marine biotechnology - phytoplanktons

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marine biotechnology - phytoplanktons

  1. 1. Marine phytoplankton  A quantum leap for your healthy cells Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley
  2. 2. What does phytoplankton mean?      Phyto – light Plankton – floating There are 40,000 species of phytoplankton (PP) available in the sea – mostly naked or invisible to the human eye PP makes 50 – 90 % of oxygen that we breathe Micro-algae makes the marine forms to live longer
  3. 3. Phytoplankton Photic Zone • Can’t move against currents (float or weakly move) • >40% of global primary productivity • Autotrophs • Form base of ocean food web • OXYGEN for all life
  4. 4. Phytoplankton Classification  From two kingdoms - Monera (bacteria) – Protista (algae)  1. 2. 3. 3 divisions (Phyla) Cyanobacteria Chrysophyta Dinophyta
  5. 5. Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic bacteria Use chlorophyll a  Prokaryotic (No nucleus, few organelles)  Intertidal, estuaries, coral reefs  Reproduce by cell fission  Nitrogen fixation: convert Nitrogen gas  (N2) to nitrates or ammonia – Limiting nutrient  Some symbiotic – Live in diatoms – Epiphytes on seagrass 
  6. 6. Stromatolites            Fossils >3 billion years old •- Amount of O2 in earth's early atmosphere •Photosynthesis byproducts: O2 & calcium carbonate (lime) – Build limestone domes – Vertical growth = - photosynthesis •Modern stromatolites: hypersaline lagoons (too extreme for animal grazers)
  7. 7. Division Chrysophyta (2 Classes)   Most with hardened cell walls or internal skeletons: silica or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) •Some have flagella for motility Chaetoceras Coccolithophore Coscinodiscus
  8. 8. Chrysophyta species: Dictyocha
  9. 9. Size Most phytoplankton are microscopic – selective advantage  Small cells w. higher surface area to volume ratio
  10. 10. Class Chrysophyceae    Most freshwater Marine: Coccolithophores & silicoflagellates Nanoplankton (0-5 μm) = TINY!
  11. 11. Coccolithophores          Calcium CaCO3 plates – Important microfossils •Marine only, large #’s at surface euphotic zone •Prefer still, nutrient-poor H2O •Reflect sunlight (albedo): heat & UV light •Carbon sinks: – ¯ global warming
  12. 12. Class Bacillariophyceae       Diatoms Most abundant phytoplankton Major oceanic primary producer Cell walls (frustule) of silica (glass-like) Live alone or in chains Centric or pennate shapes
  13. 13. Diatoms       Asexual reproduction (cell division) rapid •Occasional sexual repro. •Ocean surface in areas w/ abundant nutrients •Some benthic: reefs, mudflats, rock, shells
  14. 14. Division Dinophyta       Dinoflagellates •Most photosynthetic, few heterotrophic •Unicellular, 2 flagella: adjust vertically in water column (light, nutrients) •Cellulose plates •Rapid asexual cell division, some sexual
  15. 15. Dinoflagellates     Dinoflagellates are Bioluminescent Organisms produce light by a chemical reaction •Chemical (luciferin) is oxidized by an enzyme ----produces light •Luciferin from diet or internal synthesis
  16. 16. Red Tides (Dinoflagellate Bloom)     Mass development of dinoflagellates discolor water Often caused by excess nutrients •Enter ocean from land (runoff) •Fertilizer, sewage
  17. 17. Red Tide Impacts:         •Toxic to marine life: accumulates in clams, mussels, scallops, fish, mammals •Death to some species, Human poisoning after consumption (30 min.) •Symptoms: •Paralytic: paralysis, asthma, heart attack (rare) •Neurotoxic: tingling, paralysis, memory loss •Diarrhetic: cramps, vomiting, diarrhea
  18. 18. Nutrient Availability       •Photosynthesis only provides carbon,hydrogen, oxygen (C6H12O6) Also require Calcium, silica, nitrogen,phosphorus, iron, etc. •Most dissolved nutrients in cold water near seafloor (marine snow) – Below photic zone, isolated by pycnocline •Upwelling & convection transports cold, nutrient rich water to surface
  19. 19. Phytoplankton abundant in areas of upwelling & convective mixing of seawater
  20. 20. Phytoplankton rely on bacterial decomposers to break down organic matter into usable forms
  21. 21. Collecting plankton

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