What is PCP? &quot;Angel Dust,&quot; &quot;Hog,&quot; &quot;Rocket Fuel,&quot; &quot;DOA,&quot; &quot;Peace Pill&quot; - these are other names for the illegal drug phencyclidine (PCP). PCP was developed in the 1950s as an anesthetic. However, the use of PCP as an anesthetic was stopped after some people experienced psychotic reactions after using the drug. PCP is now made illegally and has found its way onto the street, often contaminating other street drugs. In fact, PCP is often sold in place of drugs such as LSD and mescaline. According to the Monitoring the Future survey of drug trends, 2.3% of 12th graders in the United States used PCP sometime during the year 2000. PCP is classified as a dissociative anesthetic because users appear to be &quot;disconnected&quot; from their environment: they know where they are, but they do not feel as if they are part of it. The drug has different effects on different people. It can act as a stimulant, a depressant, an analgesic (decreasing pain) or a hallucinogen depending on the dose and route of administration. The effects produced by PCP are different from those caused by hallucinogens such as LSD . Rather than producing visual hallucinations, PCP causes changes in body image. In addition to these distortions of reality, PCP can cause frightening side effects such as feelings of terror and confusion. PCP (Image courtesy of the Indiana Prevention Resource Center) Behavioral Effects of PCP PCP can be eaten, snorted, injected or smoked. Depending on how a person takes the drug, the effects are felt within a few minutes (2-5 minutes when smoked) to an hour. PCP can stay in a person's body for a long time; the half-life of PCP ranges from 11 to 51 hours. Furthermore, because PCP is made illegally under uncontrolled conditions, users have no way of knowing how much PCP they are taking. This makes PCP especially dangerous. PCP users are often characterized as violent or suicidal. However, this portrait of a PCP user may not be accurate. Dr. Jaime Diaz, a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Washington, reviewed many of the published reports of PCP use in his book, How Drugs Influence Behavior. A Neuro-Behavioral Approach (Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall, 1997). He states that PCP use rarely results in violence and concludes that: &quot;Phencyclidine does not cause aggression or criminal behavior.&quot; Dr. Diaz believes that the reported violent behavior is not due to the pharmacological effect of PCP, but rather is the result of the way people under the influence of PCP perceive things and are subsequently treated by law enforcement personnel. People under the influence of PCP may not feel pain and their perception of sensory stimuli may be altered, possibly causing police officers to use stronger methods to control such individuals.% of 12th Graders Who Have Used PCP Sometime During Their Lifetime (Source: Monitoring The Future Survey ) DoseEffect LowFeelings of euphoria (well-being), relaxation, numbness, sensory distortions, feelings of detachment from one's own body, anxiety, confusion, amnesia, illogical speech, blurred vision, blank stareMediumConfusion, agitation, analgesia, fever, excessive salivation, &quot;schizophrenic-type&quot; behaviorHighSeizures, respiratory failure, coma, fever, stroke, DEATHTolerance and dependence on PCP are possible. Withdrawal symptoms include diarrhea, chills, tremors.
Text version of Hyperlink to Whitehouse Drug Policy Paper Hallucinogenic substances are characterized by their ability to cause changes in a person's perception of reality. Persons using hallucinogenic drugs often report seeing images, hearing sounds, and feeling sensations that seem real, but do not exist. 1 In the past, plants and fungi that contained hallucinogenic substances were abused. Currently, these hallucinogenic substances are produced synthetically to provide a higher potency. 2 Commonly abused illicit hallucinogens include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT), and 5-MeO-DIPT (Foxy). 3 LSD is manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. It is sold on the street in tablets, capsules, and occasionally in liquid form. LSD is an odorless and colorless substance with a slightly bitter taste that is usually ingested orally. It is often added to absorbent paper, such as blotter paper, and divided into small decorated squares, with each square representing one dose. 4 PCP is a bitter tasting, white crystalline powder that can dissolve in water. PCP is most often snorted, smoked, or ingested in a pill form. The powder form of PCP can be easily mixed with dyes and often appears on the street in various colors whether sold as a tablet, capsule, liquid, or powder. 