System failure

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  • 1. 13. SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE: IMPLEMENTATION
  • 2. CONTENTS
    • INFORMATION SYSTEM FAILURE
    • CAUSES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE
    • MANAGING IMPLEMENTATION
    • *
  • 3. SYSTEM FAILURE
    • 75 % OF ALL LARGE SYSTEMS MAY BE CONSIDERED FAILURES (IN PRODUCTION BUT CAN’T CAPTURE EXPECTED BENEFITS)
    • 28 % OF SYSTEMS PROJECTS ARE CANCELLED BEFORE COMPLETION
    • 46 % ARE BEHIND SCHEDULE OR OVER BUDGET
      • (Standish Group International Inc.)
    • *
  • 4. SYSTEM FAILURE
    • AN INFORMATION SYSTEM THAT:
    • DOESN’T PERFORM AS EXPECTED
    • ISN’T OPERATIONAL AT A SPECIFIED TIME OR WITHIN BUDGET
    • CANNOT BE USED AS INTENDED
    • *
  • 5. PROBLEM AREAS USER INTERFACE: How user interacts with system; hardware and on-screen commands and responses INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN OPERATIONS DATA COST
  • 6. PROBLEM AREAS
    • DESIGN
    • DATA
    • COST
    • OPERATIONS
    • *
  • 7. MEASURES OF INFO SYSTEM SUCCESS
    • 1. HIGH LEVELS OF USE
    • 2. USER SATISFACTION
    • 3. FAVORABLE ATTITUDES
    • 4. ACHIEVED OBJECTIVES
    • 5. FINANCIAL PAYOFF
    • *
  • 8. CAUSES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE
    • CONCEPT OF IMPLEMENTATION
    • CAUSES OF IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS AND FAILURE
    • CHALLENGE OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING & ERP
    • WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE ?
    • *
  • 9. CHANGE AGENT
    • DURING IMPLEMENTATION, INDIVIDUAL THAT ACTS AS CATALYST DURING CHANGE PROCESS TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL ADAPTATION TO A NEW SYSTEM OR INNOVATION
    • In the context of implementation,
    • the Systems Analyst is a Change Agent
    • *
  • 10. CAUSES OF IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS AND FAILURE
    • USER INVOLVEMENT & INFLUENCE
    • MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND COMMITMENT
    • LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY AND RISK
    • MANAGEMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
    • *
  • 11. FACTORS IN IMPLEMENTATION OUTCOME
    • Evidence of success or failure can be found in the areas of Design, Data, Cost or Operations of the information system.
    • *
  • 12. USER-DESIGNER COMMUNICATIONS GAP
    • DIFFERENCES IN BACKGROUNDS, INTERESTS, PRIORITIES, VOCABULARIES
    • IMPEDE COMMUNICATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING
    • AMONG END USERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS SPECIALISTS
    • *
  • 13. USER CONCERNS:
    • WILL SYSTEM DELIVER INFORMATION I NEED?
    • HOW QUICKLY CAN I ACCESS DATA?
    • HOW EASILY CAN I RETRIEVE DATA?
    • HOW MUCH CLERICAL SUPPORT WILL I NEED FOR DATA ENTRY?
    • HOW WILL SYSTEM OPERATION FIT INTO MY DAILY BUSINESS SCHEDULE?
    • *
  • 14. DESIGNER CONCERNS:
    • HOW MUCH DISK SPACE WILL MASTER FILE CONSUME?
    • HOW MANY LINES OF PROGRAM CODE WILL THIS FUNCTION TAKE?
    • HOW CAN WE REDUCE CPU TIME WHEN WE RUN THE SYSTEM?
    • WHAT IS THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY OF STORING THIS DATA?
    • WHAT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SHOULD WE USE?
    • *
  • 15. MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND COMMITMENT
    • If an information systems project has the backing and commitment of management at various levels, it is more likely to be perceived positively by both users and IT staff because:
    • Their participation receives higher attention
    • They will be recognized and rewarded for their efforts in the project
    • Ensures that project will receive funding and resources
    • *
  • 16. LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY & RISK
    • PROJECT SIZE
    • PROJECT STRUCTURE
    • EXPERTISE WITH TECHNOLOGY
    • *
  • 17. DIMENSIONS OF PROJECT RISK LOW HIGH SMALL HIGH LOW HIGH LARGE VERY HIGH LOW LOW SMALL VERY LOW LOW LOW LARGE LOW HIGH HIGH SMALL MEDIUM-LOW HIGH HIGH LARGE MEDIUM HIGH LOW SMALL VERY LOW STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL SIZE RISK HIGH LOW LARGE LOW
  • 18. MANAGEMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
    • DEFINE REQUIREMENTS
    • ASSESS COSTS, BENEFITS, SCHEDULES
    • IDENTIFY INTEREST GROUPS, ACTORS, DETAILS
    • TRAIN END USERS
    • CONTAIN CONFLICTS, UNCERTAINTIES
    • *
  • 19. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
    • COST OVERRUNS
    • TIME SLIPPAGE
    • TECHNICAL SHORTFALLS RESULTING IN LOW PERFORMANCE
    • FAILURE TO OBTAIN ANTICIPATED BENEFITS
    • *
  • 20. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
    • ON AVERAGE, PROJECTS ARE UNDERESTIMATED BY ONE-HALF IN TERMS OF BUDGET AND TIME REQUIRED TO DELIVER THE COMPLETE SYSTEM PROMISED
    • LARGE NUMBER OF PROJECTS ARE DELIVERED WITH MISSING FUNCTIONALITY (PROMISED FOR LATER VERSIONS)
    • *
  • 21. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
    • IGNORANCE AND OPTIMISM
    • THE MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH
    • FALLING BEHIND: BAD NEWS TRAVEL SLOWLY UPWARD
    • *
  • 22. CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (BPR) & ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP)
    • HIGH FAILURE RATE (70 % OF BPR PROJECTS)
    • EXTENSIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
    • CAN’T DELIVER PROMISED BENEFITS
    • POOR IMPLEMENTATION
    • FEAR, ANXIETY, RESISTANCE, CHANGE
    • *
  • 23. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE?
    • ANALYSIS: Scarce time and money resources to researching the problem; too little preliminary planning; improper staffing; excessive promises; incomplete requirements; users spend insufficient time helping team gather information; poor user interviews
    • *
  • 24. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE?
    • DESIGN: Little or no user input to design; no built-in flexibility (only to serve current needs); lack of organizational impact analysis; functional specifications inadequately documented
    • *
  • 25. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE?
    • PROGRAMMING: Underestimated time, cost; incomplete specifications; not enough time for program logic, time wasted on writing code; insufficient use of structured design or object-oriented techniques; programs inadequately documented; requisite resources not scheduled (e.g.: computer time)
    • *
  • 26. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE?
    • TESTING: Underestimated time & cost; disorganized test plan; all direct users not involved until conversion; inappropriate acceptance tests, management doesn’t sign off on test results
    • *
  • 27. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE?
    • CONVERSION: Insufficient time & money; all direct users not involved until conversion, delayed training; to reduce cost overruns & delays system goes on-line too soon
    • *
  • 28. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE?
    • CONVERSION (CONTINUED): inadequate system & user documentation; no performance evaluation or standards; insufficient system maintenance plans, support or training
    • *
  • 29. 13. SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE: IMPLEMENTATION