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Book bible (1) - advanced (full page)

  2. 2. CHAPTER 4 SIN pg. 24 BIBLE (1) - ADVANCEDGen 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.TO CREATE bara (‫― ,)4521 ,א ָּב‬to create, make.‖ This verb is of profound theological ‫ָּר‬significance, since it has only God as its subject. Only God can ―create‖ in thesense implied by bara . The verb expresses creation out of nothing, an ideaseen clearly in passages having to do with creation on a cosmic scale: ―In thebeginning God created the heavens and the earth‖ (Gen. 1:1; cf. Gen. 2:3; Isa.40:26; 42:5). All other verbs for ―creating‖ allow a much broader range ofmeaning; they have both divine and human subjects, and are used in contextswhere bringing something or someone into existence is not the issue. Bara is frequently found in parallel to these other verbs, such as asah, ―tomake‖ (Isa. 41:20; 43:7; 45:7, 12; Amos 4:13), yatsar, ―to form‖ (Isa. 43:1, 7;45:7; Amos 4:13), and kun, ―to establish.‖ A verse that illustrates all of thesewords together is Isa. 45:18: ―For thus saith the Lord that created [bara] theheavens; God himself that formed [yatsar] the earth and made [asah] it; he hathestablished [kun] it, he created [bara] it not in vain, he formed [yatar] it to beinhabited: I am the Lord; and there is none else.‖ The technical meaning of bara(to ―create out of nothing‖) may not hold in these passages; perhaps the verb waspopularized in these instances for the sake of providing a poetic synonym.Objects of the verb include the heavens and earth (Gen. 1:1; Isa. 40:26; 42:5;45:18; 65:17) man (Gen. 1:27; 5:2; 6:7; Deut. 4:32; Ps. 89:47; Isa. 43:7; 45:12);Israel (Isa. 43:1; Mal. 2:10); a new thing (Jer. 31:22); cloud and smoke (Isa. 4:5);north and south (Ps. 89:12); salvation and righteousness (Isa. 45:8); speech (Isa.57:19); darkness (Isa. 45:7); wind (Amos 4:13); and a new heart (Ps. 51:10). Acareful study of the passages where bara occurs shows that in the fewnon-poetic uses (primarily in Genesis), the writer uses scientifically preciselanguage to demonstrate that God brought the object or concept into being frompreviously nonexistent material.1_________________________1 Vine, W. E. ; Unger Merrill F. ; White, William: Vine’s Complete ExpositoryDictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville : T. Nelson, 1996, S. 1:51
  3. 3. (1) 1. Observe, in this verse, four things:— (1.) The effect produced—the heavens and the earth, that is, the world,including the whole frame and furniture of the universe, the world and all thingstherein, Acts 17:24. The world is a great house, consisting of upper and lowerstories, the structure stately and magnificent, uniform and convenient, and everyroom well and wisely furnished. It is the visible part of the creation that Moseshere designs to account for; therefore he mentions not the creation of angels. Butas the earth has not only its surface adorned with grass and flowers, but also itsbowels enriched with metals and precious stones (which partake more of its solidnature and more valuable, though the creation of them is not mentioned here), sothe heavens are not only beautified to our eye with glorious lamps which garnishits outside, of whose creation we here read, but they are within replenished withglorious beings, out of our sight, more celestial, and more surpassing them inworth and excellency than the gold or sapphires surpass the lilies of the field. Inthe visible world it is easy to observe, [1.] Great variety, several sorts of beingsvastly differing in their nature and constitution from each other. Lord, howmanifold are thy works, and all good! [2.] Great beauty. The azure sky andverdant earth are charming to the eye of the curious spectator, much more theornaments of both. How transcendent then must the beauty of the Creator be! [3.]Great exactness and accuracy. To those that, with the help of microscopes,narrowly look into the works of nature, they appear far more fine than any of theworks of art. [4.] Great power. It is not a lump of dead and inactive matter, butthere is virtue, more or less, in every creature: the earth itself has a magneticpower. [5.] Great order, a mutual dependence of beings, an exact harmony ofmotions, and an admirable chain and connection of causes. [6.] Great mystery.There are phenomena in nature which cannot be solved, secrets which cannot befathomed nor accounted for. But from what we see of heaven and earth we mayeasily enough infer the eternal power and Godhead of the great Creator, and mayfurnish ourselves with abundant matter for his praises. And let our make andplace, as men, remind us of our duty as Christians, which is always to keepheaven in our eye and the earth under our feet. (2.) The author and cause of this great work—GOD. The Hebrew word isElohim, which be speaks, [1.] The power of God the Creator. Elsignifies the (2)
  4. 4. strong God; and what less than almighty strength could bring all things out ofnothing? [2.] The plurality of persons in the Godhead, Father, Son, and HolyGhost. This plural name of God, in Hebrew, which speaks of him as manythough he is one, was to the Gentiles perhaps a savour of death unto death,hardening them in their idolatry; but it is to us a savour of life unto life,confirming our faith in the doctrine of the Trinity, which, though but darklyintimated in the Old Testament, is clearly revealed in the New. The Son of God,the eternal Word and Wisdom of the Father, was with him when he made theworld (Prov. 8:30), nay, we are often told that the world was made by him, andnothing made without him, Jn. 1:3, 10; Eph. 3:9; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2. O whathigh thoughts should this form in our minds of that great God whom we drawnigh to in religious worship, and that great Mediator in whose name we drawnigh! (3.) The manner in which this work was effected: God created it, that is, madeit out of nothing. There was not any pre-existent matter out of which the worldwas produced. The fish and fowl were indeed produced out of the waters and thebeasts and man out of the earth; but that earth and those waters were made out ofnothing. By the ordinary power of nature, it is impossible that any thing shouldbe made out of nothing; no artificer can work, unless he has something to workon. But by the almighty power of God it is not only possible that somethingshould be made of nothing (the God of nature is not subject to the laws ofnature), but in the creation it is impossible it should be otherwise, for nothing ismore injurious to the honour of the Eternal Mind than the supposition of eternalmatter. Thus the excellency of the power is of God and all the glory is to him. (4.) When this work was produced: In the beginning, that is, in the beginningof time, when that clock was first set a going: time began with the production ofthose beings that are measured by time. Before the beginning of time there wasnone but that Infinite Being that inhabits eternity. Should we ask why God madethe world no sooner, we should but darken counsel by words without knowledge;for how could there be sooner or later in eternity? And he did make it in thebeginning of time, according to his eternal counsels before all time. The JewishRabbies have a saying, that there were seven things which God created beforethe world, by which they only mean to express the excellency of these things:—The (3)
