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Plagiarism 101 :<br />Part 3: <br />Formatting your way <br />to <br />Academic HONESTY!<br />
What does MLA regulate?<br />MLA regulates:<br /><ul><li>Document Format
In-text citations
Works Cited </li></ul>(a list of all sources<br />    used in the paper)<br />
MLA Update 2009<br />2009 changes in MLA:<br /><ul><li>No more Underlining (only use italics)
Publication Medium (e.g. Print, Web, etc.)
New Abbreviations (e.g. “N.p.” for “no publisher given”)</li></li></ul><li>YOUR INSTRUCTOR KNOWS BEST<br />#1 Rule for any...
Format: General Guidelines<br /><ul><li>Type on white 8.5” x 11” paper
 Double-space everything
 Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font (or similar font)
 Leave only one space after punctuation
 Set all margins to 1 inch on all sides
 Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch</li></li></ul><li>Format: General Guidelines (continued)<br /><ul><li> ...
 Use italics for titles
 Endnotes go on a separate page before your Works Cited page</li></li></ul><li>Formatting the 1st Page<br /><ul><li> No ti...
 Double space everything
In the upper left corner of the 1st page, list your</li></ul>   name, your instructor's name, the course, and date<br /><u...
Sample 1st Page<br />
In-Text Citations: the Basics<br /><ul><li> MLA uses parenthetical citations
 Parenthetical citations depend on the medium</li></ul>    (e.g. Print, Web, DVD)<br /><ul><li> Parenthetical citations al...
Other In-Text Citations 1<br />Classic & Literary Works with Multiple Editions<br />In-text Example:<br />Marx and Engels ...
Other In-Text Citations 2<br />Work by Multiple Authors<br />In-text Examples:<br />Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that toug...
Other In-Text Citations 3<br />Multiple Works by the Same Author<br />In-text Examples:<br />Lightenor has argued that com...
Works Cited Page: The Basics<br />Sample Works Cited page:<br />
Works Cited Page – Basic Formats:<br />Books:<br />Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication:<br />     Pub...
What does APA regulate?<br />APA regulates:<br /><ul><li>Stylistics
In-text citations
References </li></ul>(a list of all sources<br />    used in the paper)<br />
APA stylistics: Basics<br />Point of view  and voice in an APA paper<br /> Use:<br /><ul><li> the third person point of vi...
Language in an APA paper is:<br /><ul><li> clear: be specific in descriptions and </li></ul>     explanations<br /><ul><li...
Types of APA Papers<br /><ul><li> The literature review: </li></ul>the summary of what the scientific literature says abou...
Types of APA Papers<br />If your paper fits neither of the categories above, <br /><ul><li> follow the general format
consult the instructor
 consult Publication Manual</li></li></ul><li>General Format<br />Your essay should:<br /><ul><li>be typed, double-spaced,...
 on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”)
 with 1” margins on all sides
 in 10-12 pt. Times New Roman or a similar font
 include  a page header (title) in the upper left-</li></ul>    hand of every page and a page number in the <br />    uppe...
References<br />Your essay should include four major sections:<br />Main Body<br />  Abstract<br />General Format (cont’d)...
Title Page<br />Page header:<br />(use Insert Page Header)<br />title flush left + page number flush right.<br />Title:<br...
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Plagiarism101 pt3

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Transcript of "Plagiarism101 pt3"

  1. 1. Plagiarism 101 :<br />Part 3: <br />Formatting your way <br />to <br />Academic HONESTY!<br />
  2. 2. What does MLA regulate?<br />MLA regulates:<br /><ul><li>Document Format
  3. 3. In-text citations
  4. 4. Works Cited </li></ul>(a list of all sources<br /> used in the paper)<br />
  5. 5. MLA Update 2009<br />2009 changes in MLA:<br /><ul><li>No more Underlining (only use italics)
  6. 6. Publication Medium (e.g. Print, Web, etc.)
