped from 19 to 22. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  13. 13. Who Uses Meth? <ul><li>Meth is traditionally used by Caucasian, male, blue-collar workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Use spread to the party and club scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Use is increasing among Hispanics and young people who are homeless. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women use in equal numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Use is increasing in the workplace. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  14. 14. Immediate Psychological Effects <ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>Alertness or wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of strength/energy </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of invulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of confidence/competence </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of sexual desire </li></ul><ul><li>Boredom, loneliness, and shyness </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  15. 15. Immediate Physical Effects <ul><li>Heart rate Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil size Breathing rate </li></ul><ul><li>Sound sensitivity Body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  16. 16. Toxic Effects <ul><li>Methamphetamine can cause serious psychological and physical damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative effects begin fairly soon. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  17. 17. Chronic Psychological Effects <ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of ability to concentrate and organize information </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of ability to feel pleasure without the drug </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia and fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability and anger </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety and panic disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless, unprotected sexual behavior </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  18. 18. Severe Psychological Effects <ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Severe depression that can lead to suicidal thoughts or attempts </li></ul><ul><li>Episodes of sudden, violent behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Severe memory loss that may be permanent </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  19. 19. Chronic Physical Effects <ul><li>Tremor </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Dry mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss/malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Oily skin </li></ul><ul><li>Sores </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Severe problems with teeth and gums </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  20. 20. Severe Physical Effects <ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged blood vessels in the brain/stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged brain cells </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular heartbeat/sudden death </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack or chronic heart problems </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney failure </li></ul><ul><li>Liver failure </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tweaking” </li></ul><ul><li>Infected skin sores </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  21. 21. Meth Is Not Just Meth <ul><li>Up to 60 percent of what a person injects, snorts, or smokes is not meth: </li></ul><ul><li>Meth is full of impurities, such as lead acetate or mercury, which can lead to heavy metal poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Meth is “cut” with other substances to maximize profits. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  22. 22. Injecting Meth <ul><li>Injecting meth can cause </li></ul><ul><li>Blood clots </li></ul><ul><li>Skin abscesses </li></ul><ul><li>HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis C virus exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Heart inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney failure </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  23. 23. Snorting Meth <ul><li>Snorting meth can cause </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus infection </li></ul><ul><li>Holes in the septum </li></ul><ul><li>Hoarseness </li></ul><ul><li>Nosebleeds </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  24. 24. Smoking Meth <ul><li>Smoking meth can cause </li></ul><ul><li>Throat problems </li></ul><ul><li>Burned lips </li></ul><ul><li>Lung congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Severe coughing with black mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic lung disease </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  25. 25. Meth Dose and Effects <ul><li> Dose = Toxic Effects </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  26. 26. Pregnancy and Meth <ul><li>Increased risk of </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal stroke or brain hemorrhage, often causing death </li></ul><ul><li>Premature birth </li></ul><ul><li>HIV or hepatitis virus exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Babies of mothers who used meth during pregnancy may have </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble eating and digesting food </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  27. 27. Other Effects on Children <ul><li>Children living in home-based meth labs are affected by </li></ul><ul><li>Fires, explosions, chemical spills, and toxic fumes that can burn lungs; can damage the brain, kidneys, or liver; and even can be fatal </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse and neglect by parents or others </li></ul><ul><li>700 children present in meth labs in 2001 tested positive for toxic chemicals. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  28. 28. Other Problems With Meth Labs <ul><li>Toxic fumes remain in walls/carpets, putting everyone in the house at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>People moving into a home that once housed a meth lab are at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>For every pound of meth produced, 5 to 6 pounds of toxic waste are created and dumped. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  29. 29. Cocaine Matrix IOP 4-
  30. 30. Street Names <ul><li>Known on the street as </li></ul><ul><li>Coke </li></ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul><ul><li>Flake </li></ul><ul><li>Blow </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  31. 31. Crack Cocaine <ul><li>A smokable form of cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called “rock” or “freebase” </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  32. 32. <ul><li>Nearly 34 million Americans have used cocaine at some time in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>About 2 million people in the United States reported current use of cocaine. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 percent of young people ages 12 to 17 reported that they had used cocaine at least 1 time. </li></ul><ul><li>16 percent of young adults ages 18 to 25 reported using cocaine at least 1 time. </li></ul>Popularity of Cocaine Matrix IOP 4-
  33. 33. Who Uses Cocaine? <ul><li>Adults 18 to 25 years old have a higher rate of current cocaine use than those in any other age group. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, men have a higher rate of current cocaine use than do women. </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  34. 34. Immediate Psychological Effects <ul><li> Euphoria </li></ul><ul><li> Energy </li></ul><ul><li> Talkativeness </li></ul><ul><li> Sensitivity to sensations of sight, sound, and touch </li></ul><ul><li> Mental alertness </li></ul><ul><li> Confidence </li></ul><ul><li> Feelings of sexual desire </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  35. 35. Immediate Physical Effects Constricted blood vessels <ul><li> Pupil size Temperature </li></ul><ul><li> Heart rate Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li> Appetite Sleep </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  36. 36. Warning <ul><li>In rare instances, sudden death can occur with cocaine use. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol + Cocaine = Increased risk </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  37. 37. Chronic Psychological Effects <ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Bizarre and/or violent behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged ability to feel pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>HIV or hepatitis C virus exposure </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  38. 38. Chronic Physical Effects <ul><li>Disturbances in heart rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory failure </li></ul><ul><li>Strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Significant weight loss/malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  39. 39. Injecting Cocaine <ul><li>Injecting cocaine can cause </li></ul><ul><li>Abscesses (infected sores) at injection sites </li></ul><ul><li>Severe allergic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to HIV and hepatitis C virus </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  40. 40. Snorting Cocaine <ul><li>Snorting cocaine can cause </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sense of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Chronically inflamed, runny nose </li></ul><ul><li>Nosebleeds </li></ul><ul><li>Hoarseness </li></ul><ul><li>Deviated septum </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  41. 41. Smoking Crack <ul><li>Smoking crack can cause </li></ul><ul><li>Throat problems </li></ul><ul><li>Burned lips </li></ul><ul><li>Lung congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Severe coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic lung disease </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  42. 42. Cocaine Dose and Effects <ul><li> Dose = Toxic Effects </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  43. 43. Pregnancy and Cocaine <ul><li>Increased risk of </li></ul><ul><li>Premature birth </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than normal head size </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter than normal length </li></ul><ul><li>HIV or hepatitis virus exposure </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  44. 44. Cocaine –Exposed Children <ul><li>As cocaine-exposed children grow up, they may </li></ul><ul><li>Have trouble paying attention to tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Have trouble thinking things through </li></ul><ul><li>Have trouble learning new information </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-
  45. 45. Summary <ul><li>Anything put into a mother’s body can go to her unborn or nursing infant </li></ul><ul><li>Infant’s premature nervous systems cannot handle most drugs </li></ul><ul><li>What is hardly anything for mom can be toxic for an infant </li></ul>Matrix IOP 4-

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