Psychopharmacology ceu[1]


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Psychopharmacology ceu[1]

  1. 1. Psychopharmacology<br />Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes Ph.D., LMHC, CRC, NCC<br />Stephanie Adams LPC<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  2. 2. To identify and define the purpose of 9 types of psychotropic drug classes.<br />To name common side effects and risks of these classes of drugs.<br />To list the five strategies for aiding tobacco users willing to quit (Five A’s) and unwilling to quit (5 Rs).<br />To identify and describe life-threatening syndromes that can develop as a result of taking psychopharmacological medication.<br />To familiarize the counselor with ways to interact with their client’s medical doctor. <br />To educate the counselor in ways to encourage medication compliance in client sessions.<br />Objectives<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  3. 3. Common Antipsychotics: haloperidol (Haldol), loxapine (Loxitane, Daxolin), aripiprazole (Abilify), quetiapinefumarate (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), ziprasidone (Geodon)<br />Two types: traditional and novel/atypical, classified by how they work on the body.<br />Atypical antipsychotics are somewhat less likely to produce neuroleptic malignant syndrome or tardivedyskinesia.<br />Antipsychotics/Neuroleptics<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  4. 4. Generally not advised during first trimester of pregnancy.<br />Side effects of traditional antipsychotics include: tardivedyskinesia (twitching & involuntary muscle movements) neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially deadly and rare neurological disorder).<br />Side effects of novel/atypical antipsychotics might include: elevated blood sugar and weight gain. <br />Either can cause drowsiness, restlessness, upset stomach, low blood pressure, reduced enthusiasm or muscle rigidity.<br />Cautions and Side Effects<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  5. 5. Brand names include: Symmetrel, Symadine, Cogentin, Benadryl and Artane.<br />Used to compensate for side effects that result from taking antipsychotics.<br />Side effects might include dry mouth, dizziness, light-headedness, or irritability. <br />It is unclear how it will affect a pregnant woman (Symmetrel & Symadine may produce deformities). Women should discuss with their doctor before use.<br />Antiparkinsonian<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  6. 6. Antimanic drugs focus on reducing hyperactivity, illogical thought and pressured speech, as well as improving sleep and concentration.<br />Can also use antipsychotics such as Abilify, Seroquel, and Risperdol to control symptoms.<br />Can use anticonvulsant medication to curb manic symptoms, though not approved by FDA for this particular use.<br />Most antimanic medication is given multiple times per day.<br />Antimanic<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  7. 7. Lithium, possibly the most well-known antimanic medication, qualifies as Evidence-Based Treatment (EBT) for Bipolar I.<br />Potential danger: lithium toxicity, when too much lithium exists in the blood.<br />Lithium toxicity is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, slurred speech, confusion, dizziness, muscle twitching, blurred vision & irritability. <br />Too much or too little fluid intake and too much sweating (decreasing sodium in the body) can reduce effectiveness. <br />Pregnant women who take lithium during the first 3 months of pregnancy risk birth defects.<br />Lithium<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  8. 8. SSRIs are most frequently prescribed, low side effects.<br />Celexa, Lexapro, Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox<br />Tricyclics & Quatracyclicsolder and less commonly used. Older Tricyclics are less expensive. <br />Vivactil, Nopramin, Elavil<br />MAO Inhibitors used for “atypical” depressions (oversleeping, panic attacks, phobias) or when nothing else works.<br />Must be extremely careful of food interactions.<br />Marplan, Nardil<br />“Other” kinds of antidepressants include Wellbutrin, Cymbalta & Effexor.<br />Antidepressants<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  9. 9. Usually take 3-4 weeks to show symptom improvement and several months for full effect. <br />Antidepressants also used to treat OCD, social phobia, anxiety disorders.<br />Long-term treatment is essential, 2 years is recommended. Risks of quitting early include medication resistance and decompensation.<br />The Facts on Antidepressants<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  10. 10. SSRIs – sexual side effects (ability and desire), change in appetite, anxiety, agitation, shakiness, insomnia, weight loss or gain, confusion, nervousness.