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COM 300 Chp 15

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Private: For COM 300 CSU-GC course, additional resources

Private: For COM 300 CSU-GC course, additional resources

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    COM 300 Chp 15 COM 300 Chp 15 Presentation Transcript

    • Workplace Writing: Planning, Packaging, and Perfecting Communication, 1st ed. Chapter 15: Descriptions, Process Analyses, and Instructions Steven M. Gerson Sharon J. Gerson
    • Chapter 15: Descriptions, Process Analyses, and Instructions This chapter discusses the following:  Purpose of Descriptions, Process Analyses, and Instructions  Reasons for Writing Descriptions  Criteria for Writing Descriptions  Criteria for Process Analyses  Reasons for Writing Instructions  Criteria for Writing Instructions  Techniques for Writing Effective InstructionsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 2
    • Stacy Gerson, technical writer for GBA Master Series As a documentation specialist, Stacy creates online user manuals. Her goals are to create easy-to-read text, easy-to-follow steps, and text that “is not just well written but content that will help the end user.” How does Stacy meet her communication challenges?Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 3
    • Purpose of Descriptions and Instructions Manufacturers include instructions in the packaging of a mechanism, tool, or piece of equipment. The instructions help the end user construct, install, operate, and service the equipment. Instructions often include descriptions. Descriptions provide the end user with information about the mechanism’s features or capabilities.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 4
    • Reasons for Writing Descriptions  Operations Manuals  User manuals include description or tech specifications to help readers visualize mechanisms.  Product Demand Specifications  Companies write descriptions to order pieces of equipment.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 5
    • Reasons for Writing Descriptions (cont.)  Study Reports Provided by Consulting Firms  Descriptions allow companies to report on problems with products.  Sales Literature  Companies use Descriptions to market their products.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 6
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions Title  Name the piece of equipment or mechanism.  Give a serial number for identification. The 3219X2Z Radon Extractor TitleWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 7
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions (cont.)  Overall Organization  Introduction  The topic  Its function  Its components Topic Function The radon extractor, used to vent harmful radon gasses from basements, includes only three pieces of equipment. ComponentsWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 8
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions (cont.)  Overall Organization (cont.)  Body  Use headings and subheadings to itemize and describe the components.  Use graphics (with call-outs) to help the reader visualize the topic.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 9
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions (cont.)  Overall Organization (cont.)  Conclusion  Sell  Show uses  Provide guarantees  Give testimony  Compare/contrast to competition  Repeat introductionWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 10
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions (cont.)  Internal Organization  Use spatial organization (top to bottom, inside to outside, left to right, etc.).Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 11
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions (cont.) Development  Discuss the following:  Weight  Material  Size  Identifying numbers  Color  Make/model  Shape  Texture  Density  CapacityWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 12
    • Criteria for Writing Descriptions (cont.) Word Usage  Quantify using specific, denotative words vs. connotative words. Denotative Connotative 6’5” Towering 2,045 lbs. Heavy 200’ L x 300’ H Large .035 mm Thin Gold Precious metalWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 13
    • Process Analyses A process analysis focuses not on how to do something but, instead, on how something works. Examples of process analyses •To explain how viruses attack our bodies •To show how airbags save lives •To show how metal detectors work •To explain how e-mail messages are transmittedWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 14
    • Reasons for Writing Instructions Operate a mechanism Restore a product Test components Install equipment Correct a problem Use software Manufacture a product Service equipment Set up a product Package a product Troubleshoot a Maintain system equipment Unpack equipment Clean a product Monitor a system Repair a system Assemble a product Construct anythingWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 15
    • Criteria for Writing Instructions Title  Topic  Function (purpose of the instruction) Topic X320Z Radon Extractor Installation Procedures FunctionWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 16
    • Criteria for Writing Instructions (cont.)  Organization  Introduction  Name the product.  State the purpose of the instruction.  List the number of steps.Product name Purpose The X320Z Radon Extractor removes hazardous gases from your house. Installing this mechanism requires only 10 simple steps. # of steps Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 17
    • Criteria for Writing Instructions (cont.) Organization (cont.)  Optional components  Required tools  Include graphics to help lay readers.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 18
    • Criteria for Writing Instructions (cont.) Organization (cont.)  Optional components  Hazards notations  Danger—the potential for death  Warning—the potential for injury  Caution—the potential for damage to equipment  Include icons for visual impact.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 19
    • Criteria for Writing Instructions (cont.) Graphics  People read instructions when they are unfamiliar with a product.  Graphics help them visualize the steps.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 20
    • Techniques for Writing Effective Instructions 1. Number the steps (for future reference). 2. Use highlighting techniques (color for hazards; graphics for visualization, for example). 3. Don’t overload steps—one action per step is enough.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 21
    • Techniques for Writing Effective Instructions (cont.) 4. Develop points thoroughly.  Define terms  Provide detailed steps BAD—too vague Good Detail Add enough air to Add air up to 32 psi (pounds per inflate the tire. square inch) to inflate the tire. How much is “Enough” is 32 “enough”? psi (defined parenthetically)Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 22
    • Techniques for Writing Effective Instructions (cont.) 5. Write concisely (short words, phrases, and sentences). 6. Begin steps with verbs. BAD GOOD 1. You might want to 1. Tighten the clamp. consider tightening the clamp. The verb “Tighten” Without a verb, this is makes the step a not a required action. required action.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 23
    • Techniques for Writing Effective Instructions (cont.) 7. Personalize text with pronouns. 8. Do not omit articles (“a,” “an,” “the”). Article 1. Use the 2” angle-edge brush to paint your window ledges. Personalized pronounWorkplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 24
    • Meeting Workplace Communication Challenges Use the end-of-chapter activities to apply chapter principles individually and in groups.Workplace Writing, 1st Edition © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,Gerson and Gerson Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 25