  5. 5. law, repentance, paradise, hell, the throne of glory, the house of thesanctuary,and the name of the Messiah. But to us it is enough to say, In the beginning wasthe Word, Jn. 1:1. 2. Let us learn hence, (1.) That atheism is folly, and atheists are the greatestfools in nature; for they see there is a world that could not make itself, and yetthey will not own there is a God that made it. Doubtless, they are without excuse,but the God of this world has blinded their minds. (2.) That God is sovereignLord of all by an incontestable right. If he is the Creator, no doubt he is theowner and possessor of heaven and earth. (3.) That with God all things arepossible, and therefore happy are the people that have him for their God, andwhose help and hope stand in his name, Ps. 121:2; 124:8. (4.) That the God weserve is worthy of, and yet is exalted far above, all blessing and praise, Neh. 9:5,6. If he made the world, he needs not our services, nor can be benefited by them(Acts 17:24, 25), and yet he justly requires them, and deserves our praise, Rev.4:11. If all is of him, all must be to him. II. Here is the work of creation in its embryo, v. 2, where we have an accountof the first matter and the first mover. 1. A chaos was the first matter. It is here called the earth (though the earth,properly taken, was not made till the third day v. 10), because it did mostresemble that which afterwards was called earth, mere earth, destitute of itsornaments, such a heavy unwieldy mass was it; it is also called the deep, both forits vastness and because the waters which were afterwards separated from theearth were now mixed with it. This immense mass of matter was it out of whichall bodies, even the firmament and visible heavens themselves, were afterwardsproduced by the power of the Eternal Word. The Creator could have made hiswork perfect at first, but by this gradual proceeding he would show what is,ordinarily, the method of his providence and grace. Observe the description ofthis chaos. (1.) There was nothing in it desirable to be seen, for it was withoutform and void. Toho and Bohu, confusion and emptiness; so these words arerendered, Isa. 34:11. It was shapeless, it was useless, it was without inhabitants,without ornaments, the shadow or rough draught of things to come, and notthe (4)
  6. 6. image of the things, Heb. 10:1. The earth is almost reduced to the same conditionagain by the sin of man, under which the creation groans. See Jer. 4:23, I beheldthe earth, and lo it was without form, and void. To those who have their hearts inheaven this lower world, in comparison with that upper, still appears to benothing but confusion and emptiness. There is no true beauty to be seen, nosatisfying fulness to be enjoyed, in this earth, but in God only. (2.) If there hadbeen any thing desirable to be seen, yet there was no light to see it by; fordarkness, thick darkness, was upon the face of the deep. God did not create thisdarkness (as he is said to create the darkness of affliction, Isa. 45:7), for it wasonly the want of light, which yet could not be said to be wanted till somethingwas made that might be seen by it; nor needs the want of it be much complainedof, when there was nothing to be seen but confusion and emptiness. If the workof grace in the soul is a new creation, this chaos represents the state of anunregenerate graceless soul: there is disorder, confusion, and every evil work; itis empty of all good, for it is without God; it is dark, it is darkness itself. This isour condition by nature, till almighty grace effects a blessed change. 2. The Spirit of God was the first mover: He moved upon the face of thewaters. When we consider the earth without form and void, we think it is like thevalley full of dead and dry bones. Can these live? Can this confused mass ofmatter be formed into a beautiful world? Yes, if a spirit of life from God enterinto it, Eze. 37:9. Now there is hope concerning this thing; for the Spirit of Godbegins to work, and, if he works, who or what shall hinder? God is said to makethe world by his Spirit, Ps. 33:6; Job 26:13; and by the same mighty worker thenew creation is effected. He moved upon the face of the deep, as Elijah stretchedhimself upon the dead child,—as the hen gathers her chickens under her wings,and hovers over them, to warm and cherish them, Mt. 23:37,—as the eagle stirsup her nest, and flutters over her young (it is the same world that is here used),Deu. 32:11. Learn hence, That God is not only the author of all being, but thefountain of life and spring of motion. Dead matter would be for ever dead if hedid not quicken it. And this makes it credible to us that God should raise thedead. That power which brought such a world as this out of confusion,emptiness, and darkness, at the beginning of time, can, at the end of time, bringour vile bodies out of the grave, though it is a land of darkness as darkness itself,and without any order (Job 10:22), and can make them glorious bodies. (5)Verses 3-5
  7. 7. We have here a further account of the first day’s work, in which observe, 1. Thatthe first of all visible beings which God created was light; not that by it hehimself might see to work (for the darkness and light are both alike to him), butthat by it we might see his works and his glory in them, and might work ourworks while it is day. The works of Satan and his servants are works of darkness;but he that doeth truth, and doeth good, cometh to the light, and coveteth it, thathis deeds may be made manifest, Jn. 3:21. Light is the great beauty and blessingof the universe. Like the first-born, it does, of all visible beings, most resembleits great Parent in purity and power, brightness and beneficence; it is of greataffinity with a spirit, and is next to it; though by it we see other things, and aresure that it is, yet we know not its nature, nor can describe what it is, or by whatway the light is parted, Job 38:19, 24. By the sight of it let us be led to, andassisted in, the believing contemplation of him who is light, infinite and eternallight (1 Jn. 1:5), and the Father of lights (Jam. 1:17), and who dwells ininaccessible light, 1 Tim. 6:16.Vs 2 And the earth was without form…………..Ezek. 28:1111 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, 12 Son of man, take upa lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the LordGOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. 13 Thouhast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, thesardiusd, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire,the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and ofthy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. 14 Thou art theanointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holymountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones offire. 15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, tilliniquity was found in thee. 16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they havefilled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I willcast______________________d sardius: or, ruby (6)thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O coveringcherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. 17 Thine heart was lifted up becauseof thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will
