9.1 9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CALCULATE CAPACITY OF TELEC...
TELECOMMUNICATIONS <ul><li>COMMUNICATING INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>VIA ELECTRONIC MEANS </li></ul><ul><li>OVER SOME DI...
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY <ul><li>NATIONAL / WORLDWIDE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL TELECOMMUNICA...
SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>TERMINALS  (Input / Output Devices) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS...
PROTOCOL <ul><li>RULES & PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>TO GOVERN TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN COMPONENTS  </li></...
ANALOG SIGNAL <ul><li>A CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM THAT PASSES THROUGH A COMMUNICATIONS MEDIUM; USED FOR VOICE COMMUNICATIONS </l...
DIGITAL SIGNAL <ul><li>DISCRETE WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>TWO DISCRETE STATES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-BIT & 0-BIT </li><...
COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED: </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED WIRES   (Copper Wires) </li>...
<ul><li>SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS </li></ul><ul><li>FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>UP TO TEN BILLION BITS PER SECO...
LOW-ORBIT SATELLITE UPLINK MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION DOWNLINK 9.13
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PAGING SYSTEM:   Small pager beeps when receives short message </li></ul><ul><l...
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE:   Cellular; lower power; higher frequency. Smal...
COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS <ul><li>TRANSMISSION SPEED:   Bits per Second (bps); Baud </li></ul><ul><li>BANDWIDTH:   Capacity ...
SPEEDS & COST OF MEDIA 9.17 MEDIUM SPEED COST TWISTED WIRE 300 bps - 10 Mbps LOW MICROWAVE 256 Kbps - 100 Mbps SATELLITE 2...
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES STAR 9.19 HOST USER USER USER USER
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES BUS 9.20 USER USER USER USER USER USER
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES RING 9.21 USER USER USER USER
LOCAL NETWORKS <ul><li>PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX):   special-purpose computer designed for handling and switching offic...
LOCAL AREA NETWORK  (LAN) <ul><li>SERVER:   stores programs, data; determines access to network </li></ul><ul><li>GATEWAY:...
ELEMENTS OF A BASIC LAN <ul><li>SERVER </li></ul><ul><li>CABLING </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) </li></u...
<ul><li>NETWORK SPANS LARGE GEOGRAPHIC DISTANCES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN INCLUDE CABLE, SATELLITE, MICROWAVE </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>ORGANIZATION’S HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND DATA RESOURCES ARE ARRANGED TO PUT MORE COMPUTING POWER ...
INTERNETWORKING <ul><li>LINKING OF SEPARATE NETWORKS, EACH OF WHICH RETAINS ITS OWN IDENTITY, INTO AN INTERCONNECTED NETWO...
CONNECTIVITY <ul><li>MEASURE OF ABILITY OF COMPUTING DEVICES TO PASS & SHARE INFORMATION WITHOUT HUMAN INTERVENTION </li><...
PROBLEMS POSED BY ENTERPRISE NETWORKING <ul><li>CONNECTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>LOSS OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL </li></ul><ul><l...
COSTS OF CLIENT/SERVER SYSTEMS <ul><li>OPERATIONS & SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>HA...
SOME SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS <ul><li>Managing the change </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Data adm...
9.45 9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
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Telecommunications

  1. 1. 9.1 9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CALCULATE CAPACITY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS & EVALUATE TRANSMISSION MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARE TYPES OF NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.2
  3. 3. TELECOMMUNICATIONS <ul><li>COMMUNICATING INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>VIA ELECTRONIC MEANS </li></ul><ul><li>OVER SOME DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.5
  4. 4. INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY <ul><li>NATIONAL / WORLDWIDE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESSIBLE BY GENERAL PUBLIC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.6
  5. 5. SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>TERMINALS (Input / Output Devices) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSORS (Modems; Multiplexers; Front-end Processors) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.7
  6. 6. PROTOCOL <ul><li>RULES & PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>TO GOVERN TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>IN A NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>(ALLOWS COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>IN A NETWORK TO TALK </li></ul><ul><li>TO EACH OTHER) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.8
  7. 7. ANALOG SIGNAL <ul><li>A CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM THAT PASSES THROUGH A COMMUNICATIONS MEDIUM; USED FOR VOICE COMMUNICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.9
  8. 8. DIGITAL SIGNAL <ul><li>DISCRETE WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>TWO DISCRETE STATES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-BIT & 0-BIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ON / OFF PULSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>USES MODEM TO TRANSLATE ANALOG TO DIGITAL, DIGITAL TO ANALOG </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.10 0010111010011101001010101110111100100010000101111010110