  7. 7. New Abbreviations (e.g. “N.p.” for “no publisher given”)</li></li></ul><li>YOUR INSTRUCTOR KNOWS BEST<br />#1 Rule for any formatting style:<br />Always<br />Follow your instructor’s<br />guidelines<br />
  8. 8. Format: General Guidelines<br /><ul><li>Type on white 8.5” x 11” paper
  9. 9. Double-space everything
  10. 10. Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font (or similar font)
  11. 11. Leave only one space after punctuation
  12. 12. Set all margins to 1 inch on all sides
  13. 13. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch</li></li></ul><li>Format: General Guidelines (continued)<br /><ul><li> Header with page numbers in the upper right corner
  14. 14. Use italics for titles
  15. 15. Endnotes go on a separate page before your Works Cited page</li></li></ul><li>Formatting the 1st Page<br /><ul><li> No title page
  16. 16. Double space everything
  17. 17. In the upper left corner of the 1st page, list your</li></ul> name, your instructor's name, the course, and date<br /><ul><li>Center the paper title (use standard caps but no</li></ul> underlining, italics, quote, or bold)<br /><ul><li>Create a header in the upper right corner at half</li></ul> inch from the top and one inch from the right of the<br /> page (include your last name and page number)<br />
  18. 18. Sample 1st Page<br />
  19. 19. In-Text Citations: the Basics<br /><ul><li> MLA uses parenthetical citations
  20. 20. Parenthetical citations depend on the medium</li></ul> (e.g. Print, Web, DVD)<br /><ul><li> Parenthetical citations also depend on the source’s</li></ul> entry on the Works Cited page<br /><ul><li> Signal word in the text is the first thing in the</li></ul> corresponding entry on the Works Cited page<br />
  21. 21. Other In-Text Citations 1<br />Classic & Literary Works with Multiple Editions<br />In-text Example:<br />Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).<br />Authors with Same Last Names<br />In-text Example:<br />Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).<br />
  22. 22. Other In-Text Citations 2<br />Work by Multiple Authors<br />In-text Examples:<br />Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).<br />The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).<br />Jones et al. counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4).<br />
  23. 23. Other In-Text Citations 3<br />Multiple Works by the Same Author<br />In-text Examples:<br />Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).<br />Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).<br />
  24. 24. Works Cited Page: The Basics<br />Sample Works Cited page:<br />
  25. 25. Works Cited Page – Basic Formats:<br />Books:<br />Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication:<br /> Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.<br />Article in a Magazine Format:<br />Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year:<br /> pages. Medium of publication.<br />Web Source:<br />Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). “Article<br /> Name.” Name of Site. Version number. Name of<br /> institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor<br /> or publisher). Date of last update. Medium of publication.<br /> Date of access.<br />Personal Interview Example:<br />Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.<br />Speech Example:<br />Stein, Bob. Computers and Writing Conference.<br /> Purdue University. Union Club Hotel, West<br /> Lafayette, IN. 23 May 2003. Keynote address.<br />
  26. 26. What does APA regulate?<br />APA regulates:<br /><ul><li>Stylistics
  27. 27. In-text citations
  28. 28. References </li></ul>(a list of all sources<br /> used in the paper)<br />
  29. 29. APA stylistics: Basics<br />Point of view and voice in an APA paper<br /> Use:<br /><ul><li> the third person point of view rather than</li></ul> using the first person point of view or the passive<br /> voice<br /> The study showed that…, NOT<br /> I found out that….<br /><ul><li>the active voice rather than passive voice</li></ul> The participants responded…, NOT<br /> The participants have been asked….<br />
  30. 30. Language in an APA paper is:<br /><ul><li> clear: be specific in descriptions and </li></ul> explanations<br /><ul><li> concise: condense information when you</li></ul> can<br /><ul><li> plain: use simple, descriptive</li></ul> adjectives and minimize the figurative<br /> language<br />APA stylistics: Language<br />
  31. 31. Types of APA Papers<br /><ul><li> The literature review: </li></ul>the summary of what the scientific literature says about the topic of your research– <br />includes title page, introduction, list of references<br /><ul><li>The experimental report:</li></ul>the description of your experimental research--<br />includes title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references, appendices, tables & figures<br />
  32. 32. Types of APA Papers<br />If your paper fits neither of the categories above, <br /><ul><li> follow the general format
  33. 33. consult the instructor
  34. 34. consult Publication Manual</li></li></ul><li>General Format<br />Your essay should:<br /><ul><li>be typed, double-spaced, with two spaces after punctuation between sentences
  35. 35. on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”)
  36. 36. with 1” margins on all sides
  37. 37. in 10-12 pt. Times New Roman or a similar font
  38. 38. include a page header (title) in the upper left-</li></ul> hand of every page and a page number in the <br /> upper right-hand side of every page<br />
  39. 39. References<br />Your essay should include four major sections:<br />Main Body<br /> Abstract<br />General Format (cont’d)<br />Title page<br />
  40. 40. Title Page<br />Page header:<br />(use Insert Page Header)<br />title flush left + page number flush right.<br />Title:<br />(in the upper half of the page, centered)<br />name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)<br />
  41. 41. Abstract Page<br />Page header: do NOT include “Running head:”<br />Abstract (centered, at the top of the page)<br />Write a brief (between 150 and 250 words) summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner. Should contain: at research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. May also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. May also include keywords.<br />