  8. 8. cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee.2ISA: 14:1312 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer 2, son of the morning! how artthou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! 13 For thou hastsaid in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above thestars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides ofthe north: 14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like themost High. 15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. 162Michael Defeats The DragonRev. 12:7 And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought againstthe dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, 8 And prevailed not; neitherwas their place found any more in heaven. 9 And the great dragon was castout, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the wholeworld: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with himLUKE 10:18And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subjectunto us through thy name. 18 And he said unto them, I beheld Satan aslightning fall from heaven.________________________2 The Holy Bible : King James Version. Electronic ed. Of the 1769 edition ofthe 1611 Authorized Version. Bellingham WA : Logos Research Systems, Inc.,1995, S. Eze 28:11-17 (7)Dispensation and Major CovenantsDISPENSATION --- a period of time under which mankind is answerable toGod for how it has obeyed the revelation of God that it has received. The
  9. 9. term―dispensation: is found twice in the NKJV: ―The dispensation of the fullness ofthe times‖ (Eph. 1:10) and ―the dispensation of the grace of God‖ (Eph. 3:2;administration, NIV). The KJV uses the term four times (1 Cor. 9:17; Eph.1:10; 3:2; Col. 1:25). Many Bible students believe all of history can be divided into severaldispensations. According to this view, all of history has been pointing towardthe SECOND COMING of Christ, when salvation will be made complete.Others reject this view, insisting that God has had faithful, loyal followers in alltimes who have lived according to HIS COVENANT with them. Seven dispensations are commonly identified by traditionaldispensationalist: Innocence, from Creation to the Fall of Adam and Eve andGod’s sending them out of the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:24); Conscience, thecovenant with Adam, ending with the judgment of the Flood (Genesis 9); Humangovernment, the covenant with Noah, extending to the time of Abraham;Promise, from Abraham’s call (Gen. 12:1) to Moses; Law, from the giving of theLaw to Moses (Ex. 19:8, 20-31) to the death of Jesus Christ; Grace, from thedeath and resurrection of Christ to His Second Coming; Kingdom, theestablishment of God’s kingdom on earth and the thousand-year reign of Christover the nations.2DISPENSATION vine’s Expository Dictionary oikonomia (o kovouia, 3622) primarily signifies ―the management of ahousehold or of household affairs‖ (oikos, ―a house,‖ nomos, ―a law‖); thenthe management or administration of the property of others, and so ―astewardship,‖Luke 16:2-4; elsewhere only in the epistles of Paul, who applies it (a) to theresponsibility entrusted to him of preaching the gospel, 1 Cor. 9:17 (RV,―stewardship,‖ KJV, ―dispensation‖); (b) to the stewardship committed to him―to fulfill the Word of God,‖ the fulfillment being the unfoldingof the (8)completion of the divinely arranged and imparted cycle of truthswhich are consummated in the truth relating to the church as the body ofChrist, Col. 1:25 (RV and KJV, ―dispensation‖); so in Eph. 3:2, of the graceof God given him as a stewardship (―dispensation‖) in regard to the same
  10. 10. ―mystery‖; (c) in Eph. 1:10 and 3:9, it is used of the arrangement oradministration by God, by which in ―the fullness of the times‖ (or seasons)God will sum up all things in the heavens and on earth in Christ. In Eph. 3:9some mss. have koinonia, ―fellowship,‖ for oikonomia, ― dispensation.‖ In 1Tim. 1:4 oikonomia may mean either a stewardship in the sense of (a) above, ora ―dispensation‖ in the sense of (c). The reading oikodomia, ―edifying,‖ insome mss., is not to be accepted. See STEWARDSHIP.2 Note: A ―dispensation‖ is not a period or epoch (a common, but erroneous,use of the word), but a mode of dealing, an arrangement or administration ofaffairs. Cf. oikonomos, ―a steward,‖ and oikonomeo, ―to be a steward,‖2Look up all dispensation and find their relationship to the Major CovenantsWhat is a dispensation?Can you name them?1. Judges. The judges were temporary and special deliverers, sent by God todeliver the Israelites from their oppressors; not supreme magistrates, succeedingto the authority of Moses and Joshua. Their power only extended over portionsof the country, and some were contemporaneous. Their first work was that ofdeliverers and leaders in war; they then administered justice to the people, andtheir authority supplied the want of a regular government. Even while theadministration of Samuel gave something like a settled government to the south,there was scope for the irregular exploits of Samson on the borders of thePhilistines; and Samuel at last established his authority as judge and prophet, butstill as the servant of Jehovah, only to see it so abused by his sons as to exhaustthe patience of the people, who at length demanded a king, after the pattern of thesurrounding nations. The following is a list of the judges , whose history is givenunder their respective names:— (9) The three best-known judges or deliverers described in the book areDEBORAH (4:1–5:31), GIDEON (6:1–8:32), and SAMSON (13:1–16:31). Theother nine heroic figures from this period in Israel’s history are, EHUD; ELON;IBZAN; JAIR; JEPHTHAH; OTHNIEL; SHAMGAR; TOLA, and ABDON. The Book of Judges contains some of the best-known stories in the Bible. Onejudge, Gideon, routed a Midianite army of several thousand with a group of 300
  11. 11. warriors. Under the cover of darkness, Gideon and his men hid lighted torchesinside empty pitchers, then broke the pitchers and blew trumpets to catch thearmy by surprise. The mighty Midianites fled in panic (7:15–25). An interesting part of the Gideon story is the way in which this judge of Israeltested what he perceived to be God’s call. First, Gideon spread a piece of woolon the ground and asked God to saturate it with dew but leave the ground aroundit dry if he wanted Gideon to deliver Israel. This happened exactly that way. Stillnot satisfied, Gideon asked God to reverse this procedure the second night—toleave the wool dry with wet ground all around it. After this happened, Gideonagreed to lead his band of warriors against the Midianites (6:36–40). Another famous story in the Book of Judges is about Samson and Delilah. Ajudge of superhuman strength, Samson defeated superior forces of the Philistinetribe several times by himself. They finally captured him after Delilah betrayedhim by cutting his long hair, which was the secret of his strength. In captivity,Samson took thousands of his enemies to their death by pulling down the pillarsof the temple where the Philistines were worshipping their pagan god Dagon(16:1–31). 3 Lets look at the Exodus A. The Book of the Covenant. Technically, the ―Book of the Covenant‖was everything that Moses read to the Israelites at the foot of Mount Sinai (cf.Ex. 24:3–7), including the Ten Commandments (Ex. 20:2–17). Later Jewishleaders called the book of Deuteronomy the ―Book of the Cov-enant‖________________________3 Youngblood, Ronald F. ; Bruce, F. F.; Harrison, R. K. ; Thomas NelsonPublishers: Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville : T. Nelson, 1995 (10)(2 Kin. 21:2; 23:2; 2 Chr. 34:30). Deuteronomy is generally thought to be ―thebook of the law‖ discovered during the restoration of the temple under KingJosiah of Judah (2 Kin. 22:8). The Israelites accepted the entire Law as part of their covenant with God.They believed that the Decalogue stated the basic rules of the Law, while theother Old Testament laws applied these principles and clarified them. This is whyboth the Ten Commandments with the detailed Sinai Legislation and equally theentire book of Deuteronomy, in which the Sinai legislation is reapplied and
