Nature of Management: Meaning, Definition, it's nature purpose, importance &
Functions, Management as Art, Science & Profession- Management as social System
Concepts of management-Administration-Organization
Evolution of Management Thought:Contribution of F.W.Taylor, Henri Fayol , Elton
Mayo , Chester Barhard & Peter Drucker to the management thought. Various
approaches to management (i.e. Schools of management thought)Indian Management
Functions of Management:
Planning - Meaning - Need & Importance, types levels – advantages & limitations.
Forecasting - Need & Techniques, Decision making - Types - Process of rational
making & techniques of decision making
Organizing - Elements of organizing & processes: Types of organizations, Delegation of
authority - Need, difficulties in delegation – Decentralization Staffing - Meaning &
Direction - Nature – Principles Communication - Types & Importance
Motivation - Importance – theories Leadership - Meaning - styles, qualities & functions
• A systematic arrangement of people brought together
to accomplish some specific purpose.
• Characteristics of an Organization
• Example: To start a Business…
• The process of using men, money, machines, material
and processes through proper direction, coordination
and integration of several activities so as to produce
desired results and attain predetermined goals.
• Management: Input Output
• OR Process of getting things done, efficiently and
effectively, through and with other people.
Characteristics of Mgt.
• Mgt. is Universal
• Mgt. is goal oriented
• Mgt. is continuous process
• Mgt. is an integrating process
• Mgt. is intangible
• Mgt. is multi-disciplinary
• Mgt. is a social process
• Mgt. is situational
Importance of MGT.
• Attainment of Goals
• Stability and Growth
• Change and Development
• Efficiency and Effectiveness
Concepts of Management
• Integration Concept
• Decision Making Concept
• Human Relation Concept
• Productivity Concept
• Functional Concept
Functions of Mgt.
Planning Organizing Staffing
Controlling Co-ordinating Directing
Mgt. Science & Art
• Mgt. is an art of making people more effective and Science
is in how you do it. (E.g.- 4 workers produce 6 units in a
• Mgt. is Science
• Descriptive in nature
• Based on certain techniques and concepts
• Example: ‘Consumerism’
• Mgt. is an Art
• Creative in nature
• Personalized Process
• Example: ‘Painter’
• Manager’s Role
as a Monitor.
• Manager’s role
as a disseminator.
• Manager’s role
as a spokesman.
• As an
• As a conflict
• As a Resource
• As a Negotiator.
• As a Figurehead.
• As a Leader.
• As a Liaison
• Conceptual Skills
• Analytical Skills
• Decision making Skills
• Human Relations or Behavioural Skills
• Administrative Skills
• Technical Skills
1. Administrative (14 – Principles)
• Henry Fayol
2. Scientific Management
• F. W. Taylor
3. Human Relation Movement
• Abraham Maslow
• Douglas McGregor
• Elton Mayo
• Mary Parker Follet
Administrative Mgt. – Henry Fayol
1. Division of Work
2. Authority &
4. Unity of Command
5. Unity of Direction
6. Individual to
9. Scalar Chain
12. Stability of Tenure
14. Esprit de Corps
Scientific Management – F. W.
1. Science – Not Rule Of Thumb
2. Harmony – Not Discord
3. Employee Efficiency
4. Cooperation – Not Individualism
• Credit to all employees
5. Maximum – Not Restricted Output
• Economies of Scale
Basis Taylor Fayol
Taylor disregards human
elements and there is more
stress on improving men,
materials and methods.
Fayol pays due regards on
human element. E.g.
Principle of initiative,
Espirit De’ Corps and
Status Father of scientific
Father of management
Efficiency & administration Stressed on efficiency Stressed on general
Approach It has micro-approach
because it is restricted to
It has macro-approach and
discusses general principles
Scope of principles
These principles are
restricted to production
These are applicable in all
kinds of organization.
Human Relation Movement
• Psycho-Social System
• Needs (apart from economic needs)
• Recognition, appreciation, self respect.
• Interpersonal Relationship
• Remove Conflicts
• Managers should get along with workers
• Sense of Belongingness – Importance to workers
• Example: A girl and her Boss Story……
• Degree of Satisfaction & Motivation
Modern Approaches To Management
• Quantitative Approach (Air India – ROI & no. of Aircrafts)
• Rational Decisions – Planning & Controlling
• Contingency Approach
• Study, Analyze and Package preparation
• E.g.- Material Not Remuneration
• Situation Driven
• Behavioural Approach
• Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology
• All are different – Perception, interests, goals.
• System Approach
• Overall Picture of an Organization
• Relationship b/w internal components