5 Psilocybin is obtained from certain mushrooms found in South America, Mexico, and the U.S, although the substance can also be produced synthetically. Mushrooms containing psilocybin are available fresh or dried with long, narrow stems topped by caps with dark gills on the underside. These mushrooms are usually ingested orally, but can also be brewed in a tea or added to food to mask the bitter flavor. Once ingested, psilocybin is broken down in the user's body to produce psilocyn, another hallucinogenic substance. 6 Mescaline is the active hallucinogenic ingredient in peyote. Peyote is a small, spineless cactus historically used by natives in Mexico and the southwestern U.S. as part of religious rites. Mescaline can also be produced synthetically. 7 DMT is found in a number of plants and seeds, but can also be produced synthetically. DMT is usually ingested by snorting, smoking, or injecting the drug. DMT is not effective in producing hallucinogenic effects when ingested by itself and is therefore used in conjunction with another drug that inhibits its metabolism. 8 AMT and Foxy are synthetic hallucinogens that are relatively new drugs of abuse. Reports of their abuse are limited throughout the U.S., but are sometimes seen in raves and clubs. 9 Foxy, also know as Foxy Methoxy, is available in powder, capsule, and tablet form and is usually ingested orally (although it can be snorted or smoked). Foxy capsules and tablets vary in color and logos sometimes appear on tablets. 10 AMT is often found in tablet and capsule form. 11 Additionally, licit drugs can be used to produce hallucinogenic effects. Dextromethorphan (DXM) is a cough suppressant, available over-the-counter in cough and cold medications, that is commonly abused to produce hallucinations and a sense of disassociation when taken in large doses. 12 Coricidin, often referred to as Triple C, contains DXM. 13 According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), approximately 34.3 million Americans aged 12 and older reported trying hallucinogens at least once during their lifetimes, representing 14.3% of the population. Approximately 3.9 million (1.6% of the population) reported past year hallucinogen use and 929,000 (0.4%) reported past month (&quot;current&quot;) use of hallucinogens. 14 The 2004 NSDUH also provides specific results for LSD and PCP use. Concerning LSD, 23.4 million Americans (9.7% of the population 12 and older) reported lifetime use, 592,000 (0.2%) reported past year use, and 141,000 (0.1%) reported past month use. Concerning PCP, 6.8 million (2.8%) reported lifetime use, 210,000 (0.1%) reported past year use, and 49,000 (0.0%) reported past month use. 15 Among students surveyed as part of the 2004 Monitoring the Future study, 3.5% of eighth graders, 6.4% of tenth graders, and 9.7% of twelfth graders reported using hallucinogens at least once during their lifetimes. In 2003, these percentages were 4.0%, 6.9%, and 10.6%, respectively. 16 Percent of Students Reporting Hallucinogen Use, 2003-2004 8th Grade10th Grade12th Grade 2003 20042003 20042003 2004 Past month 1.2% 1.0% 1.5% 1.6% 1.8% 1.9% Past year 188.8.131.52.15.96.2 Lifetime 4.03.56.9 6.410.69.7Approximately 1.8% of eighth graders, 2.8% of tenth graders, and 4.6% of twelfth graders surveyed in 2004 reported lifetime use of LSD. 17 Percent of Students Reporting LSD Use, 2003-2004 8th Grade10th Grade12th Grade 2003 20042003 20042003 2004 Past month 0.6% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% Past year 184.108.40.206.61.92.2 Lifetime 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168Among high school seniors surveyed in 2004, 1.6% reported lifetime use of PCP (PCP use among eighth graders and tenth graders is not collected as part of the Monitoring the Future study). 18 Percent of Twelfth Graders Reporting PCP Use, 2003-2004 20032004Past month 0.6%0.4% Pase year 1.3 0.7 Lifetime 2.51.6 During 2003, 14.5% of college students and 19.7% of young adults (ages 19-28) reported using hallucinogens at least once during their lifetimes. Approximately 7.4% of college students and 5.2% of young adults reported past year use of hallucinogens, and 1.8% of college students and 1.2% of young adults reported past month hallucinogen use. 19 Approximately 8.7% of college students and 14.6% of young adults surveyed in 2003 reported lifetime LSD use. The use of LSD in the past year was 1.4% for college students and 1.2% for young adults. Approximately 0.2% of college students and young adults reported past month LSD use. Three percent of young adults reported lifetime PCP use, 0.3% reported past year PCP use, and 0.1% reported past month PCP use. PCP use data are not available for college students
