Electronic markets which operate as electronic middle men between buyer and seller
Restructure of workflow
Empowerment of employees
Information Architecture challenge
Hierarchical Organizational Levels
SIX TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS:
TPS- Transaction Processing Systems
OAS- Office Automation Systems
KWS-Knowledge Work Systems
DSS-Decision Support Systems
MIS-Management Information Systems
ESS-Executive Support Systems
But wait! These systems serve four distinct levels in an organization.
TPS--an operational level
KWS and OAS-- a knowledge level
DSS and MIS--a management level
ESS--a strategic level
SPECIFIC PURPOSES SERVED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS
TPS: Routine data processing and accounting procedures
OAS: The use of technologies to produce an end product
KWS: Promote the creation and design of new knowledge/information, technical/engineering expertise
DSS: An information gathering and reporting tool for management, a prototype, a model
MIS: Generation of preplanned, printed reports to assist in decision-making
ESS:Designed to be used by senior managers who have little direct contact/expertise with CBIS. Easy-to-use, “seductive” software, Not designed specifically to solve specific problems.
WHAT IS A CBIS?
Consists of hardware, software, data, procedures, and people
People are defined as users, systems analysts, and programmers
WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF CBIS?
Input, processing, output, and storage
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN COMPANY COMPETITIVE APPROACHES:
Knowledge is Power
WHAT CHALLENGES FACE THOSE WHO DESIGN, USE, OR APPROVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS?
Rapid Changes in Technology
A Movement toward a Global Society
The Processing Speed of Information
1950s ushered in the age of information-intensive jobs in the U.S. labor force
Blending of communications and computing technologies continues (i.e. computer networks)
A movement toward a global society created for a global telecommunications network
Information is now recognized as the central organizational resource in today’s economy
WHAT IS MIS?
Any system that provides people with either data or information relating to an organization’s operations.
MIS SUPPORTS THE ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIZATIONAL PEOPLES BY:
Processing data to assist with transaction workload (in an effective manner)
Supplying information to authorized people in a timely manner
INFORMATION SYSTEMS HAVE EVOLVED AS FOLLOWS:
1950s Transaction Processing Systems
1960s Management Information Systems
1970s Decision Support Systems
1980s, 1990s Knowledge-based Systems used for strategic organizational competitive knowledge/information advantages
New Century: Wireless technologies
INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Data vs. Information
Data are facts
Data filtering is processed to apply meaning and value, resulting in information (Example: O.J./DNA testing)
Data is useful for everyday transaction processing
Information is more useful for managerial decision-making
INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
IRM REFERS TO:
Properly managing data and information as key organizational resources
Seeing information as a desirable investment used to strategically provide a competitive advantage
Recognizing the role of CIO and the importance of this rank
Goals of information Systems
Leveraging Investment in Information Technology
Selling MIS Products (i.e. Microsoft)
Providing services/outsourcing (i.e. Novell)
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS
We live in an INFORMATION AGE; most people have INFORMATION-INTENSIVE JOBS.
We are entering a KNOWLEDGE AGE where information technology has greater intelligence
The blending of communications and computing technologies continues; computer networks are becoming increasingly common
A need has arisen for global telecommunications networks due to global financing, global outsourcing, and international joint ventures.
Information is now recognized as a central organizational resource in today’s economy.
KEY ISSUES IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS
ISSUE #1: The Development of an information Architecture
ISSUE #2: The Management of data as an organizational resource
ISSUE #3: Strategic Planning of data and information
Management & enterprise-wide problems are often viewed as more important than technical and application-related problems
The same issues have been highly ranked since the 1980s; however, recently global systems have taken on much importance
WHAT IS MEANT BY STRATEGIC PLANNING?
A Long-range planning process, the “strategic use of information” refers to using information technologies for competitive advantage.
Now, Let’s get serious! Strategic is only about achieving strategic direction, ignoring the practicalities of day-to-day operations that absorb all of your resources and more. SO An Integrated plan is needed because it includes strategic components with the realities of the current operating environment. An integrated plan is a roadmap for where you are going and how to survive until the future gets here. Source: Bob Lewis, Info World, June 8, 1998
CHALLENGES FOR THE STUDY OF MIS
MIS incorporates an unusually wide variety of knowledge areas
Both technology & technology-related products are evolving at an extremely fast and unpredictable rate.
Many MIS terms are imprecise & controversial
MIS problems are not easy to define or structure
The body of MIS knowledge is recent and scarce
Often, a lack of rapport exists between MIS personnel & management and between MIS personnel & users.
Knowing how much money to spend on information systems is still a guessing game. (Can you afford to make million dollar mistakes in your organization?)
MIS IS A GREY AREA OF STUDY
A “soft” field: A field where there are few universally correct answers that work for every situation; situational actions are dependent on a number of variables.
The processing of data and the supply of timely information for managerial decision-making
Both people inside and outside the organization; with electronic data interchange (EDI) and other interorganizational systems; some users of an organization’s information system may be employees of other organizations
The process of making the organization both more efficient and more effective
READ, READ, READ!
Business Week and Fortune carry articles on new technologies that may change the way business is conducted, the state of MIS in a particular company, the revolutionary products emerging, etc.
Read Info World, Computer World, MIS
Quarterly, Information Week, FirstMover, CIO, Journal of Management Information Systems
QUESTION: HOW CAN INFORMATION SYSTEMS BE USED AS COMPETITIVE WEAPONS?
Assignment: Research a company which has made effective use of technology to expand their customer base without forgoing quality to gain a lion’s share of the marketplace. Next week submit your article and one-page paper (typed, double-spaced summary)
Example: Use Mercantile Mutual on page 45 as a guide. *Do not use the examples given in your textbook as your final assignment.