8.1 8. MANAGING  DATA RESOURCES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE TRADITIONAL FILE ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN PROBLE...
CONTENTS <ul><li>TRADITIONAL DATA FILE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGNING DATA...
FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>BIT:   Binary Digit (0,1;Y,N;On, Off) </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE:   Combination of BITS which repres...
FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>FILE:   A Collection of Similar RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE:   A Group of Related Files -...
FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>ENTITY:   Person, Place, Thing, Event about Which Data Must be Kept </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRIBUTE:...
KEY FIELD <ul><li>Field in Each Record </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Identifies THIS Record </li></ul><ul><li>For  RETRIEVAL ...
SEQUENTIAL VS. DIRECT FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>SEQUENTIAL:   Data records must be retrieved in the same physical sequence...
<ul><li>DATA REDUNDANCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><l...
BASE DE DATOS <ul><li>Un grupo de datos organizados para servir muchas aplicaciones al mismo tiempo guardando y administra...
DATABASE <ul><li>ORGANIZATION’S ELECTRONIC LIBRARY </li></ul><ul><li>STORES & MANAGES DATA </li></ul><ul><li>IN A CONVENIE...
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>SOFTWARE TO CREATE & MAINTAIN    DATA </li></ul><ul><li>ENABLES BUSINESS APPLICA...
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>Cuando el programa de aplicación pide un ítem de dato (ej: TE de un cliente) el ...
COMPONENTS OF DBMS: <ul><li>DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines Data Elements in Database </li></ul></...
STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) <ul><li>EMERGING STANDARD  </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>...
DATA ELEMENT = FIELD TABLE = FILE 8.16 DBMS
ADVANTAGES OF DBMS: <ul><li>REDUCES COMPLEXITY </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES DATA REDUNDANCY / INCONSISTENCY </li></ul><ul><li...
ADVANTAGES OF DBMS: <ul><li>REDUCES DEVELOPMENT / MAINTENANCE COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCES SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY </li></u...
3 DATABASE MODELS <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL DATABASE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK DATABASE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONA...
RELATIONAL DATA MODEL <ul><li>DATA IN TABLE FORMAT </li></ul><ul><li>RELATION:  TABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TUPLE:  ROW (RECOR...
CREATING A DATABASE <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.28
CREATING A DATABASE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: <ul><li>ABSTRACT MODEL, BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HOW WILL DATA BE GRO...
CREATING A DATABASE PHYSICAL DESIGN: <ul><li>DETAILED MODEL BY DATABASE SPECIALISTS  </li></ul><ul><li>ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP...
ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 8.31 1 M M 1 ORDER CAN HAVE PART SUPPLIER CAN HAVE ORDER: #, DATE, PART #, QUANTITY PART: #, ...
NORMALIZATION <ul><li>PROCESS OF CREATING SMALL DATA STRUCTURES FROM COMPLEX GROUPS OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING:   Multiple Geographical / Functional Systems Connected with Network </li><...
DISTRIBUTED DATABASES <ul><li>PARTITIONED:   remote CPUs (connected to host) have only the files necessary to that site, e...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>HYPERMEDIA:   Nodes Contain Text, Graphics, Sound, Video, Programs. Organizes Data as Nodes. </li>...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>MULTIDIMENSIONAL:   3D (or higher) Groupings to Store Complex Data </li></ul><ul><li>ON-LINE ANALY...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA WAREHOUSE:   A database, with reporting and query tools that stores current & historical data...
COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE 8.37
DATA WAREHOUSE <ul><li>The data originate in many core operational systems and external sources and are copied into the da...
DATABASE ADMINISTRATION <ul><li>DEFINES & ORGANIZES DATABASE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS SECURITY PRO...
