Managing hardware assets

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Managing hardware assets

  1. 1. 5 MANAGING HARDWARE ASSETS c h a p t e r
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE STORAGE, INPUT, OUTPUT TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARE MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZE TECHNOLOGY ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  4. 4. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES <ul><li>INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>STORAGE INPUT & OUTPUT TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF COMPUTERS & SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGING HARDWARE ASSETS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  5. 5. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES <ul><li>1. CENTRALIZATION VERSUS DECENTRALIZATION DEBATE </li></ul><ul><li>2. MAKING WISE TECHNOLOGY PURCHASING DECISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMPUTER COMPONENTS BUSES INPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE PRIMARY STORAGE CPU OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES
  7. 7. <ul><li>BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE: Group of bits for one character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 or 9 bits per byte) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>HOW COMPUTERS REPRESENT DATA
  8. 8. EXAMPLES OF BYTES <ul><li>C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 </li></ul><ul><li>A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 </li></ul><ul><li>T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system)
  9. 9. CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS CPU PRIMARY STORAGE INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE
  10. 10. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CONTROL UNIT RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT ROM CLOCK
  11. 11. ALU & CONTROL UNIT <ul><li>ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>© 2002 by Prentice Hall
  12. 12. <ul><li>STEPS NEEDED FOR SINGLE INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>PCs & OLDER MACHINES: Microseconds (millionth second) </li></ul><ul><li>POWERFUL MACHINES: Nanoseconds (billionth second) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MACHINE CYCLE
  13. 13. COMPUTER TIME <ul><li>Millisecond .001 second thousand 15min 40 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Microsecond .001 millisecond million 11.6 days </li></ul><ul><li>Nanosecond .001microsecond billion 31.7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Picosecond .001 nanosecond trillion 31,700 years </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND # PER COMPARED
  14. 14. TYPES OF MEMORY <ul><li>RAM: Random Access Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic: Changes thru processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static: Remains constant (power on) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM: Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROM: Program can be changed once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEPROM: Electrically erasable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  15. 15. ADDRESSES IN MEMORY Each location can hold data Each location is a REGISTER 101 102 103 201 301 202 203 302 303
  16. 16. MEMORY SIZE <ul><li>KILOBYTE (KT): 2 10 bytes... 1024 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>MEGABYTE (MB): 2 10 KB... “million” bytes </li></ul><ul><li>GIGABYTE (GB): 2 10 MB... “billion” bytes </li></ul><ul><li>TERABYTE (TB): 2 10 GB... “trillion” bytes </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU </li></ul><ul><li>WORD LENGTH: Bits processed at one time </li></ul><ul><li>MEGAHERTZ: One million cycles per second </li></ul><ul><li>DATA BUS WIDTH: Bits moved between CPU & other devices </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC): Embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed </li></ul><ul><li>MultiMedia eXtension (MMX): Enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MICROPROCESSOR
  18. 18. SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL MASSIVE PARALLEL COMPUTERS CAN HAVE THOUSANDS OF CPUs TO ATTACK LARGE COMPUTING PROBLEMS TASK 1 RESULT TASK 2 RESULT Program CPU Program CPU Program CPU TASK 2 CPU TASK 3 CPU TASK 1 RESULT
  19. 19. <ul><li>DISK </li></ul><ul><li>TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>OPTICAL STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>SECONDARY STORAGE
  20. 20. DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE <ul><li>HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems </li></ul><ul><li>RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks </li></ul><ul><li>FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  21. 21. DISK PACK STORAGE <ul><li>LARGE SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>RELIABLE STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks </li></ul><ul><li>CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITE HEADS
  22. 22. TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTOR TRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 START OF TRACKS
  23. 23. <ul><li>CD-ROM: 500-660 MEGABYTES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAND: Flat parts of disk surface reflects light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW: CD - Rewritable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>OPTICAL STORAGE
  24. 24. <ul><li>STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES </li></ul><ul><li>SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool) </li></ul><ul><li>RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block) </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP </li></ul><ul><li>RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3 MAGNETIC TAPE
  25. 25. <ul><li>ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>INEXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>STORED IN SAFE LOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE REUSED </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE
  26. 26. STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN) <ul><li>HIGH-SPEED NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAPE LIBRARIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISK ARRAYS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STORAGE SERVICE PROVIDER: 3rd party rents storage space </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  27. 27. INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES <ul><li>POINTING DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  28. 28. POINTING DEVICES: <ul><li>KEYBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIRED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFRA-RED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRACKBALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOUCH PAD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JOYSTICK </li></ul><ul><li>TOUCH SCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  29. 29. SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION <ul><li>CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION </li></ul><ul><li>OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): Saves characters, format </li></ul><ul><li>BAR CODE: Identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Special ink identifies bank, account, amount </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>PEN-BASED INPUT: Digitizes signature </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE INPUT DEVICES: Converts spoken word into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  31. 31. OUTPUT DEVICES: <ul><li>CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLOTTER </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  32. 32. DATA PROCESSING <ul><li>BATCH PROCESSING: Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. </li></ul><ul><li>ON-LINE PROCESSING: Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  33. 33. BATCH PROCESSING KEYBOARD INPUT BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE OLD MASTER FILE NEW MASTER FILE VALIDATE AND UPDATE ERROR REPORTS REPORTS
  34. 34. ON-LINE PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS KEYBOARD PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE MASTER FILE IMMEDIATE INPUT IMMEDIATE PROCESSING IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE
  35. 35. INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA <ul><li>INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION </li></ul><ul><li>STREAMING TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>MP3: Audio compression standard </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  36. 36. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS <ul><li>MAINFRAME </li></ul><ul><li>MIDRANGE & MINICOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>SERVER </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) </li></ul><ul><li>WORKSTATION </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERCOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  37. 37. MAINFRAME <ul><li>LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM </li></ul><ul><li>COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MASSIVE DATA </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second
  38. 38. MIDRANGE/MINICOMPUTER <ul><li>MIDDLE-RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM </li></ul><ul><li>UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS </li></ul><ul><li>USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>DESKTOP OR PORTABLE </li></ul><ul><li>64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE </li></ul><ul><li>MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE NETWORKED </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MICROCOMPUTER
  40. 40. <ul><li>NETWORKED COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLIENT: User (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have </li></ul><ul><li>SERVER: Component (computer) having desired data, application, communications </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>CLIENT / SERVER
  41. 41. CLIENT / SERVER CLIENT SERVER USER INTERFACE APPLICATION FUNCTION DATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES REQUESTS DATA, SERVICE
  42. 42. WORKSTATION <ul><li>DESKTOP COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>POWERFUL GRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>MULTI-TASKING </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION: e.g.; CAD, engineering, graphics </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  43. 43. SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND <ul><li>HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>FASTEST CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE SIMULATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>CENTRALIZED: PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ONE STANDARD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GREATER CONTROL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTED: PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MORE FLEXIBILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FASTER RESPONSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED
  45. 45. DOWNSIZING <ul><li>TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES COST </li></ul><ul><li>SPEEDS RESULTS TO USER </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST </li></ul><ul><li>COOPERATIVE PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  46. 46. SHARING COMPUTERS <ul><li>NETWORK COMPUTER: Simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) </li></ul><ul><li>PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING: Networked computers share data, disk space, processing. Parallel processing on a smaller scale </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  47. 47. MANAGING HARDWARE ASSETS <ul><li>UNDERSTAND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINE TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP : Hardware, software, installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>PLAN CAPACITY & SCALABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY TRENDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  48. 48. 5 MANAGING HARDWARE ASSETS c h a p t e r

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