PCP effects Whether PCP has any strong and consistent effects which are markedly different from other similar compounds is controversial. Some think that the drug's effects are as varied as its appearance. It may be that a moderate amount of PCP will cause users to feel detached, distant, and estranged from their surroundings. Numbness, slurred speech, and loss of coordination may be accompanied by a sense of strength and invulnerability. A blank stare, rapid and involuntary eye movements, and an exaggerated gait are alleged to be among the more observable effects. Horrifying acts of violence have been committed by people high on the drug; a well-known example is Brenda Ann Spencer, who claimed to have committed her high school massacre while under the influence of alcohol and PCP. Auditory hallucinations, image distortion, severe mood disorders, and amnesia may also occur. In some users, PCP may cause acute anxiety and a feeling of impending doom; in others, paranoia and violent hostility; and in some, it may produce a psychosis indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Modification of the manufacturing process may yield chemically related analogues capable of producing psychotic effects similar to PCP.
Text version of Hyperlink Disclaimer: This newsletter, provided by ITIS, is funded by a grant from the Illinois Department of Public Health and supported by Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Medical School. It is for educational purposes only and is meant to summarize the information available at the time of its creation. It should be construed neither as medical advice nor opinion on any specific clinical situation. For more information on a specific clinical situation,or updated information, please consult your health care provider. THE EFFECTS of HALLUCINOGEN USE DURING PREGNANCY Vol 8#2, October 2000 Christopher Dvorak, BA; Carrie L. McMahon, MS; Eugene Pergament, MD, PhD, FACMG Hallucinogens are drugs that can cause a change in the user’s mental state to the point where the perception of objective reality is distorted. These drugs are sometimes referred to as illusionogenic, psychedelic, or mind-expanding, and have long been used in cultural and religious contexts. Hallucinogens vary greatly in chemical structure, and can exist naturally or be produced synthetically. For example, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) was first synthesized in Europe in the late 1930s. There was little recognition that certain drugs had hallucinogenic properties in modern society until research began on the therapeutic effects of LSD in the 1950s. Hallucinogens were widely used in the youth culture of the 1960s and 1970s, and during the 1980s, their popularity declined. Some recent studies have indicated that hallucinogen use is again on the rise. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) LSD is a semi-synthetic alkaloid derived from lysergic acid, which is found in argot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. Commonly referred to as &quot;acid,&quot; the drug is often encountered in tablet, capsule or liquid form (sometimes added to absorbent paper). It is odorless and colorless with a slightly bitter taste. The effects of the drug last roughly 2 to 12 hours. Physical effects include increased blood pressure, dilated pupils, and rapid heartbeat. Muscular weakness, trembling, nausea, chills, and hyperventilation occur frequently. Motor skills and coordination may be impaired. Sensations and feelings change much more dramatically than the physical signs. The user may feel several different emotions at once or swing rapidly from one emotion to another. Mood-swings, the intensification or merging of the auditory, olfactory and visual systems, and an alteration in the sense of time and space are also experienced. More negative effects include panic, serious depression, anxiety, and even psychotic reactions. Most animal studies on LSD have not shown adverse effects on pregnancy, other than fetal loss at high doses (Alexander et al, 1970). However, central nervous system and ocular defects were associated with fetal LSD exposure in studies involving mice and hamsters (Auerbach et al, 1967; Geber et al, 1967). Sally Long (1972) examined the reports of 162 children of parents who took LSD before or during pregnancy. Of these children, seven were thought to have defects that could potentially be attributed to LSD intake. These included mostly cases of limb defects and one case of megacolon. Another series of cases reported by Jacobson et al (1972) included reports of sacral myelomeningocele, heart defects, including tetrology of Fallot and an AV malformation, various limb defects and hydrocephalus. It was also speculated at the time that LSD could directly alter DNA and result in cellular abnormalities. Apple et al (1974) observed an exposed fetus with extensive ocular malformations (including marked cortical degeneration of the left eye lens and partial opaqueness of the cornea) and anencephaly. However, there is no solid epidemiological evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship between LSD use and congenital anomalies (McGlothlin et al, 1970). The greatest drawback to the aforementioned studies on LSD and hallucinogens in general is that people who use LSD as a recreational drug during pregnancy are more likely to use other drugs as well (e.g., cannabis, alcohol, tobacco), more likely than someone in the average population to have infectious diseases such as gonorrhea and hepatitis, and more likely to be exposed to additional risk factors that could also have an adverse effect on pregnancy. Since the 1970s, there have been few studies done on the teratogenic effects of LSD. Psilocybin (Psilocin) Psilocybin is the active ingredient in the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom and other mushroom species. It is a derivative of tryptamine, and is chemically related to LSD. The drug is often encountered in a crude mushroom form or as a capsule containing a powdered material of any color. Effects usually last several hours. A small dose may produce sensations of mental and physical relaxation, detachment, mood changes, and perceptual distortions. Disrupted thought patterns often lead to reports of profound spiritual experiences. Larger doses can produce nausea, dizziness, anxiety, lightheadedness, shivering, abdominal discomfort, and numbness. Other reported effects include a sense of time passing slowly, yawning, facial flushing, sweating, depersonalization, feelings of unreality, and an inability to concentrate. Rolsten (1967) found psilocybin not to be teratogenic in pregnant mice. No human case reports or studies have been done regarding the teratogenicity of this substance. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) DMT (dimethyltryptamine) is a chemical resembling psilocin. It can be found in the human brain and in plant substances such as Piptadina peregrina . The drug is often encountered in liquid form, and other substances such as marijuana are sometimes soaked in a DMT solution to add potency. The effects, which are similar to those of LSD, begin almost immediately after ingestion and last approximately 30 to 60 minutes. Anxiety reactions and panic states are more frequently associated with DMT than with other hallucinogens, probably because of the unexpected rapidity of its effects. There have been no human studies on possible teratogenic effects of this chemical. Mescaline Mescaline is prepared from the peyote cactus, and has been used for centuries in religious rituals by some Indians in the southwest. For preparation, parts of the cactus are dried and ground, and sometimes put into capsules. Mescaline can also be synthesized in a powder form. At low doses, effects last between 1 and 18 hours. Physical effects include a rise in body temperature, dilated pupils, nausea, vomiting, and muscular relaxation. Common mental effects include an inability to think clearly, visual hallucinations, and a heightened sensory perception. High doses can cause hypotension, a slow respiratory rate, dry skin and headache. Geber’s (1967) animal study involving pregnant hamsters reported an increase in central nervous system defects, but a dose-response relationship was not seen. In a study by Dorance et al (1975), 57 Huichol Indians with a lifelong individual history of ingestion of peyote were compared with 50 Huichol Indian controls and ten laboratory controls for effects on lymphocyte chromosomes. The frequency of abnormalities in the experimental and control groups did not differ significantly, and no effects on lymphocyte chromosomes were found. N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) MDMA is chemically related both to mescaline and to the amphetamines. Its common street name is &quot;Ecstasy&quot;. MDMA commonly exists in a powder form and occasionally as a liquid. At low doses, effects appear 30 to 60 minutes after ingestion and persist for approximately eight hours. Users generally report a sense of well-being along with heightened tactile sensations, intensification of feelings, and increased self-insight. Higher doses produce effects similar to those of LSD, including hallucinations or sensory distortions. Psychological difficulties including confusion, depression, sleep problems, and paranoia have been reported and can occur during and sometimes weeks after taking MDMA. Physical effects include an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, dilated pupils, dry nose and throat, muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, chills, and sweating. Occasionally, adverse after-effects do occur, usually in the form of marked