8.42 8. MANAGING  DATA RESOURCES
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Database

  1. 1. 8.1 8. MANAGING DATA RESOURCES
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE TRADITIONAL FILE ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN PROBLEMS OF TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE HOW DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ORGANIZES DATA </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSS NEW DATABASE TRENDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.2
  3. 3. CONTENTS <ul><li>TRADITIONAL DATA FILE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGNING DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE TRENDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.4
  4. 4. FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>BIT: Binary Digit (0,1;Y,N;On, Off) </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE: Combination of BITS which represent a CHARACTER </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD: Collection of BYTES which represent a DATUM or Fact </li></ul><ul><li>RECORD: Collection of FIELDS which reflect a TRANSACTION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.5
  5. 5. FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>FILE: A Collection of Similar RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE: A Group of Related Files - An Organization’s Electronic Library of FILES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.5
  6. 6. FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>ENTITY: Person, Place, Thing, Event about Which Data Must be Kept </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRIBUTE: Each Characteristic describing a Particular ENTITY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.7
  7. 7. KEY FIELD <ul><li>Field in Each Record </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Identifies THIS Record </li></ul><ul><li>For RETRIEVAL </li></ul><ul><li> UPDATING </li></ul><ul><li>SORTING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.8
  8. 8. SEQUENTIAL VS. DIRECT FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>SEQUENTIAL: Data records must be retrieved in the same physical sequence in which they are stored - Tape Oriented; One File Follows another; Follows Physical Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT: Disk Oriented; Can be Accessed Without Regard to Physical Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.9
  9. 9. <ul><li>DATA REDUNDANCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>POOR SECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF DATA- SHARING & AVAILABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT (FLAT FILE) 8.12
  10. 10. BASE DE DATOS <ul><li>Un grupo de datos organizados para servir muchas aplicaciones al mismo tiempo guardando y administrando los datos en forma centralizada. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.13
  11. 11. DATABASE <ul><li>ORGANIZATION’S ELECTRONIC LIBRARY </li></ul><ul><li>STORES & MANAGES DATA </li></ul><ul><li>IN A CONVENIENT FORM </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.13
  12. 12. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>SOFTWARE TO CREATE & MAINTAIN DATA </li></ul><ul><li>ENABLES BUSINESS APPLICATIONS TO EXTRACT DATA </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT OF SPECIFIC COMPUTER PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.14 DBMS
  13. 13. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>Cuando el programa de aplicación pide un ítem de dato (ej: TE de un cliente) el DBMS encuentra el ítem de dato en la base de datos y se lo entrega al programa. El DBMS elimina la mayoría de las sentencias de definición de datos que contenían los programas tradicionales (entorno de archivos tradicional) </li></ul>8.14 DBMS
  14. 14. COMPONENTS OF DBMS: <ul><li>DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines Data Elements in Database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulates Data for Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA DICTIONARY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File that stores definitions of data elements and data characteristics such as physical representation, usage, security, etc. </li></ul></ul>8.15 DBMS
  15. 15. STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) <ul><li>EMERGING STANDARD </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.16 DBMS
  16. 16. DATA ELEMENT = FIELD TABLE = FILE 8.16 DBMS
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES OF DBMS: <ul><li>REDUCES COMPLEXITY </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES DATA REDUNDANCY / INCONSISTENCY </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL CONTROL OF DATA CREATION / DEFINITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.18 DBMS
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES OF DBMS: <ul><li>REDUCES DEVELOPMENT / MAINTENANCE COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCES SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASES ACCESS / AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.19 DBMS
  19. 19. 3 DATABASE MODELS <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL DATABASE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK DATABASE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8. 20 DBMS
  20. 20. RELATIONAL DATA MODEL <ul><li>DATA IN TABLE FORMAT </li></ul><ul><li>RELATION: TABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TUPLE: ROW (RECORD) IN TABLE </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD: COLUMN (ATTRIBUTE) IN TABLE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.24
  21. 21. CREATING A DATABASE <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.28
  22. 22. CREATING A DATABASE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: <ul><li>ABSTRACT MODEL, BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HOW WILL DATA BE GROUPED? </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISH END-USER NEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.29
  23. 23. CREATING A DATABASE PHYSICAL DESIGN: <ul><li>DETAILED MODEL BY DATABASE SPECIALISTS </li></ul><ul><li>ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>NORMALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE / SOFTWARE SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.30
  24. 24. ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 8.31 1 M M 1 ORDER CAN HAVE PART SUPPLIER CAN HAVE ORDER: #, DATE, PART #, QUANTITY PART: #, DESCRIPTION, UNIT PRICE, SUPPLIER # SUPPLIER: #, NAME, ADDRESS
  25. 25. NORMALIZATION <ul><li>PROCESS OF CREATING SMALL DATA STRUCTURES FROM COMPLEX GROUPS OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONNEL RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>PAYROLL </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.32
  26. 26. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING: Multiple Geographical / Functional Systems Connected with Network </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTED DATABASE: Data Physically Stored in more than one Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PARTITIONED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DUPLICATE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.33
  27. 27. DISTRIBUTED DATABASES <ul><li>PARTITIONED: remote CPUs (connected to host) have only the files necessary to that site, e.g., records on local customers </li></ul><ul><li>DUPLICATE: each remote CPU has copies of common files, e.g., layouts for standard reports and forms </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.34
  28. 28. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>HYPERMEDIA: Nodes Contain Text, Graphics, Sound, Video, Programs. Organizes Data as Nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.35
  29. 29. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>MULTIDIMENSIONAL: 3D (or higher) Groupings to Store Complex Data </li></ul><ul><li>ON-LINE ANALYTICAL PROCESSING (OLAP): ability to manipulate and analyze large volumes of data from multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.38
  30. 30. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA WAREHOUSE: A database, with reporting and query tools that stores current & historical data extracted from various operational systems and consolidated for management reporting & analysis </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MART: small data warehouse for special function, e.g., focused marketing based on customer info </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.36
  31. 31. COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE 8.37
  32. 32. DATA WAREHOUSE <ul><li>The data originate in many core operational systems and external sources and are copied into the data warehouse as often as needed - daily, weekly, etc. The data are standardized and consolidated so that they can be used across the enterprise for management analysis and decision making. The data are available for anyone to access as needed but cannot be altered. A data warehouse system include a range of ad hoc and standardized query tools, analytical tools, and graphical reporting facilities. Enables to access data without affecting the performance of the underlying operational systems. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.38
  33. 33. DATABASE ADMINISTRATION <ul><li>DEFINES & ORGANIZES DATABASE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS SECURITY PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS DATABASE DOCUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAINS DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.40
  34. 34. 8.42 8. MANAGING DATA RESOURCES

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