6.1 6. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED </li></ul><ul>...
LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>* </li><...
CONTENTS <ul><li>WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM? </li></ul><ul><li>CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTERS & COMPUT...
COMPUTER COMPONENTS BUSES 6.5 INPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE PRIMARY STORAGE CPU OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES
<ul><li>BIT:   Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE:   Group of bits for one character </li></ul...
EXAMPLES OF BYTES <ul><li>C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 </li></ul><ul><li>A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 </li></ul><ul><li>T: 1110 ...
COMPUTER TIME <ul><li>Millisecond   1/1000 second  thousand   15min 40 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Microsecond   1/1000 millisec...
MEMORY SIZE <ul><li>KILOBYTE (KB):  2 10  bytes...  1024 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>MEGABYTE (MB): 2 10  KB... “million” byte...
COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1.   VACUUM TUBES:   1946-1956 </li></ul>6.10
COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TRANSISTORS:   1957-1963 </li></ul>6.11
COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 </li></ul><ul><li>3. I...
COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 </li></ul><ul><li>3. I...
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT  (CPU) CONTROL UNIT 6.14 RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT ROM CLOCK
BUSES DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS 6.15 CPU PRIMARY STORAGE INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE
ADDRESSES IN MEMORY Each location can hold one BYTE Each location has an ADDRESS 6.17 101 102 103 201 301 202 203 302 303
TYPES OF MEMORY <ul><li>RAM :   Random Access Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic:  Changes thru processing </li></ul></u...
ALU & CONTROL UNIT <ul><li>ARITHMETIC - LOGIC UNIT:   CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations </li></ul><ul...
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS <ul><li>MAINFRAME </li></ul><ul><li>MINICOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) </li></u...
MAINFRAME <ul><li>LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>128  MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM </li></ul><ul><li>...
MINICOMPUTER <ul><li>MIDDLE-RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>5 0 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM </li></ul><ul><li>UNIVERSITIES,...
<ul><li>DESKTOP OR PORTABLE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE </li></ul><ul><l...
WORKSTATION <ul><li>DESKTOP COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>POWERFUL GRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES </l...
SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP:   TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND <ul><li>HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS...
SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL  PARALLEL 6.27 TASK 1 RESULT TASK 2 RESULT Program CPU Program CPU Program CPU...
<ul><li>VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU </li></ul><ul><li>WORD LENGTH:   bits processed at one time </li></ul><ul><li>MEGAHERTZ (CLO...
EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS 6.29
USES OF MICROPROCESSORS 6.30 NAME USE 80486 PCs 68040 MAC QUADRAS PENTIUM PCs PENTIUM PRO PCs PENTIUM (MMX) MULTIMEDIA PEN...
<ul><li>CENTRALIZED:   PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ONE STANDARD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G...
<ul><li>NETWORKED COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLIENT:   user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communi...
CLIENT / SERVER CLIENT  SERVER USER INTERFACE APPLICATION  FUNCTION DATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES 6.33 REQUE...
DOWNSIZING <ul><li>TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES COST </li></ul><ul><li>SP...
NETWORK COMPUTERS <ul><li>NETWORK COMPUTER:   simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) </...
<ul><li>DISK </li></ul><ul><li>TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>OPTICAL STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>SECONDARY STORAGE 6.36
DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE <ul><li>HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems </li></ul><ul><li>RAID: Red...
DISK PACK STORAGE <ul><li>LARGE SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>RELIABLE STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA </li></...
TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTOR 6.39 TRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 START OF TRACKS
<ul><li>CD-ROM:   500-660 MEGABYTES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAND:  flat parts of disk surfa ce  reflects   light </li></ul><...
<ul><li>ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>INEXPENSIVE <...
PERIPHERAL DEVICES <ul><li>POINTING DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT DEVICES </li...
POINTING DEVICES <ul><li>KEYBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIRED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFRA-RED...
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION <ul><li>CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORMAT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION </li></ul><ul><li>OPTICAL CHAR...
