Plagiarism101 pt3
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Plagiarism101 pt3 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Plagiarism 101 :
    Part 3:
    Formatting your way
    to
    Academic HONESTY!
  • 2. What does MLA regulate?
    MLA regulates:
    • Document Format
    • 3. In-text citations
    • 4. Works Cited
    (a list of all sources
    used in the paper)
  • 5. MLA Update 2009
    2009 changes in MLA:
    • No more Underlining (only use italics)
    • 6. Publication Medium (e.g. Print, Web, etc.)
    • 7. New Abbreviations (e.g. “N.p.” for “no publisher given”)
  • YOUR INSTRUCTOR KNOWS BEST
    #1 Rule for any formatting style:
    Always
    Follow your instructor’s
    guidelines
  • 8. Format: General Guidelines
    • Type on white 8.5” x 11” paper
    • 9. Double-space everything
    • 10. Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font (or similar font)
    • 11. Leave only one space after punctuation
    • 12. Set all margins to 1 inch on all sides
    • 13. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch
  • Format: General Guidelines (continued)
    • Header with page numbers in the upper right corner
    • 14. Use italics for titles
    • 15. Endnotes go on a separate page before your Works Cited page
  • Formatting the 1st Page
    • No title page
    • 16. Double space everything
    • 17. In the upper left corner of the 1st page, list your
    name, your instructor's name, the course, and date
    • Center the paper title (use standard caps but no
    underlining, italics, quote, or bold)
    • Create a header in the upper right corner at half
    inch from the top and one inch from the right of the
    page (include your last name and page number)
  • 18. Sample 1st Page
  • 19. In-Text Citations: the Basics
    • MLA uses parenthetical citations
    • 20. Parenthetical citations depend on the medium
    (e.g. Print, Web, DVD)
    • Parenthetical citations also depend on the source’s
    entry on the Works Cited page
    • Signal word in the text is the first thing in the
    corresponding entry on the Works Cited page
  • 21. Other In-Text Citations 1
    Classic & Literary Works with Multiple Editions
    In-text Example:
    Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).
    Authors with Same Last Names
    In-text Example:
    Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
  • 22. Other In-Text Citations 2
    Work by Multiple Authors
    In-text Examples:
    Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).
    The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).
    Jones et al. counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4).
  • 23. Other In-Text Citations 3
    Multiple Works by the Same Author
    In-text Examples:
    Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).
    Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).
  • 24. Works Cited Page: The Basics
    Sample Works Cited page:
  • 25. Works Cited Page – Basic Formats:
    Books:
    Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication:
    Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
    Article in a Magazine Format:
    Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year:
    pages. Medium of publication.
    Web Source:
    Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). “Article
    Name.” Name of Site. Version number. Name of
    institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor
    or publisher). Date of last update. Medium of publication.
    Date of access.
    Personal Interview Example:
    Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.
    Speech Example:
    Stein, Bob. Computers and Writing Conference.
    Purdue University. Union Club Hotel, West
    Lafayette, IN. 23 May 2003. Keynote address.
  • 26. What does APA regulate?
    APA regulates:
    • Stylistics
    • 27. In-text citations
    • 28. References
    (a list of all sources
    used in the paper)
  • 29. APA stylistics: Basics
    Point of view and voice in an APA paper
    Use:
    • the third person point of view rather than
    using the first person point of view or the passive
    voice
    The study showed that…, NOT
    I found out that….
    • the active voice rather than passive voice
    The participants responded…, NOT
    The participants have been asked….
  • 30. Language in an APA paper is:
    • clear: be specific in descriptions and
    explanations
    • concise: condense information when you
    can
    • plain: use simple, descriptive
    adjectives and minimize the figurative
    language
    APA stylistics: Language
  • 31. Types of APA Papers
    • The literature review:
    the summary of what the scientific literature says about the topic of your research–
    includes title page, introduction, list of references
    • The experimental report:
    the description of your experimental research--
    includes title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references, appendices, tables & figures
  • 32. Types of APA Papers
    If your paper fits neither of the categories above,
    • follow the general format
    • 33. consult the instructor
    • 34. consult Publication Manual
  • General Format
    Your essay should:
    • be typed, double-spaced, with two spaces after punctuation between sentences
    • 35. on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”)
    • 36. with 1” margins on all sides
    • 37. in 10-12 pt. Times New Roman or a similar font
    • 38. include a page header (title) in the upper left-
    hand of every page and a page number in the
    upper right-hand side of every page
  • 39. References
    Your essay should include four major sections:
    Main Body
    Abstract
    General Format (cont’d)
    Title page
  • 40. Title Page
    Page header:
    (use Insert Page Header)
    title flush left + page number flush right.
