System failure

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System failure

  1. 1. 13. SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE: IMPLEMENTATION
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>INFORMATION SYSTEM FAILURE </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGING IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  3. 3. SYSTEM FAILURE <ul><li>75 % OF ALL LARGE SYSTEMS MAY BE CONSIDERED FAILURES (IN PRODUCTION BUT CAN’T CAPTURE EXPECTED BENEFITS) </li></ul><ul><li>28 % OF SYSTEMS PROJECTS ARE CANCELLED BEFORE COMPLETION </li></ul><ul><li>46 % ARE BEHIND SCHEDULE OR OVER BUDGET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Standish Group International Inc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  4. 4. SYSTEM FAILURE <ul><li>AN INFORMATION SYSTEM THAT: </li></ul><ul><li>DOESN’T PERFORM AS EXPECTED </li></ul><ul><li>ISN’T OPERATIONAL AT A SPECIFIED TIME OR WITHIN BUDGET </li></ul><ul><li>CANNOT BE USED AS INTENDED </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  5. 5. PROBLEM AREAS USER INTERFACE: How user interacts with system; hardware and on-screen commands and responses INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN OPERATIONS DATA COST
  6. 6. PROBLEM AREAS <ul><li>DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>DATA </li></ul><ul><li>COST </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  7. 7. MEASURES OF INFO SYSTEM SUCCESS <ul><li>1. HIGH LEVELS OF USE </li></ul><ul><li>2. USER SATISFACTION </li></ul><ul><li>3. FAVORABLE ATTITUDES </li></ul><ul><li>4. ACHIEVED OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>5. FINANCIAL PAYOFF </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  8. 8. CAUSES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE <ul><li>CONCEPT OF IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES OF IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS AND FAILURE </li></ul><ul><li>CHALLENGE OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING & ERP </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE ? </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  9. 9. CHANGE AGENT <ul><li>DURING IMPLEMENTATION, INDIVIDUAL THAT ACTS AS CATALYST DURING CHANGE PROCESS TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL ADAPTATION TO A NEW SYSTEM OR INNOVATION </li></ul><ul><li>In the context of implementation, </li></ul><ul><li>the Systems Analyst is a Change Agent </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  10. 10. CAUSES OF IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS AND FAILURE <ul><li>USER INVOLVEMENT & INFLUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND COMMITMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY AND RISK </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  11. 11. FACTORS IN IMPLEMENTATION OUTCOME <ul><li>Evidence of success or failure can be found in the areas of Design, Data, Cost or Operations of the information system. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  12. 12. USER-DESIGNER COMMUNICATIONS GAP <ul><li>DIFFERENCES IN BACKGROUNDS, INTERESTS, PRIORITIES, VOCABULARIES </li></ul><ul><li>IMPEDE COMMUNICATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING </li></ul><ul><li>AMONG END USERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS SPECIALISTS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  13. 13. USER CONCERNS: <ul><li>WILL SYSTEM DELIVER INFORMATION I NEED? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW QUICKLY CAN I ACCESS DATA? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW EASILY CAN I RETRIEVE DATA? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW MUCH CLERICAL SUPPORT WILL I NEED FOR DATA ENTRY? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW WILL SYSTEM OPERATION FIT INTO MY DAILY BUSINESS SCHEDULE? </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  14. 14. DESIGNER CONCERNS: <ul><li>HOW MUCH DISK SPACE WILL MASTER FILE CONSUME? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW MANY LINES OF PROGRAM CODE WILL THIS FUNCTION TAKE? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW CAN WE REDUCE CPU TIME WHEN WE RUN THE SYSTEM? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY OF STORING THIS DATA? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SHOULD WE USE? </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  15. 15. MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND COMMITMENT <ul><li>If an information systems project has the backing and commitment of management at various levels, it is more likely to be perceived positively by both users and IT staff because: </li></ul><ul><li>Their participation receives higher attention </li></ul><ul><li>They will be recognized and rewarded for their efforts in the project </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that project will receive funding and resources </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  16. 16. LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY & RISK <ul><li>PROJECT SIZE </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERTISE WITH TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  17. 17. DIMENSIONS OF PROJECT RISK LOW HIGH SMALL HIGH LOW HIGH LARGE VERY HIGH LOW LOW SMALL VERY LOW LOW LOW LARGE LOW HIGH HIGH SMALL MEDIUM-LOW HIGH HIGH LARGE MEDIUM HIGH LOW SMALL VERY LOW STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL SIZE RISK HIGH LOW LARGE LOW
  18. 18. MANAGEMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS <ul><li>DEFINE REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESS COSTS, BENEFITS, SCHEDULES </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY INTEREST GROUPS, ACTORS, DETAILS </li></ul><ul><li>TRAIN END USERS </li></ul><ul><li>CONTAIN CONFLICTS, UNCERTAINTIES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  19. 19. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>COST OVERRUNS </li></ul><ul><li>TIME SLIPPAGE </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNICAL SHORTFALLS RESULTING IN LOW PERFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>FAILURE TO OBTAIN ANTICIPATED BENEFITS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  20. 20. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>ON AVERAGE, PROJECTS ARE UNDERESTIMATED BY ONE-HALF IN TERMS OF BUDGET AND TIME REQUIRED TO DELIVER THE COMPLETE SYSTEM PROMISED </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE NUMBER OF PROJECTS ARE DELIVERED WITH MISSING FUNCTIONALITY (PROMISED FOR LATER VERSIONS) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  21. 21. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>IGNORANCE AND OPTIMISM </li></ul><ul><li>THE MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH </li></ul><ul><li>FALLING BEHIND: BAD NEWS TRAVEL SLOWLY UPWARD </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  22. 22. CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (BPR) & ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) <ul><li>HIGH FAILURE RATE (70 % OF BPR PROJECTS) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>CAN’T DELIVER PROMISED BENEFITS </li></ul><ul><li>POOR IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>FEAR, ANXIETY, RESISTANCE, CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  23. 23. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE? <ul><li>ANALYSIS: Scarce time and money resources to researching the problem; too little preliminary planning; improper staffing; excessive promises; incomplete requirements; users spend insufficient time helping team gather information; poor user interviews </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  24. 24. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE? <ul><li>DESIGN: Little or no user input to design; no built-in flexibility (only to serve current needs); lack of organizational impact analysis; functional specifications inadequately documented </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  25. 25. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE? <ul><li>PROGRAMMING: Underestimated time, cost; incomplete specifications; not enough time for program logic, time wasted on writing code; insufficient use of structured design or object-oriented techniques; programs inadequately documented; requisite resources not scheduled (e.g.: computer time) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  26. 26. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE? <ul><li>TESTING: Underestimated time & cost; disorganized test plan; all direct users not involved until conversion; inappropriate acceptance tests, management doesn’t sign off on test results </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  27. 27. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE? <ul><li>CONVERSION: Insufficient time & money; all direct users not involved until conversion, delayed training; to reduce cost overruns & delays system goes on-line too soon </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  28. 28. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN EACH STAGE? <ul><li>CONVERSION (CONTINUED): inadequate system & user documentation; no performance evaluation or standards; insufficient system maintenance plans, support or training </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  29. 29. 13. SYSTEM SUCCESS & FAILURE: IMPLEMENTATION

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