  12. 12. amplified, may be called the ―Book of the Covenant.‖ B. The Holiness Code. God unfolded His laws over a span of manygenerations. The Ten Commandments were expanded and explained inExodus 20:22–23:33. In turn, the laws of Leviticus and Deuteronomy expandedand explained the laws of Exodus. Leviticus explained the first fourcommandments of the Decalogue—those that had to do with the worship ofGod—while most of Deuteronomy dealt with the rest of the Decalogue. The collection of laws found in Leviticus 17–26 is called the Holiness Code;its primary concern was to keep Israel—God’s chosen people—holy and pure.The purpose of the Holiness Code was clearly expressed in Leviticus 20:26:―And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the Lord am holy, and have severed youfrom other people, that ye should be mine.‖ C. The Deuteronomic Code. Bible scholars disagree about how much of theBook of Deuteronomy makes up the Deuteron-omic Code. (Some believe thatDeuteronomy 1–11 continues the discussion of worship from the Book ofLeviticus; others include this section in the Holiness Code, because it differsfrom the rest of the book of Deuteronomy.) But the Decalogue (Deut. 5) laid the foundation for the book of Deuteronomy.The laws that governed human relationships would have made no sense withoutthe laws governing man’s relationship with God. So it is more logical to see theBook of Deuteronomy as a complete work, and to call the entire book the―Deuteronomic Code.‖ It covers the wide range of ethical and ritual concernsthat Moses raised with the Israelites just before they entered the Promised Land. (11) Notice that the book of Exodus divides its case laws from its general legalpolicies (Ex. 21:1–22:17; 22:18–23:33). The fact that Deuteronomy blends thesetwo forms of law together confirms that it was probably written later. Also noticethat the laws of Deuteronomy were designed for a more settled way of life; forinstance, the book adds laws of inheritance (Deut. 21:15–17) and interest onloans (Deut. 23:20) to the Exodus laws. These new laws reflected a life thatwould be less nomadic. When Deuteronomy was written, the Israelites were nolonger destined to wander in the wilderness; they were ready to conquer Canaanand settle down. We find more of these domestic laws in the book of Numbers,such as the laws of a woman’s inheritance (Num. 27:1–11; 36:1–12).
  13. 13. III. Functional Development of Law. The law of Israel developed overseveral hundred years as God gave each generation the instructions it needed forits way of life. When the laws of the Bible are grouped by topic, we get a pictureof how they unfolded through the centuries. A. Ceremonial Law. The ancient Israelites centered all of their activities onthe worship of Jehovah. Each person was expected to worship God individually,just as the whole nation was to worship Him together. Jesus recalled this whenHe said He could sum up all the commands of the Old Testament in onecommandment—to love God (Matt. 22:37; cf. Deut. 6:5; Lev. 19:18). In great detail, the Bible described the ceremonies of worship that were soimportant to the life of God’s people. These scriptures show that even though aperson cannot please God on his own, God makes that person able to worshipHim acceptably. 1. Ark of the Covenant. The Bible’s ceremonial law mentioned severalsacred objects that the Israelites kept at the center of their camp as they wanderedin the wilderness. The most important of these was the ark of the covenant. The ark of the covenant was a wooden box about 122 x 76 x 76 cm. (4 x 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 ft.), or 2 1/2 x 1 1/2 cubits. It was made of acacia (“shittim,”KJV) wood and covered with gold, inside and out. The Israelites believed thisbox was God’s throne, and so they called its solid gold lid the ―mercy seat.‖ Two (12)golden cherubim (angelic statues) stood on opposite ends of the box, facing themercy seat (Ex. 25:10–22). Inside the box the Israelites kept the stone tablets onwhich God gave them the Ten Commandments, a pot of manna, and Aaron’srod—all reminders of God’s love for them. The Israelites carried this ark at the head of their procession across the JordanRiver (Josh. 3–4). Arabian tribes carried similar arks into battle as a magic charmto gain their gods’ favor. But the ark of the covenant was a symbol of thecovenant between God and men, not a magic charm. 2. Central Sanctuary. God promised Israel that some day they would be at―rest‖ in a land of their own (cf. Heb. 4). When that day came, they weresupposed to build a central sanctuary where they could worship Him. (See ―Jews
  14. 14. in New Testament Times.‖ ) God chose all of the Israelites to be His priests (Ex. 19:6), but most of themhad to earn a living. Therefore He ordered that the tribe of Levi should representthe whole nation in the sanctuary (Ex. 28:43–29:9). The Levites had to followspecial rules to keep themselves pure for this kind of service. God chose theLevitical family of Aaron to be His priests, and they had to follow stricter rules(Lev. 10:8–11). From them, God chose one man to be the high priest and gavehim even more special rules. Why God would lay out such complex rules for worship puzzles manymodern readers of the Bible. But the crucial idea behind the ceremonial laws washoliness, that is, separation, closeness, and conformity to God. Obedience to thelaws assured that God’s people would be different from all others. The worshipof God was most important in their lives, so they devoted much time and care toit. (See ―Worship Rituals.‖ )B. Dietary Law. God gave the Israelites a special diet to emphasize that theywere His special people (Deut. 12:15). He did not allow them to eat meat thatwas improperly butchered (Lev. 7:22–27) or any of the first- fruits from a plant(Ex. 23:19; 34:26). He gave them many other rules about their diet. Here aresome examples: (13) —They could not eat any blood, because life was in the blood (Deut. 12:23) and it was a covering (atonement) for sin (Lev. 17:11). —They could not eat any animal fat, because it should be offered to God (Lev. 7:23, 31). —They could not eat animals killed by wild beasts or animals that died of natural causes (Lev. 7:22–27). —They could not eat scavenger animals, such as vultures (Deut. 14:11–20), or organs that remove impurities from an animal’s body (Ex. 29:13, 22). —They could eat water animals with scales or fins, but not others, such as the otter (Deut. 14:9–10).
