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Telecommunications and networks

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  • 1. 8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c h a p t e r
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • DESCRIBE COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
    • CALCULATE CAPACITY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS & EVALUATE TRANSMISSION MEDIA
    • COMPARE TYPES OF NETWORKS & NETWORK SERVICES
    • *
  • 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • COMPARE ALTERNATIVE NETWORK SERVICES
    • IDENTIFY APPLICATIONS FOR SUPPORTING ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, BUSINESS
    • *
  • 4. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
    • TELECOMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION
    • COMPONENTS, FUNCTIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
    • COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & ELECTRONIC BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES
    • *
  • 5. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
    • 1. MANAGING LOCAL AREA NETWORKS: Must be carefully administered, monitored, vulnerable to interruption, data loss, viruses
    • 2. MANAGING BANDWIDTH: While costs per unit are dropping and capacity is growing, sudden demand can overwhelm system
    • *
  • 6. TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    • COMMUNICATING INFORMATION
    • VIA ELECTRONIC MEANS
    • OVER SOME DISTANCE
    • *
  • 7. INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY
    • NATIONAL / WORLDWIDE
    • HIGH SPEED
    • DIGITAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    • ACCESSIBLE BY GENERAL PUBLIC
    • *
  • 8. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
    • COMPUTERS
    • TERMINALS: Input / output devices
    • COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
    • PROCESSORS: Modems, multiplexers, front-end processors
    • COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE
    • *
  • 9. PROTOCOL
    • RULES & PROCEDURES
    • TO GOVERN TRANSMISSION
    • BETWEEN COMPONENTS
    • IN A NETWORK
    • *
  • 10. ANALOG SIGNAL
    • CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM
    • PASSES THRU SYSTEM
    • VOICE COMMUNICATIONS
    • *
  • 11. DIGITAL SIGNAL
    • DISCRETE WAVEFORM
    • TWO DISCRETE STATES:
      • 1-BIT & 0-BIT
      • ON / OFF PULSE
    • DATA COMMUNICATION
    • USES MODEM TO TRANSLATE ANALOG TO DIGITAL, DIGITAL TO ANALOG
    • *
    0010111010011101001010101110111100100010000101111010110100111010010010110010101101100
  • 12. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
    • MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED:
    • TWISTED WIRES: Copper Wires
    • COAXIAL CABLE: Insulated Copper Wires
    • FIBER-OPTIC CABLE
    • MICROWAVE
    • *
  • 13.
    • SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS
    • FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE
    • TRILLIONS OF BITS PER SECOND, FULL DUPLEX
    • EXPENSIVE, HARDER TO INSTALL
    • OFTEN USED AS BACKBONE OF NETWORKS
    • *
    FIBER OPTICS SIGNAL LASER CABLE PHOTO DETECTOR SIGNAL
  • 14.
    • BACKBONE: Fiber optics cable carries light signals to distribution nodes, which use copper wires to user
    • DENSE WAVE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (DWDM): Next-generation, uses many colors, (up to 160) each a channel, increases capacity of a fiber to 6.4 terabits per second
    • *
    FIBER OPTICS
  • 15. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES
    • PAGERS: Small pager beeps when receives short message
    • CELLULAR TELEPHONE: Device uses radio waves to reach antennas within areas called cells
    • MOBILE DATA NETWORKS: Radio - based data network using hand-held computers, cheap, efficient
    • *
  • 16. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES
    • PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE: Cellular; lower power; higher frequency. Smaller phones not shielded by buildings, tunnels
    • PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT: Pen sized, hand-held, digital communicator
    • SMART PHONE: Wireless, voice, text, Internet
    • *
  • 17. ORBITING SATELLITES UPLINK MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION DOWNLINK
  • 18.
