8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c  h  a  p  t  e  r
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CALCULATE CAPACITY OF TELEC...
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE ALTERNATIVE NETWORK SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY APPLICATIONS FOR SUPPORTING EL...
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES <ul><li>TELECOMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>COMPONENTS, FUNCTIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS ...
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES <ul><li>1. MANAGING LOCAL AREA NETWORKS:  Must be carefully administered, monitored, vulnerable to i...
TELECOMMUNICATIONS <ul><li>COMMUNICATING INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>VIA ELECTRONIC MEANS </li></ul><ul><li>OVER SOME DI...
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY <ul><li>NATIONAL / WORLDWIDE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL TELECOMMUNICA...
SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>TERMINALS:  Input / output devices </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS ...
PROTOCOL <ul><li>RULES & PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>TO GOVERN TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN COMPONENTS  </li></...
ANALOG SIGNAL <ul><li>CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>PASSES THRU SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE COMMUNICATIONS </li...
DIGITAL SIGNAL <ul><li>DISCRETE WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>TWO DISCRETE STATES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-BIT & 0-BIT </li><...
COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED: </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED WIRES:   Copper Wires </li><...
<ul><li>SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS </li></ul><ul><li>FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TRILLIONS OF BITS PER SECOND, F...
<ul><li>BACKBONE:  Fiber optics cable carries light signals to distribution nodes, which use copper wires to user </li></u...
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PAGERS:   Small pager beeps when receives short message </li></ul><ul><li>CELLU...
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE:   Cellular; lower power; higher frequency. Smal...
ORBITING SATELLITES UPLINK MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION DOWNLINK
<ul><li>TRANSMISSION SPEED:   Bits per Second (BPS) or Baud </li></ul><ul><li>BANDWIDTH:   Capacity of Channel; Difference...
SPEEDS & COST OF MEDIA MEDIUM SPEED COST TWISTED WIRE 300 BPS - 10 MBPS LOW MICROWAVE 256 KBPS - 100 MBPS SATELLITE 256 KB...
COMMUNICATIONS PROCESSORS <ul><li>FRONT- END PROCESSOR:   Minicomputer manages communication for host computer </li></ul><...
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES STAR HOST USER USER USER USER
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES BUS USER USER USER USER USER USER
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES RING USER USER USER USER
LOCAL  NETWORKS <ul><li>PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX):   firm’s central switching system </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL AREA NETW...
LOCAL  AREA  NETWORK (LAN) <ul><li>GATEWAY:   Connection to other networks </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTER:  Forwards data to oth...
<ul><li>Network spans large geographic distances. Can include cable, satellite, microwave </li></ul><ul><li>SWITCHED LINES...
VALUE-ADDED NETWORK (VAN) <ul><li>PRIVATE, MULTIPATH, DATA ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>3rd PARTY MANAGED </li></ul><ul><li>USED...
NETWORK SERVICES <ul><li>PACKET SWITCHING </li></ul><ul><li>FRAME RELAY </li></ul><ul><li>ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE  (ATM...
PACKET SWITCHING   (X.25) <ul><li>FORM OF  V alue  A dded  N etwork </li></ul><ul><li>BREAKS DATA BLOCKS INTO SMALL PACKET...
FRAME RELAY <ul><li>PACKAGES DATA INTO BLOCKS (FRAMES) </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH-SPEED TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>RELIABL...
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE   (ATM) <ul><li>CELL:  53 Groups of 8 Bytes Each </li></ul><ul><li>USES FIBER OPTICS CABLE </li...
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK   (ISDN) <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR TRANSMITTING VOICE, VIDEO, DATA </li></ul>...
OTHER SERVICES: <ul><li>DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL):   enhancing capacity over copper telephone lines </li></ul><ul><li>...
OTHER SERVICES: <ul><li>BROADBAND:  High-speed transmission, multiple channels </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK CONVERGENCE:  Ena...
E-COMMERCE &  E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE...
E-COMMERCE &  E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES:  Commercial service provides desired mix </li>...
COMMERCIAL DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES
ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) <ul><li>COMPUTER - TO - COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>EXCHANGE BETWEEN TWO ORGANIZATIONS </...
8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c  h  a  p  t  e  r
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Telecommunications and networks