  15. 15. —They could eat any plant-eating animals which both chewed their cud and had a parted hoof (such as cows), but no others (Deut. 14:6–8). —They could not eat any crawling or flying insects, except those of the locust and beetle families (Lev. 11:22–23). —They could eat any fruits after the fourth harvest (Lev. 19:23), as well as any vegetables and grains (Gen. 1:29–30) or eggs (Deut. 22:6–7). —They could not eat or drink anything that had been left open in a room with a dead or dying person (Num. 19:11–22). —They could not eat a goat’s kid boiled in its mother’s milk because this was a pagan ritual of the Canaanites (Ex. 23:19). Some basic concepts of biblical law emerge from this list. First, God’s peoplewere to give Him what was rightfully His (the blood and fat). Second, they wereto avoid contact with sources of defilement, such as the dead. Third, they were toavoid anything pagan or idolatrous. Fourth, all of the dietary laws came fromGod; He alone decided what His people should eat. (14) C. Quarantine Law. God laid down strict rules about death, illness,childbirth, and a woman’s monthly menstrual period. The Israelites learned thatthese things could make them unclean and unfit for acceptable worship (cf. Lev.12; 14:1–32; 15). The Israelites knew that God was a God of the living, so they accepted thatthey must keep death away from their worship. If they touched a corpse, theycould not go to a worship service until they had cleansed themselves(Lev. 22:3–7). God blessed marriage and the raising of a family (Deut. 28:11), but His lawson childbirth reminded the Israelites that they were born in sin. (A woman whobore a child had to cleanse herself by rituals; so did the midwife and anyone elsewho attended the birth—Lev. 12.) These laws also reminded the Israelites thatsex was not a part of their worship. This set them farther apart from other ancientcultures, for whom fertility rites and temple prostitutes formed an important partof worship.
  16. 16. D. Laws of Dedication. God taught the Israelites that the firstborn of everyfamily, animal, and plant belonged to Him. They gave the firstborn to God as asymbol of giving all life back to Him. Because God counted Israel His firstbornamong mankind, He called the nation to dedicate itself to serving Him(Ex. 4:22–23). God claimed the Israelites as His people when they lived in Egypt. AnsweringHis call, they followed Moses into the wilderness and entered into a covenant (atreaty or agreement) with God at Mount Sinai. They agreed to let the tribe ofLevi represent the firstborn of the nation in its worship ceremony (Num.3:40–41; 8:18). The other Israelites paid a fee to excuse their own firstbornchildren from this duty (Lev. 27:1–8). Once a year they sacrificed the firstborn ofall flocks, herds, and fields to the Lord (Deut. 14:22–27). After the Israelitessettled in Canaan, God told them to give these firstfruits to the Levites (Lev.23:10, 17). This demonstrated that the land and all its fruits belonged to God. (15) The Israelites probably gave three tithes. They called the first ―the Lord’stithe.‖ It was one-tenth of their money and produce, and they gave it to theLevites, who weren’t allowed to own any land (Num. 18:21–24). From what theyreceived, the Levites gave a tithe to the priests (Num. 18:26). The Israelites gave a second tithe three times a year when they went to thecentral sanctuary (Deut. 12:6–7, 17–18). They gave the third tithe once everythree years; they left it at the city gate to be distributed among the Levites,strangers, orphans, and widows (Deut. 14:27–29). These tithes amounted toabout 13 percent of a man’s total income. 1 The tithe system allowed all of theIsraelites to offer their possessions to God. It spread the responsibility formaintaining worship among the rich and the poor, the willing and the unwilling.God ordered the Israelites not to plant their land in the seventh year (Ex.23:10–11), and He did not require a tithe in that year. Thus God expected men torecognize His Lordship, but He demanded only a relatively small portion of theirproperty for Himself. In addition to these tithes, every adult male of the wilderness generation paid apoll tax to raise funds for constructing the tabernacle (Ex. 38:24–31). All Israelite
  17. 17. men over the age of 20 paid this tax. E. Laws of Religious Symbolism. God commanded the Israelites to wearcertain symbols to show their dedication to Him. For example, Jewish men worephylacteries—tiny containers that held key Bible texts. The Old Testament oftenmentions the phylacteries, but gives no specific command from God concerningthem (Ex. 13:9; Deut. 6:8; 11:18). An Israelite would tie the phylactery to hisforehead, his left hand, or the doorpost of his house. God told the Israelites to wear blue fringes on their garments (Deut. 22:12;Num. 15:37–41). These fringes showed a person’s commitment to God’s royallaw. Jesus wore them (Matt. 9:20), but He condemned Jews who made theirfringes large to boast of their dedication to God (Matt. 23:5)._______________________1 1 R. J. Rushdoony, Institutes of Political Law (Nutley, N.J.: Craig Press, 1973), p. 53. (16) F. Civil Law. The people of Israel knew themselves called to worshipGod with their entire lives. This meant that their obedience extended to therealm