    • TRANSMISSION SPEED: Bits per Second (BPS) or Baud
    • BANDWIDTH: Capacity of Channel; Difference between Highest & Lowest Frequencies
    • *
    COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
  • 19. SPEEDS & COST OF MEDIA MEDIUM SPEED COST TWISTED WIRE 300 BPS - 10 MBPS LOW MICROWAVE 256 KBPS - 100 MBPS SATELLITE 256 KBPS - 100 MBPS COAXIAL CABLE 56 KBPS - 200 MBPS FIBER OPTICS 500 KBPS - 6.4 TBPS HIGH BPS: BITS PER SECOND KBPS: KILOBITS PS, MBPS: MEGABITS PS, GBPS: GIGABITS PS, TBPS: TERABITS PS
  • 20. COMMUNICATIONS PROCESSORS
    • FRONT- END PROCESSOR: Minicomputer manages communication for host computer
    • CONCENTRATOR: Computer collects messages for batch transmission to host computer
    • CONTROLLER: Computer controls interface between CPU and peripheral devices
    • MULTIPLEXER: Allows channel to carry multiple sources simultaneously
    • *
  • 21. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES STAR HOST USER USER USER USER
  • 22. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES BUS USER USER USER USER USER USER
  • 23. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES RING USER USER USER USER
  • 24. LOCAL NETWORKS
    • PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX): firm’s central switching system
    • LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN): dedicated channels; limited distance (less than 2000 foot radius); higher capacity than PBX. Can share expensive hardware & software
    • *
  • 25. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)
    • GATEWAY: Connection to other networks
    • ROUTER: Forwards data to other networks
    • NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS): Manages file server; routes communications on network
    • PEER - TO - PEER: In some small networks all computers have equal power
    • *
  • 26.
    • Network spans large geographic distances. Can include cable, satellite, microwave
    • SWITCHED LINES: Route determined by current traffic
    • DEDICATED LINES: Constantly available for high-volume traffic
    • *
    WIDE - AREA NETWORK (WAN)
  • 27. VALUE-ADDED NETWORK (VAN)
    • PRIVATE, MULTIPATH, DATA ONLY
    • 3rd PARTY MANAGED
    • USED BY SEVERAL ORGANIZATIONS
    • SUBSCRIPTION BASIS
    • *
  • 28. NETWORK SERVICES
    • PACKET SWITCHING
    • FRAME RELAY
    • ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM)
    • INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
    • SYMMETRIC DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE
    • CABLE MODEM
    • T1 LINE
    • *
  • 29. PACKET SWITCHING (X.25)
    • FORM OF V alue A dded N etwork
    • BREAKS DATA BLOCKS INTO SMALL PACKETS (e.g.: 128 Bytes)
    • PACKETS ROUTED BY MOST ECONOMICAL MEANS
    • REASSEMBLED AT DESTINATION
    • *
  • 30. FRAME RELAY
    • PACKAGES DATA INTO BLOCKS (FRAMES)
    • HIGH-SPEED TRANSMISSION
    • RELIABLE LINES
    • NO ERROR-CORRECTION ROUTINES
    • *
  • 31. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM)
    • CELL: 53 Groups of 8 Bytes Each
    • USES FIBER OPTICS CABLE
    • INDEPENDENT OF VENDOR HARDWARE SPEEDS
    • CAN TIE LAN TO WAN
    • *
  • 32. INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
    • INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR TRANSMITTING VOICE, VIDEO, DATA
    • OVER PUBLIC TELEPHONE LINES
    • *
  • 33. OTHER SERVICES:
    • DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL): enhancing capacity over copper telephone lines
    • CABLE MODEM: modem for cable TV for high-speed access to Internet
    • T1 LINE: dedicated telephone connection, 24 channels @ 1.544 megabits per second
    • *
  • 34. OTHER SERVICES:
    • BROADBAND: High-speed transmission, multiple channels
    • NETWORK CONVERGENCE: Enables simultaneous transmission of voice, data, video. Attractive for multimedia applications: Video collaboration, voice-data call centers, distance learning, unified messaging
    • *
  • 35. E-COMMERCE & E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES
    • ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail)
    • GROUPWARE
    • VOICE MAIL
    • FACSIMILE MACHINES (fax)
    • TELECONFERENCING
    • DATACONFERENCING
    • VIDEOCONFERENCING
    • *
  • 36. E-COMMERCE & E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES
    • DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES: Commercial service provides desired mix
    • DISTANCE LEARNING: Education, training delivered over a distance, can include printed material, teleconferencing, interactive multimedia, Web sites
    • *
  • 37. COMMERCIAL DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES
  • 38. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)
    • COMPUTER - TO - COMPUTER
    • EXCHANGE BETWEEN TWO ORGANIZATIONS
    • OF STANDARD BUSINESS TRANSACTION DOCUMENTS
    • *
    COMPUTER COMPUTER SELLER CUSTOMER ORDERS, PAYMENTS SHIPPING NOTICES, PRICE UPDATES, INVOICES
  • 39. 8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c h a p t e r

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