A New Trends in Integration Technologies
Dr. Ravi Shankar Mishra
Prof. & HOD
•The growth of electronics industry has increased
rapidly mainly due to advances in integration
technologies, large-scale ...
VLSI TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN DRIVERS
• Less Area, More Compactness At All System Levels
• Less Power Consumption
•Fewer Chip...
CLASSIFICATION OF ICS
Based on
Application
Based on
Fabrication Techniques
Based on
Technology
Based on
Device Count
Linea...
1947
1906
Audion (Triode), 1906
Lee De Forest
First point contact transistor
(germanium), 1947
John Bardeen and Walter Bra...
First integrated circuit (germanium), 1958
Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments
Contained five components, three types:
transi...
Pentium® III
28M transistors / 733MHz-1Gz /
13-26W
L=0.25µm shrunk to L=0.18µm
Pentium® 4 “Northwood”
55M transistors / 2-...
IC Evolution
SSI – Small Scale Integration (early 1970s)
contained 1 – 10 logic gates
MSI – Medium Scale Integration
l...
Bipolar technology
 TTL (transistor-transistor logic)
 ECL (emitter-coupled logic)
MOS (Metal-oxide-silicon)
 NMOS (n...
 Aluminum gates for replaced by polysilicon by early 1980
 CMOS (Complementary MOS): n-channel and p-channel
MOS transis...
“Moore’s Law”
The number of transistors that can be
integrated on a single IC grows exponentially
with time.
“Integration ...
Design Abstraction Level
A complex digital system can be subdivided in a
hierarchical manner using abstraction.
System
Des...
DESIGN PROCESS
• Behavioral design
It deal with function of the system & register input and output.
• Data path design
In ...
DESIGN AUTOMATION
The function or operations for transforming design or one stage
into other stage and verification of the...
DESIGN METHODOLOGIES
Fully Custom
Semi Custom
Standard Cells Gate Arrays Programmable Logic
FPGA PLD
•Customers decide the...
• Full Custom
Each And Every Component design as per designer interest.
• Semi Custom
Designer can design part of the proj...
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)
A kind of semi custom integrated circuit, often referred to as
"gate-array"...
ASIC – Benefits
•Improve performance
• Reduce power consumption
• Reduce production costs
• Mix Analog and Digital Designs...
System-on-a-chip (SOC)
 Idea: combine several large blocks
 Pre design custom cores
(e.g.,microcontroller) - “intellectu...
VLSI Design Tools
Front End Design tools:
With the help of these tools simulation &
synthesis of circuit can be performed ...
Application of VLSI
 Ultra Low power Image & Video Compression.
 Encryption Chip/Smart Card
 CMOS Image Sensor
 Medica...
SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design
SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design
SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design
SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design
SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design
SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design
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SISTec Microelectronics VLSI design

  1. 1. A New Trends in Integration Technologies Dr. Ravi Shankar Mishra Prof. & HOD
  2. 2. •The growth of electronics industry has increased rapidly mainly due to advances in integration technologies, large-scale systems design - due to the advent of VLSI. •The number of applications of integrated circuits are in high-performance computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics.
  3. 3. VLSI TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN DRIVERS • Less Area, More Compactness At All System Levels • Less Power Consumption •Fewer Chips/components Per Board And System • Higher Reliability, Due To Improved On-chip Interconnects • Higher Speed Due To Reduced Interconnect Length Manufacturing Cost Reductions
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF ICS Based on Application Based on Fabrication Techniques Based on Technology Based on Device Count Linear IC Digital IC Monolithic IC Hybrid IC BJT MOSFET SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI
  5. 5. 1947 1906 Audion (Triode), 1906 Lee De Forest First point contact transistor (germanium), 1947 John Bardeen and Walter Brattain Bell Laboratories IC Evolution
  6. 6. First integrated circuit (germanium), 1958 Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments Contained five components, three types: transistors resistors and capacitors Intel Pentium II, 1997 Clock: 233MHz Number of transistors: 7.5 M Gate Length: 0.35 19581958 19971997
  7. 7. Pentium® III 28M transistors / 733MHz-1Gz / 13-26W L=0.25µm shrunk to L=0.18µm Pentium® 4 “Northwood” 55M transistors / 2-2.5GHz L=0.13µm
  8. 8. IC Evolution SSI – Small Scale Integration (early 1970s) contained 1 – 10 logic gates MSI – Medium Scale Integration logic functions, counters LSI – Large Scale Integration first microprocessors on the chip VLSI – Very Large Scale Integration now offers 64-bit microprocessors,complete with cache memory,floating-point arithmetic unit(s), etc.
