COM 300 Chps 3, 13, and 16
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

COM 300 Chps 3, 13, and 16

on

  • 672 views

Private: Additional Learning Resources for COM 300 at CSU-GC.

Private: Additional Learning Resources for COM 300 at CSU-GC.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
672
Views on SlideShare
631
Embed Views
41

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0

2 Embeds 41

https://csuglobal.blackboard.com 25
http://csuglobal.blackboard.com 16

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

COM 300 Chps 3, 13, and 16 COM 300 Chps 3, 13, and 16 Presentation Transcript

  • Workplace Writing:Planning, Packaging, and Perfecting Communication, 1st ed. Chapters 3, 13, and 16 Steven M. Gerson Sharon J. Gerson
  • Workplace Writing:Planning, Packaging, and Perfecting Communication, 1st ed.Chapter 3: Meeting the Needs of the Audience Steven M. Gerson Sharon J. Gerson
  • Chapter 3: Meeting the Needs of the Audience This chapter discusses the following:  Audience Recognition  Defining Terms for Different Audience Levels  Biased Language—Issues of Diversity  Multiculturalism  Sexist Language  Audience InvolvementWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 3
  • Phil Wegman, Program Director of Skills Enhancement for the Center for Business and TechnologyPhil says, ―I receive two to three calls every day from companies, desperate for Spanish language training. They need to teach their supervisors how to communicate more effectively with customers as well as with employees for whom English is a second language.‖ How does Phil meet his communication challenges?Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 4
  • Audience Recognition– Knowledge of the Subject Matter  Clear communication is written at the audience’s level of understanding.  Your audience’s knowledge of the subject matter determines whether he or she is a  Specialist  Semi-specialist  Lay  You might write or speak to many people. You then have  Multiple audiencesWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 5
  • Audience Recognition–Specialist Specialists have these traits:  Experts in the field of discussion  Work experience/education comparable to yours  Require less detail or background information  Do not generally need abbreviations/acronyms definedWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 6
  • Audience Recognition–Semi-Specialist Semi-Specialists have these traits:  Familiar with the subject matter, but it’s not within their primary area of expertise  Understand some abbreviations/ acronyms but not all  Require more background information and detail than specialistsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 7
  • Audience Recognition–Lay Lay audiences have these traits:  Unfamiliar with the subject matter  Unfamiliar with abbreviations/acronyms  Need more background information and detail than specialists or semi-specialistsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 8
  • Audience Recognition–Multiple Audiences  You might speak to a large group or write a proposal to many readers.  Multiple audiences include  combinations of specialists, semi- specialists, and lay readersWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 9
  • Audience Recognition–Multiple Audiences (cont.)  To communicate to multiple audiences,  Define your terms  Provide background information  Provide detailed explanationsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 10
  • Audience Variables Knowledge of the Subject Matter • Specialists • Semi-specialists • Lay audience • Multiple readers and listeners Roles • Management • Co-worker • Subordinate • Customer • Vendor • Other business professionals Issues of Diversity • Gender • Age • Race and/or Religion • Sexual Orientation • Disabilities • Language and/or Culture of Origin—multicultural or cross-culturalWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 11
  • Biased Language—Issues of Diversity  Audiences for written and spoken technical communication will not always be just like you.  The audiences will be diverse.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 12
  • Biased Language—Issues of Diversity (cont.)  Diversity includes  Gender NOTE:  Race/ethnicity You must use Religion language with   Age sensitivity.  Sexual orientation Avoid biased  Class language.  Physical and mental characteristics  Language  Family issuesWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 13
  • Biased Language—Issues of Diversity (cont.)  Understand the importance of diversity.  Diversity is protected by the law.  Respecting the diverse workplace is the right thing to do.  Diversity is good for business.  A diverse workforce keeps companies competitive.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 14
  • Biased Language—Issues of Diversity (cont.) Insensitive and Biased Language  ―The president, a woman, is in charge of a 36-branch operation.‖  ―He suffers from diabetes.‖  ―The old people needed more accessible seating.‖  ―Define terms for lower-class shoppers.‖Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 15
  • Biased Language—Issues of Diversity (cont.) Sensitive and Unbiased Language  ―The president is in charge of a 36- branch operation.‖  ―He has diabetes.‖  ―The senior citizens needed more accessible seating.‖  ―Define terms for shoppers.‖Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 16
  • Multiculturalism  International business requires multicultural communication, the sharing of written and oral information between businesspeople from many different countries.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 17