3,480

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,480
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
314
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Telecommunications and networks

  1. 1. 8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c h a p t e r
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CALCULATE CAPACITY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS & EVALUATE TRANSMISSION MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARE TYPES OF NETWORKS & NETWORK SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE ALTERNATIVE NETWORK SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY APPLICATIONS FOR SUPPORTING ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, BUSINESS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  4. 4. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES <ul><li>TELECOMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>COMPONENTS, FUNCTIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & ELECTRONIC BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  5. 5. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES <ul><li>1. MANAGING LOCAL AREA NETWORKS: Must be carefully administered, monitored, vulnerable to interruption, data loss, viruses </li></ul><ul><li>2. MANAGING BANDWIDTH: While costs per unit are dropping and capacity is growing, sudden demand can overwhelm system </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  6. 6. TELECOMMUNICATIONS <ul><li>COMMUNICATING INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>VIA ELECTRONIC MEANS </li></ul><ul><li>OVER SOME DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  7. 7. INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY <ul><li>NATIONAL / WORLDWIDE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESSIBLE BY GENERAL PUBLIC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  8. 8. SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>TERMINALS: Input / output devices </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSORS: Modems, multiplexers, front-end processors </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROTOCOL <ul><li>RULES & PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>TO GOVERN TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>IN A NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  10. 10. ANALOG SIGNAL <ul><li>CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>PASSES THRU SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE COMMUNICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  11. 11. DIGITAL SIGNAL <ul><li>DISCRETE WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>TWO DISCRETE STATES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-BIT & 0-BIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ON / OFF PULSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>USES MODEM TO TRANSLATE ANALOG TO DIGITAL, DIGITAL TO ANALOG </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>0010111010011101001010101110111100100010000101111010110100111010010010110010101101100
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED: </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED WIRES: Copper Wires </li></ul><ul><li>COAXIAL CABLE: Insulated Copper Wires </li></ul><ul><li>FIBER-OPTIC CABLE </li></ul><ul><li>MICROWAVE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS </li></ul><ul><li>FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TRILLIONS OF BITS PER SECOND, FULL DUPLEX </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE, HARDER TO INSTALL </li></ul><ul><li>OFTEN USED AS BACKBONE OF NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS SIGNAL LASER CABLE PHOTO DETECTOR SIGNAL
  14. 14. <ul><li>BACKBONE: Fiber optics cable carries light signals to distribution nodes, which use copper wires to user </li></ul><ul><li>DENSE WAVE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (DWDM): Next-generation, uses many colors, (up to 160) each a channel, increases capacity of a fiber to 6.4 terabits per second </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS
  15. 15. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PAGERS: Small pager beeps when receives short message </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULAR TELEPHONE: Device uses radio waves to reach antennas within areas called cells </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILE DATA NETWORKS: Radio - based data network using hand-held computers, cheap, efficient </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  16. 16. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE: Cellular; lower power; higher frequency. Smaller phones not shielded by buildings, tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT: Pen sized, hand-held, digital communicator </li></ul><ul><li>SMART PHONE: Wireless, voice, text, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  17. 17. ORBITING SATELLITES UPLINK MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION DOWNLINK
  18. 18. <ul><li>TRANSMISSION SPEED: Bits per Second (BPS) or Baud </li></ul><ul><li>BANDWIDTH: Capacity of Channel; Difference between Highest & Lowest Frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
  19. 19. SPEEDS & COST OF MEDIA MEDIUM SPEED COST TWISTED WIRE 300 BPS - 10 MBPS LOW MICROWAVE 256 KBPS - 100 MBPS SATELLITE 256 KBPS - 100 MBPS COAXIAL CABLE 56 KBPS - 200 MBPS FIBER OPTICS 500 KBPS - 6.4 TBPS HIGH BPS: BITS PER SECOND KBPS: KILOBITS PS, MBPS: MEGABITS PS, GBPS: GIGABITS PS, TBPS: TERABITS PS