physical exhaustion coupled with anxiety, lasting up to two days. At high doses, serious physical reactions requiring immediate medical treatment have occurred, and MDA associated deaths and near deaths have been reported. When Colado et al (1997) administered a large dose of MDMA to rats during days 14 through 17 of gestation, hyperthermia was induced and a reduction in maternal weight gain and litter size was observed in exposed animals. However, the researchers were unable to find the same neurotoxic effects in offspring compared to the initially exposed rats. One prospective study in humans by McElhatton et al followed 127 pregnancies in which 71 cases involved exposure to ecstasy alone and 56 included exposures to other illicit drugs in addition to ecstasy. An analysis of outcomes in 78 of these pregnancies uncovered apparent increases in the incidence of club foot in female infants and congenital heart disease. Two infants with congenital heart defects were identified in this study giving an overall incidence of 26 per 1000 births (as opposed to 5-10 per 1000). However, the two infants in question were exposed to (1) ecstasy and alcohol at 6 weeks and (2) ecstasy, amphetamine and gamma hydroxybutyric acid at 0-7 weeks. Another case of a congenital heart defect after prenatal ecstasy exposure was reported by Rost van Tonningen et al (1998), but in both studies, the limitations of small sample size and other possible environmental influences could not be ruled out. Nutmeg The known active ingredient in this common household spice is elemicin, a compound chemically related to mescaline. Nutmeg oil is also a component of Vicks Vaporub, a commonly used nasal decongestant and cough suppressant. Low doses of nutmeg may result in a mild and brief euphoria, lightheadedness, and CNS stimulation. At higher doses, there can be hallucinations, panic, excessive thirst, agitation, anxiety, increased heartbeat, and vomiting. Recovery from nutmeg intoxication is slow and often involves unpleasant hangover effects. There is one report of nutmeg intoxication during pregnancy involving a woman in her 30th week of gestation, who accidentally prepared and ate some cookies containing approximately 25 times the amount of nutmeg suggested by her recipe. Her symptoms were sinus tachycardia, hypertension and a sensation of impending doom. The fetal heart rate temporarily increased, but leveled off within 12 hours of maternal exposure. Her baby was delivered 10 weeks later with no complications. Phencyclidine (PCP) PCP was developed in the 1950s as an intravenous anesthetic. The use of PCP in humans was discontinued in 1965, because it was found that patients often became agitated, delusional, and irrational while recovering from its anesthetic effects. It is usually encountered as a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol, and it has a bitter taste. PCP may be encountered in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored powders. In low doses, PCP produces muscle stiffness and a lack of coordination, a slight increase in breathing rate, slurred speech, drowsiness, confusion, and a generalized numbness of the extremities. Nausea and vomiting may also develop, as well as profuse sweating, flushing, and increased heart rate. At high doses, anesthesia, blurred vision, flicking up and down of the eyes, loss of balance, drooling and dizziness may occur. Strange and violent behavior can result, sometimes involving paranoia, catatonia, and garbled speech. People who use PCP for long periods report memory loss, difficulties with speech and thinking, depression, and weight loss. Coma or death may result from severe side effects induced by large doses (uncontrollable convulsions, respiratory depression, high fever, and a sudden surge of blood pressure resulting in intracranial hemorrhage), or from an accidental injury or suicide during PCP intoxication. PCP is known to cross the placenta in humans and other animals, and it also enters the breast milk (Niholas et al, 1982). Animal studies by Jordan (1979) and Marks (1980) have found the drug to be teratogenic at very high doses, with abnormalities that include skeletal dysplasias and cleft palate. There are isolated reports of birth defects in human babies exposed to the drug in utero. In a case reported by Golden et al (1980), asymmetrical facial growth and persistent spasticity were observed. Other reports of anomalies in the offspring of phencyclidine-using women include a case of microcephaly reported by Straus et al (1981) and one case of multiple birth defects by Michaud et al (1982). The defects included an absence of the septum pellucidum, hypoplasia of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, moderate hydrocephalus, and agenesis of