Goal Setting


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NBCC, NAADAC, CAADAC, and California Board of Behavioral Sciences approved Mental Health continuing education and addictions counselor training series. Narrated versions and CEUs available at http://www.allceus.com

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Goal Setting

  1. 1. Goal Setting, Behavior Modification and Maintaining Motivation by Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes PhD, LMHC, CRC, NCC <ul><li>43 slides at approximately 11 minutes each= 480 minutes or 8 hours of instruction </li></ul>
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>The student will learn about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to elicit goals and convert them into observable, measurable goal statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal heirarchy: Goal-Objective-Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to use the 5 Ws to create a functional action plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic principles of behavior modification and how to apply them to help clients achieve goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to help clients achieve goals through successive approximations </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives Cont... <ul><ul><li>The three dimensions of motivation and how to use all three to support clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to identify and overcome barriers to goal achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The different types of learning styles and how to most effectively teach both to an individual and a mixed group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How temperament impacts learning and motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to modify your approach to accommodate learning styles and temperaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to modify the environment to increase energy and motivation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Common Questions <ul><li>Common questions heard by counselors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I be happier? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can I do to be healthier? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I improve my relationships? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What other questions do you often hear? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Activity and Discussion <ul><li>Identify why you as a counselor need to help your clients with goal setting, behavior modification and maintaining motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Please share your responses in the Discussion Forum. Thank you. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Do I Care <ul><li>Aerobics/Group Fitness Instructors and Counselors are often an integral part of behavior management goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if you are not answering questions, it is your job to keep people motivated and confident they can meet their goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is important to help class members/clients learn how to set their own goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach one “snippet” each session to help participants start learning how to live a healthier life. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Goal Hierarchy <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives (Small Goals/Why) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skills (How) & Knowledge (What/Why) ‏ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Goals <ul><li>Goals (WHY) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals are the overarching reason a person begins to do something. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often goals are broad and abstract. “I want to be healthier.” “I want to be happy.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals need to be broken down into manageable, meaningful, observable objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase goals as adding a positive instead of removing a negative. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Miracle Question <ul><li>One way to elicit goals is through the miracle question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you woke up tomorrow and you were _____ (i.e. your problem was resolved/goal was achieved) what would be different? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This gives you insight into the foundations of this particular persons symptoms/definition of the problem. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Activity and Discussion <ul><li>Brainstorm the miracle question for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Please share your responses in the discussion forum. Thank you. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Goals <ul><ul><li>Objectives need to be put into measurable terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does having a “better social life” mean to her? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will she know when she feels better about herself? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much weight does she want to lose? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Often you can measure abstract concepts with... <ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A better social life might mean going out at least once a week, or calling a friend once a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling better about herself might be measured in terms of frequency of negative self statements or degree of anxiety about social situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Related Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Likert Scale </li></ul>
  13. 13. Activity <ul><li>Write each of the following “goals” on a piece of paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get in shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel better about myself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be happier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify at least 2 ways for each goal that tells the person he or she has achieved that goal. “How will you know when you are/have _____” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Objectives <ul><li>Objectives are small goals that can usually be achieved in 1-3 months </li></ul><ul><li>They combine to make the ultimate goal a reality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, someone who wants to be “happy” might want to have a better social life, to feel better about herself, to lose some weight. . . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Skills & Knowledge <ul><li>If you believe that people do the best they can with the tools they have at any given time, then you understand that your client now needs to learn how to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Give a man a fish you feed him for a day, teach him to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give your clients the knowledge to understand what you are doing and why. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Hook, A.K.A. The 5 Ws <ul><li>Who is responsible for doing What, When, Where, Why and How </li></ul><ul><li>This is your client's action plan or map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who (your client) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they responsible for doing, when and where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are they doing it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is it helping them meet their ultimate goal </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Client Responsibilities <ul><li>The following is a list of some of the things your clients should be accountable for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing for sessions (i.e. not coming in with a hangover) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing with you what is and is not “working” for them including environment and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although some exercises and interventions may be perfectly valid, they will not work if the client will not do them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing out of session assignments </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Instructor/Trainer/Counselor Responsibilities <ul><li>Your responsibilities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing up on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being prepared for sessions “Uhhh, wait a minute, I know your file is around here somewhere...” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educating clients about the fundamentals of what they are doing and why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping clients find solutions/overcome resistance </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Behavior Modification <ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an observable, measurable event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>something that increases the frequency of a behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a quality that ensures the repetition of a behavior </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Activity and Discussion <ul><li>How can you incorporate reinforcers into your group classes? </li></ul><ul><li>What about for individual students? </li></ul><ul><li>Please take a moment to share your responses in the discussion forum. Thank you. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Behavior Modification Cont... <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>something that decreases the frequency of a behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a quality that ensures the reduction of a behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contingency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If x then y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remind your students of the rewards for doing x--- </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Activity <ul><li>How can you use contingencies in your class/sessions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do X (squats) now, you will get benefit Y (increased definition in your lower body) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If everybody works hard through this song, I'll give you an additional, optional 2 minutes of recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you keep your next 6 appointments, we can discuss ending your program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you keep getting out of bed and going on a walk each day you will start to see some improvements in your sleep and mood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the Ys your class members/clients are concerned about? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Activity <ul><li>Identify three “positive” behaviors and three “negative” behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the reinforcers for each. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What about something like depression or obesity? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List 1 or 2 ways you can eliminate each negative behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify things which might be preventing those behaviors. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. POINTS <ul><li>We only do things in which the reinforcers (positive) outweigh the punishments (negative). </li></ul><ul><li>It is vital not only to ask why a person wants to change, but also why he/she does not want to change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I want to increase my motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why are you not motivated now? (Obstacles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would help motivate you? (Reinforcers) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Activity <ul><li>Give anonymous case examples of clients you have had who professed they wanted to change, but would not follow through. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the whys and why not’s of change for each. </li></ul><ul><li>Please take a moment to share your responses in the discussion forum. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Baby Steps <ul><li>Successive Approximations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding attempts at the behavior, while gradually increasing the criteria for reward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is also accomplished by showing varying levels of the same exercise (think group fitness videos). </li></ul></ul>Fitness Counseling Showing up for class Completing half of the class Completing the whole class Completing the whole class with 100% effort Remembering you had an assignment Partially completing the assignment Completing the whole assignment Thoroughly completing the assignment