  20. 20. COMMUNICATIONS PROCESSORS <ul><li>FRONT- END PROCESSOR: Minicomputer manages communication for host computer </li></ul><ul><li>CONCENTRATOR: Computer collects messages for batch transmission to host computer </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLER: Computer controls interface between CPU and peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIPLEXER: Allows channel to carry multiple sources simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  21. 21. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES STAR HOST USER USER USER USER
  22. 22. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES BUS USER USER USER USER USER USER
  23. 23. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES RING USER USER USER USER
  24. 24. LOCAL NETWORKS <ul><li>PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX): firm’s central switching system </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN): dedicated channels; limited distance (less than 2000 foot radius); higher capacity than PBX. Can share expensive hardware & software </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  25. 25. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) <ul><li>GATEWAY: Connection to other networks </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTER: Forwards data to other networks </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS): Manages file server; routes communications on network </li></ul><ul><li>PEER - TO - PEER: In some small networks all computers have equal power </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Network spans large geographic distances. Can include cable, satellite, microwave </li></ul><ul><li>SWITCHED LINES: Route determined by current traffic </li></ul><ul><li>DEDICATED LINES: Constantly available for high-volume traffic </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>WIDE - AREA NETWORK (WAN)
  27. 27. VALUE-ADDED NETWORK (VAN) <ul><li>PRIVATE, MULTIPATH, DATA ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>3rd PARTY MANAGED </li></ul><ul><li>USED BY SEVERAL ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSCRIPTION BASIS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  28. 28. NETWORK SERVICES <ul><li>PACKET SWITCHING </li></ul><ul><li>FRAME RELAY </li></ul><ul><li>ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM) </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) </li></ul><ul><li>SYMMETRIC DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE </li></ul><ul><li>CABLE MODEM </li></ul><ul><li>T1 LINE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  29. 29. PACKET SWITCHING (X.25) <ul><li>FORM OF V alue A dded N etwork </li></ul><ul><li>BREAKS DATA BLOCKS INTO SMALL PACKETS (e.g.: 128 Bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>PACKETS ROUTED BY MOST ECONOMICAL MEANS </li></ul><ul><li>REASSEMBLED AT DESTINATION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  30. 30. FRAME RELAY <ul><li>PACKAGES DATA INTO BLOCKS (FRAMES) </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH-SPEED TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>RELIABLE LINES </li></ul><ul><li>NO ERROR-CORRECTION ROUTINES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  31. 31. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM) <ul><li>CELL: 53 Groups of 8 Bytes Each </li></ul><ul><li>USES FIBER OPTICS CABLE </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT OF VENDOR HARDWARE SPEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>CAN TIE LAN TO WAN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  32. 32. INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR TRANSMITTING VOICE, VIDEO, DATA </li></ul><ul><li>OVER PUBLIC TELEPHONE LINES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  33. 33. OTHER SERVICES: <ul><li>DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL): enhancing capacity over copper telephone lines </li></ul><ul><li>CABLE MODEM: modem for cable TV for high-speed access to Internet </li></ul><ul><li>T1 LINE: dedicated telephone connection, 24 channels @ 1.544 megabits per second </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  34. 34. OTHER SERVICES: <ul><li>BROADBAND: High-speed transmission, multiple channels </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK CONVERGENCE: Enables simultaneous transmission of voice, data, video. Attractive for multimedia applications: Video collaboration, voice-data call centers, distance learning, unified messaging </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  35. 35. E-COMMERCE & E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE MAIL </li></ul><ul><li>FACSIMILE MACHINES (fax) </li></ul><ul><li>TELECONFERENCING </li></ul><ul><li>DATACONFERENCING </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEOCONFERENCING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  36. 36. E-COMMERCE & E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES: Commercial service provides desired mix </li></ul><ul><li>DISTANCE LEARNING: Education, training delivered over a distance, can include printed material, teleconferencing, interactive multimedia, Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  37. 37. COMMERCIAL DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES
  38. 38. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) <ul><li>COMPUTER - TO - COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>EXCHANGE BETWEEN TWO ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>OF STANDARD BUSINESS TRANSACTION DOCUMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>COMPUTER COMPUTER SELLER CUSTOMER ORDERS, PAYMENTS SHIPPING NOTICES, PRICE UPDATES, INVOICES
  39. 39. 8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c h a p t e r
  1. ¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?

    Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.

×