  9. 9. Bipolar technology  TTL (transistor-transistor logic)  ECL (emitter-coupled logic) MOS (Metal-oxide-silicon)  NMOS (n-channel MOS) technology developed in 1970s required fewer masking steps, was denser, and consumed less power than equivalent bipolar ICs  an MOS IC was cheaper than a bipolar IC and led to investment and growth of the MOS IC market.
  10. 10.  Aluminum gates for replaced by polysilicon by early 1980  CMOS (Complementary MOS): n-channel and p-channel MOS transistors => lower power consumption, simplified fabrication process  Bi-CMOS - hybrid Bipolar, CMOS (for high speed)  GaAs - Gallium Arsenide (for high speed)  Si-Ge - Silicon Germanium (for RF)
  11. 11. “Moore’s Law” The number of transistors that can be integrated on a single IC grows exponentially with time. “Integration complexity doubles every three years” Gordon Moore Fairchild Corporation - 1965
  12. 12. Design Abstraction Level A complex digital system can be subdivided in a hierarchical manner using abstraction. System Design logic Design Circuit Design Layout Design Blocks, sub-blocks Logic gates FETs Geometric structures
  13. 13. DESIGN PROCESS • Behavioral design It deal with function of the system & register input and output. • Data path design In this flow of data through buses between registers and logic unit are controlled. • Logic design Data path units are replaced with primitive gates & flip flop. • Physical design It replaces the gates and flip flop using transistors.
  14. 14. DESIGN AUTOMATION The function or operations for transforming design or one stage into other stage and verification of the out put done by the software known as design automation the tool use for this. • Simulation tools or simulators. • Synthesizers. Simulation It is the process of verifying the conduction of model for the given circuit without implementing practically.For this purpose Modelsim simulator used output of simulator is wave form or timing diagram. Synthesis The process of transforming design description from one form two another form is called synthesis.
  15. 15. DESIGN METHODOLOGIES Fully Custom Semi Custom Standard Cells Gate Arrays Programmable Logic FPGA PLD •Customers decide the design methodology
  16. 16. • Full Custom Each And Every Component design as per designer interest. • Semi Custom Designer can design part of the project and part of thing can be taken from others. • Standards cells Predefined logic cells are called standards cells. Pre design modules e.g. AND gate,OR gate,Multiplexers, Flip Flop. • Gate Array In this standard logic elements or present for the designer to the interconnect to achieve the desire function. • Field Programmable Devices It is prefabricated, the logic is implemented by electrically
  17. 17. Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) A kind of semi custom integrated circuit, often referred to as "gate-array" or "standard-cell" products, developed & designed to satisfy a specific application requirement as opposed to a general purpose circuit, such as a microprocessor. •ASICs are customized or tailored to perform specific functions to a particular system or application • ASICs are typically employed as bus interfaces, glue logic,functional accelerators, and/or a System-On-Chip (SoC).
  18. 18. ASIC – Benefits •Improve performance • Reduce power consumption • Reduce production costs • Mix Analog and Digital Designs • Design optimization through IC manufacturing process • Development Tools support HDL and Schematic design approach
  19. 19. System-on-a-chip (SOC)  Idea: combine several large blocks  Pre design custom cores (e.g.,microcontroller) - “intellectual property” (IP)  ASIC logic for special-purpose hardware  Programmable Logic (PLD, FPGA)
  20. 20. VLSI Design Tools Front End Design tools: With the help of these tools simulation & synthesis of circuit can be performed on PC.E.g. XILINX, Altera etc. Back End Design Tools: These tools are used to fabrication purpose.The layout of circuit is design and simulate with the help of these tools. E.g. TANNER,MICROWIND .
  21. 21. Application of VLSI  Ultra Low power Image & Video Compression.  Encryption Chip/Smart Card  CMOS Image Sensor  Medical electronic systems.  Real time Tele communication and Data Processing application Process control industry etc……
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