ofcivil laws as well as of religious laws. They consulted God when they selectedtheir leaders, and they looked to God to guide their government. They believedthat God had set up the powers of civil government for their own good. 1. Political Leaders. God would not allow anyone who had a physicalhandicap to serve in a position of leadership. He banned from office any malewho was sexually maimed, anyone who was born out of wedlock, and anyonewho was a Moabite or Ammonite (mixed races). The law prevented these peoplefrom entering the ―congregation of the Lord,‖ the chief political body of thenation (Deut. 23:1–3). These laws offend our modern sense of democracy, but we must rememberthat ancient Israel was not a democracy. It was a theocracy (a government ruledby God), and God stressed that His people should be pure. He wanted Israelitesto be spiritually clean and perfect; He symbolized this by allowing only thosewho were physically and racially perfect to come into His presence. God gave Israel specific instructions for choosing a king (Deut. 17:14–20).Some modern scholars believe that these laws date from after the time of Moses,
  18. 18. but there is no proof of that. What is said is that God required a king who wouldsubmit to the laws of the covenant, and this is fully in keeping with the teachingsof the rest of the Pentateuch. Anticipating the Israelites’ desire for a king, God laid down the laws ofDeuteronomy to make sure that the king would not lead the people away topaganism. But the Israelites did not need these laws until many generationsafter Moses (cf. 1 Sam. 8:5). 2. Israel’s Army. God allowed Israel to raise an army for defense (Num.2:14), but He did not want His people to become a war-like nation, greedy forland and power. He would not let them have war horses (Deut. 17:16), nor wouldHe let them keep anything they captured in war. But they could protect theborders of the Promised Land from any invaders, and they could crushrebel (17)armies within their country. The generals of Israel could draft soldiers from themen over 20 years of age (cf. Num. 1:21–43), except for the Levites (Num.1:48–49). God promised to help the army of Israel if the soldiers obeyed Hislaws (Deut. 23:9–14). Israel must try to make peace with its enemies beforegoing into battle, but often Israel had to destroy its enemies (Deut. 2:34; 3:6).Sometimes God allowed the troops to spare young virgins and marry them. But ifa soldier decided to do this, he could not treat the woman as a slave or captive(Deut. 21:10–14). Even in war, God told the Israelites to respect the life He hadcreated. He ordered them to protect all innocent forms of life, including the fruittrees (Deut. 20:19–20). 4 SACRIFICIAL OFFERINGS Offerings brought periodically (sometimes daily; Ex. 29:38; Heb. 10:11) toGod in Old Testament times by which people hoped to atone for their sins andrestore fellowship with God. The Bible depicts us as sinners abiding in death anddestined for death. We abide in death because we are separated from fellowshipwith God and unable to restore that life-giving fellowship (Rom. 5:12; 8). Thesentence of death hangs over us because of our identity with Adam’s fall (Rom.5:14), our enmity toward God, and our constant sinning (Gen. 6:5; 8:21;Rom. 3:10). Ultimately, this will result in physical death and eternal suffering inhell.
  19. 19. God, however, provided a method by which our penalty can be paid andfellowship with God can be restored. This method is the sacrificial offering ofJesus Christ (Hebrews 9–10). This perfect offering was anticipated throughoutthe Old Testament by various sacrificial offerings. These Old Testamentsacrifices were effective only when offered in faith in the promised sacrifice(Gen. 3:15; Heb. 9:8–9; 10:8–9, 16–17). The first sacrifices were the offerings of Cain and Abel. Only Abel’soffering was a true sacrifice made in faith because Abel recognized his________________________4 Packer J.I. ; Tenney, Merrill Chapin ; White, William: Nelson’s Illustrated Mannersand Customs of the Bible. Nashville : Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995, S. 383 (18)unworthiness and the divine promise of a true and perfect redeemer (Gen. 4:3–5;Heb. 1:4). The sacrifice of Christ is most clearly and fully anticipated in theMosaic system of sacrificial offerings. The following specific sacrificialofferings were provided for in the Mosaic Law: Burnt Offering. This kind of offering was described as ―that which goesup(to God).‖ It was termed ―whole‖ (Lev. 6:22) because the entire offering was tobe burnt upon the altar. It was termed ―continual‖ (Ex. 29:38–42) to teach thenation of Israel that their sinfulness required a complete and continual atonementand consecration. This sacrifice, offered every morning and evening, pointed toChrist’s atoning death for sinners (2 Cor. 5:21) and His total consecration toGod (Luke 2:49). The burnt offering spoke of Christ’s passive obedience and Hissubmission to the penalty required by human sinfulness. It also refers to Hisperfect obedience to God’s law by which He did for us what we are unable to dofor ourselves. Cereal Offering (see Meal Offering). Drink Offering. An offering of liquid, such as wine (Ex. 29:40). Fellowship Offering (see Peace Offering). Grain Offering (see Meal Offering).
