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Chap2

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Principles of Management Certo & Certo book, Chapter 2

Principles of Management Certo & Certo book, Chapter 2

Published in Business
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  • 1. © Prentice Hall, 2005 1-1
  • 2. Objectives 1. An understanding of the classical approach to management 2. An appreciation for the work of Frederick W.Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry L. Gantt, and Henri Fayol 3. An understanding of the behavioral approach to management 4. An understanding of the studies at the Hawthorne Works and the human relations movement 5. An understanding of the management science approach to management 6. An understanding of how the management science approach has evolved 7. An understanding of the system approach to management 8. Knowledge about the learning organization approach to management 9. An understanding of how triangular management and the contingency© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-2
  • 3. The Classical Approach Lower-Level Management Analysis Frederick W.Taylor (1856–1915)  Work at Bethlehem Steel Co. Frank Gilbreth (1868–1924) and Lillian Gilbreth (1878–1972) Motion study “The Right Way “The Wrong Way” Henry L. Gantt (1861–1919)  Scheduling Innovation  Rewarding Innovation© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-3
  • 4. The Classical Approach© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-4
  • 5. The Classical Approach© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-5
  • 6. The Classical Approach Comprehensive Analysis of Management Henri Fayol (1841–1925) 1. Division of work 2. Authority 3. Discipline 4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interests 7. Remuneration 8. Centralization 9. Scalar chain 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability of tenure of personnel 13. Initiative 14. Esprit de corps Limitations of the Classical Approach© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-6
  • 7. The Behavioral Approach The Hawthorne Studies The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments The Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment Recognizing the Human Variable© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-7
  • 8. The Behavioral Approach The Human Relations Movement Understand: Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self-actualization People can be: Self-directed Accept responsibility Consider work to be as natural as play© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-8
  • 9. The Management Science Approach The Beginning of the Management Science Approach 1. Observe 2. Construct 3. Deduce 4. Test© Prentice Hall, 2005 1-9
  • 10. The Management Science Approach Management Science Today Characteristics of Management Science Applications 1) Problems studied are complicated 2) Economic implications as guidelines 3) Mathematical models to investigate the decision situation 4) Use of computers© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 10
  • 11. The Contingency Approach 1. Perceiving organizational situations as they actually exist 2. Choosing the management tactics best suited to those situations 3. Competently implementing those tactics© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 11
  • 12. The System Approach Types of Systems Closed Open© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 12
  • 13. The System Approach Systems and “Wholeness” 1. The whole should be the main focus of analysis 2. Integration is the key variable in wholeness analysis 3. Modifications weighed in relation to effects on every other part 4. Each part has some role to perform 5. Part and its function determined by its position in the whole 6. All analysis starts with the existence of the whole© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 13
  • 14. The System Approach The Management System Information for Management System Analysis Triangular management 1. Classical approach 2. Behavioral approach 3. Management science approach© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 14
  • 15. The System Approach© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 15
  • 16. The System Approach© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 16
  • 17. Learning Organization:A New Approach? 1. Systems Thinking 2. Shared Vision 3. Challenging of Mental Models 4. Team Learning 5. Personal Mastery© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 17
  • 18. Questions© Prentice Hall, 2005 1 - 18