  42. 42. Main Body (Text)<br /><ul><li> The first text page is page number 3
  43. 43. Type the title of the paper centered, at the top of</li></ul> the page<br /><ul><li> Type the text double-spaced with all sections</li></ul> following each other without a break<br /><ul><li> Identify the sources you use in the paper in</li></ul> parenthetical in-text citations<br /><ul><li> Format tables and figures</li></li></ul><li>References Page<br /><ul><li> Center the title– </li></ul> References-- at the top<br /> of the page<br /><ul><li> Double-space</li></ul> reference entries<br /><ul><li> Flush left the first line</li></ul> of the entry and indent<br /> subsequent lines<br /><ul><li> Order entries </li></ul> alphabetically by the<br /> author’s surnames<br />Do NOT include “Running head:” in the header after the title page!<br />
  44. 44. References: Basics<br /><ul><li>Invert authors’ names (last name first followed </li></ul> by initials).<br /><ul><li>Alphabetize reference list entries the last</li></ul> name of the first author of each work.<br /><ul><li>Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of</li></ul> a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or<br /> a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not<br /> capitalize the first letter of the second word in a<br /> hyphenated compound word.<br />
  45. 45. References: Basics (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
  46. 46. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and</li></ul> journals.<br /><ul><li> Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around</li></ul> the titles of shorter works such as journal <br /> articles or essays in edited collections.<br />
  47. 47. Making the references list<br />APA is a complex system of citation, which is difficult to keep in mind. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful: <br /><ul><li>Identify a type source: Is it a book? A journal article? </li></ul> A webpage? <br /><ul><li> Find a sample of citing this type of source in the textbook </li></ul> or in the OWL APA Guide.<br /><ul><li> “Mirror” the sample.
  48. 48. Make sure that the entries are listed in the alphabetical </li></ul> order and the subsequent lines are indented (Recall <br /> References: basics). <br />
  49. 49. In-text Citations: Basics<br />Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: <br /><ul><li>the author’s name and the date of publication
  50. 50. for quotations and close paraphrases, provide a</li></ul> page number as well<br />In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper. <br />
  51. 51. In-text Citations: Format for a quotation<br />When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information. <br /><ul><li> Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response </li></ul> frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive<br /> appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive <br /> phenomena” (p.11). <br /><ul><li> A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, </li></ul> uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations<br /> and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11). <br />
  52. 52. In-text Citations: Format for a summary or paraphrase<br />There are several formats for a summary or paraphrase:<br /><ul><li>provide the author’s last name and the year of</li></ul> publication in parenthesis after a summary or<br /> a paraphrase:<br />Though feminist studies focus solely on women's<br /> experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the<br /> masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).<br />
  53. 53. In-text Citations: Signal words<br /><ul><li> Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.</li></ul>According to X. (2008), “….” (p.3).<br />X. (2008) argues that “……” (p.3).<br /><ul><li>Use such signal verbs as:</li></ul> acknowledge, contend, maintain,<br /> respond, report, argue, conclude, etc..<br />Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases <br />
  54. 54. In-text Citations: Two or more works <br /><ul><li> When the parenthetical citation includes two or</li></ul> more works, order them in the same way they<br /> appear in the reference list—the author’s name, <br /> the year of publication—separated by a <br /> semi-colon:<br />(Kachru, 2005; Smith, 2008)<br />
  55. 55. In-text Citations: A work with 3 to 5 authors<br /><ul><li> When citing a work with three to five authors, </li></ul> identify all authors in the signal phrase<br /> or in parenthesis:<br />(Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)<br /><ul><li>In subsequent citations, only use the first</li></ul> author's last name followed by "et al." in the<br /> signal phrase or in parentheses:<br /> (Harklau et al., 1993)<br />
  56. 56. In-text Citations: a work with 6 and more authors<br /><ul><li>When citing a work with six and more authors, </li></ul> identify the first author’s name followed <br /> by “et al.”:<br />Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….<br /> (Smith et al., 2006) <br />
  57. 57. In-text Citations: Personal communication<br /><ul><li> When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., </li></ul> include the communicators name, the fact that it<br /> was personal communication, and the date of the<br /> communication. Do not include personal<br /> communication in the reference list:<br /> A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students <br /> had difficulties with APA style (personal<br /> communication, November 3, 2002).<br />Or, <br /> (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4,<br /> 2001).<br />
  58. 58. APA Headings<br />APA uses a system of five heading levels<br />
  59. 59. APA Headings<br />APA uses a system of five heading levels<br />
  60. 60. Plagiarism 101 :<br />Part 3: This concludes this Plagiarism Workshop!<br />You will find a copy of sample papers in both MLA and APA format on our blog.<br />
  61. 61. Plagiarism 101 :<br />You can find additional formatting information at http://owl.english.purdue.edu or…<br />By scheduling an appointment with me or…<br />By using a citation machine… contact me for more information about using one of these <br />
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