  • The Challenges of Multicultural Communication  Medtronic, a medical technology company, does business in 120 countries.  Many of those countries mandate that product documentation be written in the local language.  Medtronic translates its manuals into 11 languages: French, Italian, German, Spanish, Swedish, D utch, Danish, Greek, Portuguese, Japanese, a nd Chinese.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 18
  • Multicultural Team Projects  You might work on a ―virtual team‖ project, communicating to colleagues from many different countries.  You must be aware of international  Verbal and nonverbal communication norms  Management styles  Decision-making procedures  Sense of time and place  Local values, beliefs, and attitudesWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 19
  • Communicating Globally . . . in Your Neighborhood  Cross-cultural Communication--writing and speaking between businesspeople of two or more different cultures within the same country “About 19 million people in the United States are not proficient in English.”Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 20
  • Communicating Globally . . . in Your Neighborhood (cont.) By 2014, the U.S. workplace will look like this: Asian Hispanic 5% 16% Black 12% White 67%Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 21
  • Multiculturalism (cont.) To meet the challenges of communicating to a multicultural or cross-cultural audience, consider these ten techniques:Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 22
  • Multiculturalism (cont.) 1. Define acronyms and abbreviations. 2. Avoid jargon or idioms. 3. Distinguish between nouns and verbs. 4. Watch for cultural biases and expectations. 5. Be careful with slash marks (/).Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 23
  • Multiculturalism (cont.)6. Avoid humor and puns.7. Leave space for translations.8. Avoid figurative language.9. Be Careful with Numbers, Measurements, Dates, and Times.10. Use stylized graphics.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 24
  • Practice Multiculturalism (cont.) To: Jose Guerrero, Mexico City, Mexico Office; Yong Kim, Hong Kong Office;Hans Rittmaster, Berlin Office From: Leonard Liss, New York Office Where are the problems Subject: Agenda for Teleconference in this e-mail? Time to wrap up that deal. If we don’t finish the project soon, we’re all behind the eight ball. So, here’s what I’m planning for the 03/07/09, 12:00 discussion:  Restructured design—rather than build the part at 8 x 10 x 23, let’s consider a smaller design.  Shipping method—let’s use a new carrier/vendor. We’ve not had good luck with Flyrite Overnight. I’m open to your suggestions. Let’s think outside the box. Brainstorm before our teleconference so we can tackle this topic pronto. My boss needs our suggestions ASAP, so I need it even sooner. I know you’ll come through with flying colors.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 25
  • Sexist Language  Fifty percent of the workforce is female.  Avoid sexist language, created through  Omission  Unequal treatment  Stereotyping  Sexist pronouns and nounsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 26
  • Sexist Language (cont.)  Omission  When writing or speaking ignores women, that’s biased sexism. BAD ―With new technologies, men can achieve great things.‖ GOOD ―With new technologies, workers can achieve great things.‖Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 27
  • Sexist Language (cont.)  Unequal treatment  Referring to women in terms not applied to men is biased sexism. BAD ―Ms. Jones, the dizzy blonde, is Mr. Gardener’s assistant.‖ GOOD ―Ms. Jones is Mr. Gardener’s assistant.‖Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 28
  • Sexist Language (cont.)  Stereotyping  Writing or speaking that implies only men or women do certain jobs is biased sexism. BAD ―The auto mechanics are men of good standing in the profession.‖ GOOD ―The auto mechanics are all certified.‖ BAD ―A nurse must fill out her patient’s forms correctly.‖ GOOD ―A nurse must fill out patient forms correctly.‖Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 29
  • Sexist Language (cont.) Sexist pronouns and nouns  The pronouns ―his‖ and ―he‖ are masculine.  Nouns such as ―mankind,‖ ―manpower,‖ and ―foreman‖ are masculine. Revise these pronouns and nouns for unbiased communication.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 30
  • Sexist Language (cont.) BAD ―A good employee should make sure that his time card is accurate .‖ GOOD ―Good employees keep accurate time cards.‖ BAD ―The foremen ensured that all workers cleaned up the job site.‖ GOOD ―The supervisors ensured that all workers cleaned up the job site.‖Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 31
  • Audience Involvement  To involve your audience,  Use a personalized tone  Show reader benefitWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 32
  • Audience Involvement (cont.)  Personalized tone  Involve your audience by using pronouns:  You Your  NOTE:  Us  We Companies don’t write  Our to companies. I  People write to people.  Me  My Pronouns personalize the correspondence.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 33
  • Audience Involvement (cont.)  Reader benefit  Show how the audience benefits  Use positive words NOTE: NOTE: Using words like Using “Please” and “advantage” and “thank you” improve “achieve” help to the tone of your sway an audience. correspondence.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 34