the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Other congenital anomalies observed by Michaud involved the cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, and musculoskeletal systems. However, a study by Wachsman et al (1989) looked at 57 infants exposed to PCP (and, in some cases, other substances) during pregnancy. No overall increased risk of congenital anomalies was noted. Other studies have obtained similar results (Patrucha et al, 1983; Chasnoff et al, 1983). In one study (Harry et al, 1992), mild behavioral and developmental abnormalities were found among preschool children exposed to phencyclidine prenatally. However, Wachsman et al (1989) and Chasnoff et al (1983) found no behavioral differences at one year of age in 62 infants exposed to PCP in utero when compared to non-exposed infants. As with the previous drugs, the multiple risk factors associated with maternal PCP use make an analysis of teratogenicity difficult. Postnatal symptoms of maternal PCP use have been more widely observed (Wachsman et al, 1989; Strauss et al, 1981). The manifestations resemble those of maternal narcotic use, and include jitteriness, hypertonia, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, irritability, and flapping tremors. Summary There is a lack of epidemiological evidence showing that hallucinogens adversely effect pregnancy outcome. Therefore, risk assessments cannot be made with any certainty. In the case of MDMA and PCP, studies are still in progress that may better characterize fetal effects. Other drugs, e.g. LSD, have not been studied over the past decades. Individuals using hallucinogens during pregnancy are often exposed to additional risk factors, making counseling difficult. The avoidance of these substances during pregnancy should be stressed.
<ul><li>To provide information about hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding consequences of hallucinogen use </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding drug interactions </li></ul><ul><li>To educate students about the symptoms of toxicity, overdose and withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>To motivate students to make informed choices about hallucinogen use </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Hallucinogen Technical Information </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Hallucinogens are one of the few drugs that can produce flashbacks even if you have not taken it for a while. </li></ul><ul><li>What types of occupations might not hire you if you admit to usage of hallucinogens? </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>PCP /Phencyclidine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCP Information at a Glance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Overview of PCP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LSD/lysergic acid: LSD Information at a Glance </li></ul><ul><li>Ecstasy/MDMA Information at a Glance </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Patterns of use in society </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Review of Hallucinogens and Related Trends </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>PCP affects multiple neurotransmitter systems in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>PCP inhibits the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin and also inhibits the action of glutamate by blocking NMDA receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some types of opioid receptors in the brain are also affected by PCP. </li></ul><ul><li>These complex effects on multiple chemical systems in the brain most likely underlie the behavioral effects of PCP. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>General Effects: Altered states of perception and feeling; nausea; persisting perception disorder (flashbacks) </li></ul><ul><li>Also, for LSD and mescaline—increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite, sleeplessness, numbness, weakness, tremors </li></ul><ul><li>For LSD —persistent mental disorders </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Cocaine and hallucinogens do not have a typical withdrawal pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>These drugs are considered psychologically addicting rather than physically addicting. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>What does psychological addiction mean to you? </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Hallucinogens have a bad reputation for being somewhat unpredictable and producing “bad trips” How likely do you think it is and what factors do you think might contribute to having a “bad trip.” </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Report on Fetal Exposure to Various Hallucinogens </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year