  20. 20. Guilt Offering (see Sin Offering). Heave Offering (see Peace Offering). Meal Offering. This offering is translated meat offering in some versions, butsince this offering was bloodless and meatless, it is more meaningfully renderedmeal (NKJV) or grain (NIV); sin offering (NRSV) cereal offering. Mealofferings were prepared and presented to God as a meal, symbolically presentingthe best fruits of human living to God to be consumed or used as He desired(Heb. 10:5–10). A notable exception to this is that poor people could presentmeal offerings as sin offerings. (19) In the meal offering a person presented to God a vicarious consecration of theperfect life and total property of another (Christ). There is no ground in thisoffering for human boasting as though the offered were received by God onthegrounds of human effort. Rather, the recognition of the person’s unworthiness isemphasized by the fact that meal offerings must be accompanied by a wholeburnt offering or a peace offering (Lev. 2:1; Num. 15:1–16). Both offerings weremade to atone for human sin. Meat Offering (see Meal Offering). Peace Offering. This sacrificial offering was also called a heave offering anda wave offering. This was a bloody offering presented to God (Lev. 3:1;fellowship offering, NIV). Part of the offering was eaten by the priest(representing God’s acceptance) and part was eaten by worshipers and theirguests (non-officiating priests or Levites and the poor, Deut. 12:18; 16:11). Thus,God hosted the meal, communing with the worshiper and other participants. Thissacrifice celebrated covering of sin, forgiveness by God, and the restoration of aright and meaningful relationship with God and with life itself (Judg. 20:26;21:4). There were three kinds of peace offerings: (1) thank offerings in response toan unsolicited special divine blessing; (2) votive (vowed) offerings in pursuit ofmaking a request or pledge to God; and (3) freewill offerings spontaneously
  21. 21. presented in worship and praise. Sin Offering. This bloody offering, also known as a guilt offering, waspresented for unintentional or intentional sins for which there was no possiblerestitution (Lev. 4:5–13; 6:24–30). If the offering was not accompanied byrepentance, divine forgiveness was withheld (Num. 15:30). Expiation orcovering (forgiveness) of sin was represented by the blood smeared on the hornsof the altar of incense or burnt offering and poured out at the base of the altar. The size and sex of the beast offered depended on the rank of the offerers. Thehigher their post the more responsibility they bore. The penalty for all sin,death, (20)was vicariously inflicted on the animal. Guilt for the worshiper’s sin wastransferred symbolically through the laying on of the offerer’s hands. Thank Offering (see Peace Offering). Trespass Offering. This was a bloody offering presented for unintentional orintentional sins of a lesser degree and for which the violator could makerestitution (Lev. 5:15). The sprinkling of the blood on the sides of the altar ratherthan on its horns gave further evidence that this offering addressed sins of alesser degree. Special provisions were made for the poor by allowing lessvaluable offerings to be substituted in this kind of sacrifice. The amount ofrestitution (money paid) was determined by the officiating priest. Restitutiondeclared that the debt incurred was paid. Significantly, Christ was declared atrespass offering in Isaiah 53:10 (guilt offering, NIV). He not only bore thesinner’s penalty and guilt but made restitution, restoring the sinner to rightstanding with God.5OFFERINGS. Offered at the door of the tabernacle, Lev. 1:3; 3:2; 17:4, 8, 9; ofthe temple, 2 Chr. 7:12; 1 Kin. 8:62; 12:27. All animal sacrifices must be eightdays old or over, Lev. 22:27. Must be salted, Lev. 2:13; Ezek. 43:24; Mark 9:49;accompanied with leaven, Lev. 7:13; Amos 4:5; without leaven, Ex. 23:18;34:25. Eaten, 1 Sam. 9:13. Ordinance relating to scapegoat, Lev. 16:7–26.Atonement for sin made by, see ATONEMENT.Figurative: Psa. 51:17; Jer. 33:11; Rom. 12:1; Phil. 4:18; Heb. 13:15.
  22. 22. Animal Sacrifices: A type of Christ, Psa. 40:6–8, with Heb. 10:1–14; Isa. 53:11,12, with Lev. 16:21; John 1:29; 1 Cor. 5:7; 2 Cor. 5:21; Eph. 5:2; Heb. 9:19–28;10:1, 11, Heb. 12; 13:11–13; Rev. 5:6.Burnt: Lev. 9:2. Its purpose was to make an atonement for sin, Lev. 1:4; 7.Ordinances concerning, Ex. 29:15–18; Lev. 1; 5:7–10; 6:9–13; 17:8, 9; 23:18,26–37; Num. 15:24, 25; 19:9; 28:26–31; 29. Accompanied by other offerings,__________________________5 Youngblood, Ronald F. ; Bruce, F.F.; Harrison, R. K.; Thomas Nelson Publishers:Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville : T. Nelson, 1995 (21)Num. 15:3–16. Skins of, belonged to priests, Lev. 7:8. Offered daily, morningand evening, Gen. 15:17; Ex. 29:38–42; Lev. 6:20; Num. 28; 29:6; 1 Chr. 16:40;2 Chr. 2:4; 13:11; Ezra 3:3; Ezek. 46:13–15. Music with, Num. 10:10.Drink: Libations of wine offered with the sacrifices, Gen. 35:14; Ex. 29:40, 41;30:9; Lev. 23:13, 18; Num. 6:17; 15:24; 28:5–15, 24–31; 29:6–11, 18–40; 2 Kin.16:13; 1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:35; Ezra 7:17.Free Will: Must be perfect, Lev. 22:17–25. To be eaten by priests, Lev. 7:11–18.With meal and drink offerings, Num. 15:1–16. Obligatory when signified in avow, Deut. 16:10; 23:23.Heave: Given to the priests’ families as part of their emoluments, Lev.10:14;Num. 5:9; 18:10–19, 24. Consecrated by being elevated by the priest, Ex.29:27. Consisted of the right thigh or hind quarter, Ex. 29:27, 28; Lev.7:12–14, 32, 34;Lev. 10:15; spoils, including captives and other articles of war, Num. 31:29, 41.When offered, Lev. 7:12–14; Num. 6:20; 15:19–21. In certain instances thisoffering was brought to the tabernacle, or temple, Deut. 12:6, 11, 17, 18. To beoffered on taking possession of the land of Canaan, Num. 15:18–21.Human Sacrifices: Forbidden, Lev. 18:21; 20:2–5; Deut. 12:31. Offered byAbraham, Gen. 22:1–19; Heb. 11:17–19; by Canaanites, Deut. 12:31; Moabites,2 Kin. 3:27. Israelites, 2 Kin. 16:3; 2 Chr. 28:3; 2 Kin. 23:10; Isa. 57:5; Jer. 7:31;Jer. 19:5; 32:35; Ezek. 16:20, 21; 20:26, 31; 23:37, 39; by the Sepharvites toidols, 2 Kin. 17:31. To demons, Psa. 106:37, 38; and to Baal, Jer. 19:5, 6.