<br />Tri & Quatra – allergic reactions, sexual side effects, heartbeat disturbance, blurred vision, fatigue, kidney failure (Asendin) seizures.<br />MAO – insomnia, fluid retention, high blood pressure, lack of appetite, rapid heartbeat, headache, dizziness. <br />SSRIs have mostly been found to be safe for use during pregnancy, although sometimes withdrawal signs in newborn have been noted. MAO Inhibitors should NOT be used during pregnancy.<br />Side Effects<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  11. 11. Benzodiazapines: work by depressing the CNS, results within days. (Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan).<br />Beta blockers: impacting the CNS to reduce fight or flight. (Inderal)<br />Other: includes antihistamines, antipsychotics, and other medications that work on the serotonin system. (Lyrica, Seroquel, BuSpar)<br />Most commonly used for anxiety are SSRIs and benzodiazapines. <br />Antianxiety<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  12. 12. Benzodiazapines are relatively difficult to abuse by people without a history of substance abuse, but have potential for physical tolerance, and can be life-threatening when abruptly withdrawn. Use in third trimester of pregnancy can cause infant withdrawal symptoms. <br />Alcohol and benzodiazapines used together may stop breathing and cause death.<br />Many antianxiety medications (beta-blockers, BuSpar, Atarax and Vistaril) are non-addictive.<br />Antianxiety medications can cause depression, lightheadedness, fatigue, heart collapse, confusion, and suppressed breathing among other things.<br />Alcohol in combination with nearly any antianxiety drug can cause major medical issues. <br />Cautions<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  13. 13. Includes forms of amphetamines, going by names such as Ritalin & Adderall.<br />Non-stimulants for ADHD include Wellbutrin, Strattera and Tenex. These are non-addictive and do not cause a high.<br />In addition to use with ADHD, stimulants can also be used for obesity, narcolepsy and occasionally depression. <br />A person taking stimulants risks loss of appetite, nervousness, euphoria, excitability, delayed growth, sleeplessness and more.<br />Potential for tolerance and abuse.<br />Stimulant<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  14. 14. Wide class of drugs that includes Dilaudid, Demoral, Methadone, Morphine, Coedine, Percocet, Percoden, and Darvocet. <br />Used for pain relief.<br />Methadone has been used to treat heroin withdrawal.<br />Risks include stomach upset, tolerance, slowed breathing, vision and cognitive difficulties.<br />Use in pregnant women can cause infant dependence and withdrawal. <br />Narcotic and Opiod Analgesics<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  15. 15. Includes barbiturates (Seconal) benzodiazapines, anticonvulsants, sedating antidepressants and antipsychotics. <br />Used to aid in sleep. <br />“Rebound insomnia” in which abrupt cessation of medication causes insomnia, can occur with medications like Ambien and Sonata (non-benzodiazapines). <br />All hypnotics rapidly develop tolerance and cannot be used for long. For this reason, doctors tend to lean towards antidepressants, anticonvulsants and antihistamines with sedative properties.<br />Hypnotics<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  16. 16. Alcohol withdrawal: benzodiazapines (most common), anticonvulsants and barbiturates.<br />Opiod withdrawal: used in conjunction with sedatives, clonodine (reduces high blood pressure) shows results for mild withdrawal, for major withdrawal methadone or buprenorphine is often successful.<br />Tobacco: Falls into two categories: Nicotine replacement (Nicoderm CQ, Nicorette) or pharmacotherapy. (Chantix)<br />Addiction Treatment Medications<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  17. 17. Brief Counselor Strategies for Tobacco Users<br />Ask about tobacco use and other times they have tried to quit.<br />Advise abstinence.<br />Assess willingness to quit in next 30 days.<br />Assist the effort to quit.<br />Arrange follow-up help. <br />Five A’s<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  18. 18. Brief Counselor Strategies for Tobacco Users Unwilling to Quit<br />Relevance of quitting (Why does it matter to them?)<br />Risks of continued use.<br />Rewards of quitting.<br />(Identify) Roadblocks to quitting.<br />(Use) Repetition<br />Five R’s<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />
  19. 19. There are a variety of different medications that can be used to help people with mental health and/or addiction issues<br />It is important to ensure that symptoms are not due to substance use or a general medical condition<br />For many people it is helpful to discuss how long they will be on medications and the side effects.<br />Copyright 2011 Unlimited CEUs $99/year<br />Summary<br />