  9. 9. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED: </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED WIRES (Copper Wires) </li></ul><ul><li>COAXIAL CABLE (Insulated Copper Wires) </li></ul><ul><li>FIBER-OPTIC CABLE </li></ul><ul><li>WIRELESS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.11
  10. 10. <ul><li>SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS </li></ul><ul><li>FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>UP TO TEN BILLION BITS PER SECOND, FULL DUPLEX </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE, HARDER TO INSTALL </li></ul><ul><li>OFTEN USED AS BACKBONE OF NETWORKS (MAJOR TRAFFIC) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS 9.12 SIGNAL LASER CABLE PHOTO DETECTOR SIGNAL
  11. 11. LOW-ORBIT SATELLITE UPLINK MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION DOWNLINK 9.13
  12. 12. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PAGING SYSTEM: Small pager beeps when receives short message </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULAR TELEPHONE: Device uses radio waves to reach antennas within areas called cells </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILE DATA NETWORKS: Radio - based data network using hand-held computers. cheap, efficient </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.14
  13. 13. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE: Cellular; lower power; higher frequency. Smaller phones not shielded by buildings, tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT: Pen sized, hand-held, digital communicator </li></ul><ul><li>SMART PHONE: Wireless, voice, text, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.15
  14. 14. COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS <ul><li>TRANSMISSION SPEED: Bits per Second (bps); Baud </li></ul><ul><li>BANDWIDTH: Capacity of Channel; Difference between Highest & Lowest Frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.16
  15. 15. SPEEDS & COST OF MEDIA 9.17 MEDIUM SPEED COST TWISTED WIRE 300 bps - 10 Mbps LOW MICROWAVE 256 Kbps - 100 Mbps SATELLITE 256 Kbps - 100 Mbps COAXIAL CABLE 56 Kbps - 200 Mbps FIBER OPTICS 500 Kbps - 10 Gbps HIGH bps: BITS PER SECOND Kbps: KILOBITS PER SECOND Mbps: MEGABITS PER SECOND Gbps: GIGABITS PER SECOND
  16. 16. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES STAR 9.19 HOST USER USER USER USER
  17. 17. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES BUS 9.20 USER USER USER USER USER USER
  18. 18. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES RING 9.21 USER USER USER USER
  19. 19. LOCAL NETWORKS <ul><li>PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX): special-purpose computer designed for handling and switching office telephone calls at a company site </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN): dedicated channels; limited distance (less than 2000 foot radius); higher capacity than PBX. Can share expensive hardware & software </li></ul>9.22
  20. 20. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) <ul><li>SERVER: stores programs, data; determines access to network </li></ul><ul><li>GATEWAY: connection to other dissimilar networks </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTER: route data through several connected LANs or to a WAN </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS): manages file server; routes communications on network </li></ul><ul><li>PEER - TO - PEER: in some small networks all computers have equal power </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.23
  21. 21. ELEMENTS OF A BASIC LAN <ul><li>SERVER </li></ul><ul><li>CABLING </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) </li></ul><ul><li>SOFTWARE (network operating system) FOR CLIENTS, SERVERS OR PEERS </li></ul>9.23
  22. 22. <ul><li>NETWORK SPANS LARGE GEOGRAPHIC DISTANCES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN INCLUDE CABLE, SATELLITE, MICROWAVE </li></ul><ul><li>SWITCHED LINES: Route Determined by Current Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>DEDICATED LINES: Constantly Available for High-Volume Traffic (typically a flat rate is paid for total access to the line) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>WIDE - AREA NETWORK (WAN) 9.24
  23. 23. <ul><li>ORGANIZATION’S HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND DATA RESOURCES ARE ARRANGED TO PUT MORE COMPUTING POWER ON THE DESKTOP AND TO CREATE A COMPANYWIDE NETWORK LINKING MANY SMALLER NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>ENTERPRISE NETWORKING 9.31
  24. 24. INTERNETWORKING <ul><li>LINKING OF SEPARATE NETWORKS, EACH OF WHICH RETAINS ITS OWN IDENTITY, INTO AN INTERCONNECTED NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.32 NETWORK A NETWORK B NETWORK C
  25. 25. CONNECTIVITY <ul><li>MEASURE OF ABILITY OF COMPUTING DEVICES TO PASS & SHARE INFORMATION WITHOUT HUMAN INTERVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>OPEN SYSTEMS: Software Able to Function on Different Computer Platforms. Nonproprietary Operating Systems, Applications, Protocols (e.g. Java) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.33
  26. 26. PROBLEMS POSED BY ENTERPRISE NETWORKING <ul><li>CONNECTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>LOSS OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>HIDDEN COSTS OF CLIENT/SERVER COMPUTING </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK RELIABILITY & SECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.40
  27. 27. COSTS OF CLIENT/SERVER SYSTEMS <ul><li>OPERATIONS & SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>EDUCATION & TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.41
  28. 28. SOME SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS <ul><li>Managing the change </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Data administration disciplines (accurateness, data available only to authorized users and properly backed up) </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>9.41
  29. 29. 9.45 9. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS

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