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Marine Biotechnology

Marine Biotechnology

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  • 1. Mangroves Marine Biotechnology – U2 Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 1
  • 2. Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 2
  • 3. About mangroves  Mangrove forests perform multiple ecological functions such as 1. production of woody trees; 2. provision of habitat, 3. food, and 4. Spawning grounds for fin-fish and shellfish; 5. provision of habitat for birds and other valuable fauna; 6. protection of coastlines and accretion of sediment to form new land. Mangrove areas have high biological productivity, associated with heavy leaf production, leaf fall and rapid decomposition to form detritus The mangrove ecosystem is dynamic, changing in both location and composition, and has great resilience with the ability to restore itself after heavy damage, as long as seed sources and water flow are maintained. There are also many economic benefits from mangrove resources; like as a source of firewood, self replenishing areas of fishery resources, for collecting honey and for tourism. Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 3
  • 4. Distribution Found on coastlines between 25° N and 25°S latitude, dependent on temperature i. ii. Rhizophora - survive 2-4° C for 24 hrs Avicennia – survives 2-4° C for several days Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 4
  • 5. Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 5
  • 6. SPECIES OF MANGROVES-60 species worldwide Black Mangrove Red Mangrove White Mangrove
  • 7. Three Main Genera a. Rhizophora (red mangrove) a. b. c. R. mangal and R. racemosa most common New World spp High prop roots and dangling roots are common More cold tolerant Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 7
  • 8. Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 8
  • 9. Avicennia (black mangrove) i. A. germanaus most common in New World  ii. Can tolerate very high salinity (60 ppt) and very anoxic conditions  iii. Known for having pneumatophores Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 9
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  • 11. Lagunicularia (white mangrove) i. ii. L. racemosa most common in New World Affinity for lower salinity areas Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 11
  • 12. Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 12
  • 13. Characteristics of Mangroves  Evergreen plants with thick leathery leaves designed to minimize transpiration.  Viviparous germination where the seed germinates on the tree and falls down in the germinating condition with a long radicle- characteristic of Rhizophoraceae .  Root system has many unique types of roots.     1. Stilt-roots, 2. Pneumatophores, 3. Root knees. 4. Plank Roots
  • 14. ROOTS KNEED ROOTS-the horizontal roots growing vertically upwards and forming loops downwards to resemble a bent knee. PLANK ROOTS-wavy, snake-like roots that radiate outwards from the trunk base.
  • 15. Lenticels Lenticels—small pores present on aerial roots. Lenticels are susceptible to clogging by crude oil and other pollutants, and attacks by parasites.
  • 16. Do Mangroves need salt? Facultative halophytes Grow in fresh water + salt water.
  • 17. COPING WITH SALT Exclude Salt (no intake) Extrude salt (take salt in and dispense it through glands in their leaves).
  • 18. IMPORTANCE--ECOLOGICAL Habitats, nurseries, and nesting sites. Root systems –harbor many organisms that trap and cycle nutrients and other chemicals. Contribute to higher water quality. Protect shorelines from erosion.
  • 19. IMPORTANCE --ECONOMIC Food--- edible fruits and honey from flowers of some species. River mangrove—source of best honey. Medicines- Treatment of skin disorders and sores including leprosy. Headaches, rheumatism, snakebites, boils, ulcers, diarrhea, and many more conditions are traditionally treated with mangrove plants. Hard wood -- used for boat building and cabinet timber.
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  • 21. Dr.Shaleesha A. Stanley 21