  27. 27. Activity <ul><li>Break into groups and create successive approximations for the following goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working out three days a week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing anger outbursts to less than one per month </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. More Behavior Modification <ul><li>Competing behaviors/responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive behaviors that can be done instead of negative behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better to reward competing responses than punish negative behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Premack principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing rewards with behaviors you would rather not do (i.e. watching television while running) ‏ . </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Activity <ul><li>Identify competing responses for the following behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bingeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting/Screaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping all day every day </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Still more... <ul><li>Behavior Strain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too much punishment/work without sufficient reward </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Using Behavior Modification <ul><li>Goal: I want to be healthier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: I want to improve my physical fitness by 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First identify things your clients enjoy that they can do to reach this goal (reinforcing activities) ‏ . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then make those things reasonable. Do not have a couch potato start hiking 5 miles per day. Start with a 20 minute walk then gradually increase the time and speed (successive approximations) ‏ . </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. A Spoon Full of Sugar <ul><li>Okay, in the pursuit of any goal we all have to do things we do not really care for. Make those things as painless as possible by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining them with something the clients like (Premack Principle) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a reward for successful completion of the behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think about your own behaviors---things you like to do and how you cajole yourself to do things you don't like. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Treatment/Action Plan Activity <ul><ul><li>Write one of the most common reasons people come to see you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn that into an observable/measurable goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break the goal into 3-5 objectives that clearly state the 5 Ws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is to be done </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who will do it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When will it be done </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why will it be done </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where will it be done </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How (if applicable) ‏ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Motivation <ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional—I want to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual-- I need to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral-- I am </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Maintaining Emotional Motivation <ul><li>Keep a running anonymous list on poster board in the front of class of the goals of class members. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have them submit goals to you (anonymously if they want) of their goals for class/reasons for coming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List 10 reasons you want to _________ and review them daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a collage of all the reasons you want to __________. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Emotional Motivation cont… <ul><li>Keep a journal of how things change positively for you as you ___________. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of disputes for your most frequent cop-outs. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell three people about your goal. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Maintaining Intellectual Motivation <ul><li>List 10 reasons you need to _______________. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep written information available that highlights the benefits of your class/activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Have clients research how exercise can help their physical and mental health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>List 10 reasons you know you can _________. </li></ul><ul><li>Set an end date for each objective. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Maintaining Behavioral Motivation <ul><li>Identify all of the obstacles to accomplishing your goal and find solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Won't go to the gym after dinner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childcare issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too far to travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gym too busy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too tired to cook </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much other stuff to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Maintaining Behavioral Motivation <ul><li>Buddy-Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage people with similar goals to support each other in and out of group/class. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Time Management <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize/combine </li></ul>
  41. 41. Child Care <ul><li>For many clients, this will affect compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm ways to accommodate this... </li></ul>
  42. 42. Rewards <ul><li>Rewards maintain behavior, but they must be of sufficient frequency, intensity and duration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-daily ---”Great job in class/group today!” “Glad to see you here today!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium-weekly or monthly/objective accomplishment-- Person gets to choose music/particular activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-goal accomplishment-- Certificate of Achievement, Recognition in class??? </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Learning Styles <ul><li>Global/Sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory/Visual/Kinesthetic </li></ul>
  44. 44. Activity and Discussion <ul><li>Break into groups of 4 to 6 </li></ul><ul><li>I am assigning each group a learning style </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm ways you can help your clients who have that learning style. </li></ul><ul><li>Then please take a moment to share your brainstorm results in the discussion forum. Thank you. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Temperament <ul><li>http:keirsey.com </li></ul><ul><li>Extrovert/Introvert </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing(details)/Intuitive (big picture) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking(“Rational”)/Feeling(“Emotional”) ‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution: Thinkers do not experience anything less intensely than Feelers. They just do it differently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judging(structured)/Perceiving(flexible) ‏ </li></ul>
  46. 46. Activity <ul><li>Review your Treatment/Action Plan Activity </li></ul><ul><li>What might you do differently for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroverts vs. Introverts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing vs. Intuitive (Think about teaching a routine) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging vs. Perceiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substitutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Music <ul><li>Tempo </li></ul><ul><li>Words/Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathartic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to various snippets and identify motivation/activities you would do. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Environmental Motivators <ul><li>Lighting/Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight Spectrum vs. Traditional Flourescent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth Tones (Yellows, Browns) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blues/Greens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Murals/Pictures </li></ul>
  50. 50. Environmental Motivators cont... <ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stinky: Exhaust fans are helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aromatherapy towels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to maintain about the same temperature from week to week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have fans available for pregnant or heat sensitive people. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Review <ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Modification Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Style </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Three Types of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Motivators </li></ul>