  • Meeting Workplace Communication Challenges Use the end-of-chapter activities to apply chapter principles individually and in groups.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 35
  • Workplace Writing: Planning, Packaging, and Perfecting Communication, 1st ed. Chapter 13: Persuasive Workplace Communication Steven M. Gerson Sharon J. Gerson
  • Chapter 13: Persuasive Workplace Communication This chapter discusses the following:  Traditional Methods of Argument and Persuasion  ARGU  Sales Letters  Fliers  BrochuresWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 37
  • Dr. Georgia Nesselrode, Director of Government Training, Mid-America Regional Council’s Government Training Institute Georgia writes  Cover letters with enclosures  Marketing fliers  E-mail messages with website links to fliers with more details  Brochures The correspondence must be complete, persuasive, and present a professional image. How does Georgia meet her communication challenges?Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 38
  • Traditional Methods of Argument and Persuasion  Ethos: translates as ―ethics.‖ Arguments based on ethics depend on your character.  Logos: translates as ―emotion.‖ Arguments based on emotion seek to change an audience’s attitudes and actions by focusing on feelings.  Pathos: translates as ―logic.‖ Argumentation based on logic depends on rationality, reason, and proof.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 39
  • ―ARGU” to Persuade  A = arouse reader interest  R = refute opposing points of view  G = give proof  U = urge actionWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 40
  • Avoiding Logical Fallacies In a corporate environment, you must persuade your audience not only logically but also ethically. Why is the following graphic flawed?Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 41
  • Correcting Logical Fallacies Note how the following graphic corrects the fallacy. Fig. 13.5 Annual Income 60,000 1st Quarter Income 40,000 2nd Quarter 20,000 Income 0 3rd Quarter Income -20,000 4th Quarter -40,000 IncomeWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 42
  • Sales Letters  One way to persuade an audience to purchase products and services is to write a sales letter.  In your sales letter, provide an  Introduction  Body  ConclusionWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 43
  • Sales Letters (cont.)  Introduction  Arouse interest by showing a reader need (or problem), using any of these options:  Anecdotes  Questions Why you are writing  Quotes  Data  Show how your product or service can solve the problem. What you are writing aboutWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 44
  • Sales Letters (cont.) Introduction Example: Questions to highlight why you are writing Are you tired of dull, black and white copies? Wouldn’t full-color copies enliven your proposals? Purchase an XY912z Color Printer today for livelier text and graphics. Sell what you are writing aboutWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 45
  • Sales Letters (cont.)  Body  Refute opposing points of view.  Give proof to develop your assertions.  Provide data  Give testimonies  Document credentials  Itemize for easy access.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 46
  • Sales Letters (cont.)  Body Example: Our XY912z Color Printer provides you these benefits:  Unlimited color combinations  Accessibility to 100s of fonts  Color resolutions up to 360 dpi (dots per inch)Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 47
  • Sales Letters (cont.)  Conclusion  Urge the reader to act, using these options:  Give directions  Provide a tear-out for more information  Supply a self-addressed stamped envelope  Offer a discount  Give contact information Incentives to encourage a saleWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 48
  • Sales Letters (cont.)  Conclusion Example: If you call TODAY (1-800-XY912zC), we will give you a 10% discount on your purchase plus a Free extra color cartridge for future use. Incentives to encourage a saleWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 49
  • Fliers Fliers, one-two page overviews of a product or service, provide these benefits:  Cost effective  Time efficient  Responsive to immediate needs  PersonalizedWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 50
  • Criteria for Writing Fliers  Keep them short (one-two pages).  Focus on one idea.  Use a title to arouse reader interest.  Limit your text (100 or fewer words).  Increase font size (for impact and readability).  Use graphics for visual appeal.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 51
  • Criteria for Writing Fliers (cont.)  Use color for impact.  Use highlighting techniques for ease of access.  Find the phrase—a logo or slogan.  Recognize your audience.  Avoid grammatical errors.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 52
  • Brochures Brochures, six or more panels of information, usually printed in landscape, provide these benefits:  Create awareness of a product or service  Increase understanding of a product or service  Advertise new products or servicesWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 53
  • Criteria for Writing Brochures  Panels and gutters3 panels per page Gutters separate the panelsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 54
  • Criteria for Writing Brochures (cont.) Title page Title page  Topic  Graphic  Contact InformationWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 55