  23. 23. Insufficiency of: Heb. 8:7–13; Heb. 9:1–15; Heb. 10:1–12, 18–20 SeeORDINANCE.Meal (or Meat): Ordinances concerning, Ex. 29:40, 41; 30:9; 40:29; Lev. 2; 5:11,12; Lev. 6:14–23; 7:9–13, 37; 9:17; 23:13, 16, 17; Num. 4:16; 5:15, 18, 25, 26;8:8; Num. 15:1–16, 24; 18:9; 28:5, 9, 12, 13, 20, 21, 26–31; 29:3, 4, 14. To beeaten in the holy place, Lev. 10:13; Num. 18:9, 10. Offered with thesacrifices,Num. 15:3–16. Not mixed with leaven, Lev. 2:4, 11; 6:14–18; 10:12, 13; (22)Num. 6:15, 17. Storerooms for, in the temple reconstructed by Ezra, Neh. 12:44;13:5, 6; provided for in the vision of Ezekiel, Ezek. 42:13.Peace: Laws concerning, Ex. 29:19–22, 31; Lev. 7:11–15, 18; 9:3, 4, 15–21;23:19; Num. 6:14; 10:10.Sin: Ordinances concerning, Ex. 29:10–14 with Heb. 13:11–13; Lev. 4; 5; 6:1–7,Lev. 26–30; 9:1–21; 12:6–8; 14:19, 22, 31; 15:30; 23:19; Num. 6:10, 11, 14, 16;8:8, Num. 12; 15:27; 28:15, 22–24, 30; 29:5, 6, 11, 16–38. Temporary, Dan.11:31; Heb. 9, 10.Special Sacrifices: In consecration of the altar, see ALTAR; of priests, seePRIESTS; of the temple, see TEMPLE, DEDICATION OF; for leprosy, seeLEPROSY; for defilement, see DEFILEMENT.Thank: Ordinances concerning, Lev. 7:11–15; 22:29; Deut. 12:11, 12.Trespass: Ordinances concerning, Lev. 5; 6:1–7; 7:1–7; 14:10–22; 15:15, 29, 30;Lev. 19:21, 22; Num. 6:12; Ezra 10:19. To be eaten by the priests, Lev. 7:6, 7;14:13; Num. 18:9, 10. Offered by idolaters, 1 Sam. 6:3, 8, 17, 18. See SINOFFERING, above.Unavailing When not Accompanied by Piety: 1 Sam. 15:22; Psa. 40:6;Psa. 50:8–14; Psa. 51:16, 17; Prov. 21:3, 27; Isa. 1:11–14; Isa. 40:16; Isa. 66:3;Jer. 6:20; Jer. 7:21–23; Jer. 14:12; Hos. 6:6; Hos. 8:13; Amos 5:21–24; Mic.6:6–8; Mark 12:33
  24. 24. Vow: Lev. 7:16, 17; 22:17–25; Deut. 23:21–23._________________________6 Swanson, James ; Nave, Orville: New Nave’s Oak Harbor : Logos ResearchSystems, 1994 (23)Wave: Ordinances concerning, Ex. 29:22, 26–28; Lev. 7:29–34; 8:25–29;9:19–21; 10:14, 15; 23:10, 11, 17–20; Num. 5:25; 6:19, 20. Belonged to thepriests, Ex. 29:26–28; Lev. 7:31, 34; 8:29; 9:21; 23:20; Num. 18:11, 18. To beeaten, Lev. 10:14, 15; Num. 18:11, 18, 19, 31. 6 SIN---Lawlessness (1 John 3:4) or transgression of God’s will, either by omitting todo what God’s law requires or by doing what it forbids. The transgression canoccur in thought (1 John 3:15), word (Matt. 5:22), or deed (Rom. 1:32). Mankind was created without sin, morally upright and inclined to dogood(Eccl. 7:29). But sin entered into human experience when Adam and Eveviolated the direct command of God by eating the forbidden fruit in theGarden of Eden(Gen. 3:6). Because Adam was the head and representative of the whole humanrace, his sin affected all future generations (Rom. 5:12–21). Associated withthis guilt is a corrupted nature passed from Adam to all his descendants.Out of thisperverted nature arise all the sins that people commit (Matt. 15:19); no person isfree from involvement in sin (Rom. 3:23). God is holy and cannot sin (James 1:13). Jesus Christ, the Son of God whocame to earth in human form, is also sinless. His perfection arises from Hisdivine nature, as well as His human nature (1 Pet. 2:22). Although the story ofthe Bible focuses on the sin of mankind and God’s provision for our redemption,the angels are also described as capable of sinning. Some have fallen away from
  25. 25. God’s service (Jude 6). But animals are not morally responsible creatures; sothey cannot sin. Mankind originally fell into sin at the temptation of Satan. As the tempter, hecontinues to lure people into sin (1 Pet. 5:8); nevertheless, people remain fullyresponsible for what they do. God is not the author of sin, but His plan for worldredemption does include His dealing with the reality of sin (2 Sam. 24:1; 1 Chr.21:1). This truth is dramatically witnessed in the death of JesusChrist. The (24)crucifixion happened according to God’s will; but at the same time, it was theworst crime of human history (Acts 2:23). Sin is not represented in the Bible as the absence of good, or as an illusion thatstems from our human limitations. Sin is portrayed as a real and positive evil. Sinis more than unwise, inexpedient, calamitous behavior that produces sorrow anddistress. It is rebellion against God’s law—the standard of righteousness(Ps. 119:160). Since God demands righteousness, sin must be defined in terms of mankind’srelation to God. Sin is thus the faithless rebellion of creatures against the justauthority of their Creator. For this reason, breaking God’s law at any pointinvolves transgression at every point (James 2:10). Violation of the law of God in thought, word, and deed shows the sinfulnessof the human heart. Sin is actually a contradiction to the holiness of God, whoseimage mankind bears. This depraved condition is called ―original sin‖ because itcomes from Adam and characterizes all persons from the moment of their birth. The moral depravity of mankind is total in that ―the carnal mind is enmityagainst God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be‖ (Rom.8:7). Apart from Christ, all are ―dead in trespasses and sins‖ (Eph. 2:1). But thisdoes not mean that people behave as wickedly as they might, for God restrainsthe outworkings of the sinful heart. At times He even helps sinners to do thingsthat conform to the law (Gen. 20:6). The corruption of sin is not developed orexpressed to the same degree in every person. Neither is it expressed in the sameway in any person at all times.
  26. 26. Sin involves the denial of the living God from whom human beings draw theirlife and existence (Acts 17:28); the consequence of this revolt is death and thetorment of hell. Death is the ultimate penalty imposed by God for sin (Rom.6:23). (25) Against this dark background of sin and its reality, the gospel comes as thegood news of the deliverance that God has provided through His Son. Jesus bearsthe penalty of sin in place of His people (Mark 10:45). He also redeems us fromlawlessness and makes us long for good works in service to God and others(Titus 2:14). 7_______________________7 Youngblood, Ronald F.; Bruce, F. F.; Harrison, R.K. ; Thomas NelsonPublishers: Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville : T. Nelson, 1995
  27. 27. (26) NOTES________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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