    Title:
    (in the upper half of the page, centered)
    name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
  • 41. Abstract Page
    Page header: do NOT include “Running head:”
    Abstract (centered, at the top of the page)
    Write a brief (between 150 and 250 words) summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner. Should contain: at research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. May also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. May also include keywords.
  • 42. Main Body (Text)
    • The first text page is page number 3
    • 43. Type the title of the paper centered, at the top of
    the page
    • Type the text double-spaced with all sections
    following each other without a break
    • Identify the sources you use in the paper in
    parenthetical in-text citations
    • Format tables and figures
  • References Page
    • Center the title–
    References-- at the top
    of the page
    • Double-space
    reference entries
    • Flush left the first line
    of the entry and indent
    subsequent lines
    • Order entries
    alphabetically by the
    author’s surnames
    Do NOT include “Running head:” in the header after the title page!
  • 44. References: Basics
    • Invert authors’ names (last name first followed
    by initials).
    • Alphabetize reference list entries the last
    name of the first author of each work.
    • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of
    a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or
    a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not
    capitalize the first letter of the second word in a
    hyphenated compound word.
  • 45. References: Basics (cont’d)
    • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
    • 46. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and
    journals.
    • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around
    the titles of shorter works such as journal
    articles or essays in edited collections.
  • 47. Making the references list
    APA is a complex system of citation, which is difficult to keep in mind. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:
    • Identify a type source: Is it a book? A journal article?
    A webpage?
    • Find a sample of citing this type of source in the textbook
    or in the OWL APA Guide.
    • “Mirror” the sample.
    • 48. Make sure that the entries are listed in the alphabetical
    order and the subsequent lines are indented (Recall
    References: basics).
  • 49. In-text Citations: Basics
    Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:
    • the author’s name and the date of publication
    • 50. for quotations and close paraphrases, provide a
    page number as well
    In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.
  • 51. In-text Citations: Format for a quotation
    When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information.
    • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response
    frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive
    appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive
    phenomena” (p.11).
    • A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed,
    uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations
    and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
  • 52. In-text Citations: Format for a summary or paraphrase
    There are several formats for a summary or paraphrase:
    • provide the author’s last name and the year of
    publication in parenthesis after a summary or
    a paraphrase:
    Though feminist studies focus solely on women's
    experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the
    masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).
  • 53. In-text Citations: Signal words
    • Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.
    According to X. (2008), “….” (p.3).
    X. (2008) argues that “……” (p.3).
    • Use such signal verbs as:
    acknowledge, contend, maintain,
    respond, report, argue, conclude, etc..
    Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases
  • 54. In-text Citations: Two or more works
    • When the parenthetical citation includes two or
    more works, order them in the same way they
    appear in the reference list—the author’s name,
    the year of publication—separated by a
    semi-colon:
    (Kachru, 2005; Smith, 2008)
  • 55. In-text Citations: A work with 3 to 5 authors
    • When citing a work with three to five authors,
    identify all authors in the signal phrase
    or in parenthesis:
    (Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)
    • In subsequent citations, only use the first
    author's last name followed by "et al." in the
    signal phrase or in parentheses:
    (Harklau et al., 1993)
  • 56. In-text Citations: a work with 6 and more authors
    • When citing a work with six and more authors,
    identify the first author’s name followed
    by “et al.”:
    Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….
    (Smith et al., 2006)
  • 57. In-text Citations: Personal communication
    • When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc.,
    include the communicators name, the fact that it
    was personal communication, and the date of the
    communication. Do not include personal
    communication in the reference list:
    A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students
    had difficulties with APA style (personal
    communication, November 3, 2002).
    Or,
    (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4,
    2001).
  • 58. APA Headings
    APA uses a system of five heading levels
  • 59. APA Headings
    APA uses a system of five heading levels
  • 60. Plagiarism 101 :
    Part 3: This concludes this Plagiarism Workshop!
    You will find a copy of sample papers in both MLA and APA format on our blog.
  • 61. Plagiarism 101 :
    You can find additional formatting information at http://owl.english.purdue.edu or…
    By scheduling an appointment with me or…
    By using a citation machine… contact me for more information about using one of these 