  • Criteria for Writing Brochures (cont.) Back panel Back panel  Conclusion  Mailing information  Coupons  LocationWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 56
  • Criteria for Writing Brochures (cont.) Body panels  Prices Body panels  Options  Maps  Credentials  Directions  Tech specs  Company history  Delivery options  Bios  Payment plans (and more)Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 57
  • Criteria for Writing Brochures (cont.)  Headings/subheadings (parallel)  Graphics  Development (inform, persuade, instruct, build rapport)  Conciseness  Sales tone  Correct GrammarWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 58
  • Meeting Workplace Communication Challenges Use the end-of-chapter activities to apply chapter principles individually and in groups.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 59
  • Workplace Writing: Planning, Packaging, and Perfecting Communication, 1st ed.Chapter 16: Research and Documentation Steven M. Gerson Sharon J. Gerson
  • Chapter 16: Research and Documentation This chapter discusses the following:  Why to conduct research in your workplace communication  How to use both primary and secondary research in your workplace communication  How to locate information in the library and online  How to document your sources of informationWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 61
  • Tom Woltkamp, Information Solutions Senior Manager, Teva Neuroscience To find solutions for his company’s software needs, Tom conducts both primary and secondary research:  Questionnaires  Internet Searches  Consultation with experts  Interviews  Online and hardcopy journals How does Tom meet his communication challenges?Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 62
  • Why Conduct Research Perform research to  create content  support commentary and content with details  prove points  emphasize the importance of an idea  enhance the reliability of an opinion  show the importance of a subject to the larger business community  address the audience’s need for documentation and substantiationWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 63
  • Researching Primary Sources  Primary—research that you originate by  Preparing a survey or a questionnaire targeting a group of respondents  Networking to discover information from other individuals  Visiting job sites  Performing lab experiments  InterviewingWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 64
  • Researching Secondary Sources  Secondary—research from already printed and published information taken from  Books  Periodicals  Newspapers  Encyclopedias  Reports  Proposals or other business documents  Web site or blogsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 65
  • Criteria for Writing Research Reports Audience  If you are performing research for an oral presentation or written report, who is your audience?  Specialist?  Semi-specialist?  Lay?  Multiple?Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 66
  • Criteria for Writing Research Reports (cont.)  Style  Research reports tend to be more formal than other kinds of workplace communication.  Research requirements (documentation) are formally rigid.  Strive for objectivity and correctness (to avoid plagiarism).Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 67
  • Criteria for Writing Research Reports (cont.)  Formatting  Overall organization. As with all workplace communication, a research report (oral or written) should consist of an  Introduction  Body  ConclusionWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 68
  • Criteria for Writing Research Reports (cont.)  Formatting (cont.)  Internal organization. You can use many methods of organization within the body of a report, including  Problem/solution  Comparison/contrast  Analysis  Cause/effectWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 69
  • Criteria for Writing Research Reports (cont.) Formatting (cont.)  Documentation. Research demands that you tell where you got your information. Include  Source citations  Works Cited or Reference pagesWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 70
  • How to Conduct Research Decide on goals.  Select a topic to research  Spot-check sources of information  Establish a focus  Research the topic thoroughly, using  Books  Periodicals  The InternetWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 71
  • How to Conduct Research (cont.) Internet Research Sources Search Engines Metasearch Subject Directories Engines Google Clusty Librarians’ Index Yahoo Dogpile Infomine Ask.Com SurfWax Academic Info Copernic Agent About.Com Google Directory YahooWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 72
  • How to Conduct Research (cont.)  Gather data.  Take notes  Isolate key points  Write a statement of purpose (to maintain focus)  Create an outlineWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 73
  • How to Conduct Research (cont.)  Writing  Review your research.  Organize your report effectively.  Write a rough draft.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 74
  • Citing Sources • Cite your sources carefully and correctly. ― MLA or APA ― Source citations ― Works Cited or Reference pagesWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 75
  • Meeting Workplace Communication Challenges Use the end-of-chapter activities to apply chapter principles individually and in groups.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 76