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION <ul><li>PEN-BASED INPUT:   digitizes signature </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL SCANNER: translates images...
OUTPUT DEVICES <ul><li>CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLOTTER </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE ...
DATA PROCESSING <ul><li>BATCH PROCESSING:   transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for les...
BATCH PROCESSING 6.50 KEYBOARD INPUT BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE OLD MASTER FILE NEW MASTER FILE VALIDAT...
ON-LINE PROCESSING 6.50 TRANSACTIONS KEYBOARD PROCESS / UPDATE  MASTER FILE MASTER FILE IMMEDIATE INPUT IMMEDIATE PROCESSI...
TECHNOLOGY TRENDS <ul><li>INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>VIRTUAL REALITY </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCED WORLD WIDE W...
6.53 6. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING
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Computer components

  1. 1. 6.1 6. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRAST MAINFRAMES, MINICOMPUTERS, SUPERCOMPUTERS, PCs, WORKSTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.2
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.3
  4. 4. CONTENTS <ul><li>WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM? </li></ul><ul><li>CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTERS & COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>INFO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.4
  5. 5. COMPUTER COMPONENTS BUSES 6.5 INPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE PRIMARY STORAGE CPU OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES
  6. 6. <ul><li>BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE: Group of bits for one character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Interchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED 6.6
  7. 7. EXAMPLES OF BYTES <ul><li>C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 </li></ul><ul><li>A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 </li></ul><ul><li>T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system) 6.7
  8. 8. COMPUTER TIME <ul><li>Millisecond 1/1000 second thousand 15min 40 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Microsecond 1/1000 millisecond million 11.6 days </li></ul><ul><li>Nanosecond 1/1000microsecond billion 31.7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Picosecond 1/1000 nanosecond trillion 31,700 years </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND # PER COMPARED 6.8
  9. 9. MEMORY SIZE <ul><li>KILOBYTE (KB): 2 10 bytes... 1024 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>MEGABYTE (MB): 2 10 KB... “million” bytes </li></ul><ul><li>GIGABYTE (GB): 2 10 MB... “billion” bytes </li></ul><ul><li>TERABYTE (TB): 2 10 GB... “trillion” bytes </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.9
  10. 10. COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul>6.10
  11. 11. COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 </li></ul>6.11
  12. 12. COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 </li></ul><ul><li>3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 </li></ul>6.12
  13. 13. COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 </li></ul><ul><li>3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>4. VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS: 1980 - PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.13
  14. 14. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CONTROL UNIT 6.14 RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT ROM CLOCK
  15. 15. BUSES DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS 6.15 CPU PRIMARY STORAGE INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE
  16. 16. ADDRESSES IN MEMORY Each location can hold one BYTE Each location has an ADDRESS 6.17 101 102 103 201 301 202 203 302 303
  17. 17. TYPES OF MEMORY <ul><li>RAM : Random Access Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic: Changes thru processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static: Remains constant (power on) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.16
  18. 18. ALU & CONTROL UNIT <ul><li>ARITHMETIC - LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.18
  19. 19. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS <ul><li>MAINFRAME </li></ul><ul><li>MINICOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) </li></ul><ul><li>WORKSTATION </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERCOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.21
  20. 20. MAINFRAME <ul><li>LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>128 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM </li></ul><ul><li>COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MASSIVE DATA </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.22
  21. 21. MINICOMPUTER <ul><li>MIDDLE-RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>5 0 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM </li></ul><ul><li>UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS </li></ul><ul><li>USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.23
  22. 22. <ul><li>DESKTOP OR PORTABLE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE </li></ul><ul><li>MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE NETWORKED </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MICROCOMPUTER 6.24
  23. 23. WORKSTATION <ul><li>DESKTOP COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>POWERFUL GRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>MULTI-TASKING </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.25
  24. 24. SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND <ul><li>HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>FASTEST CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE SIMULATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.26
  25. 25. SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL 6.27 TASK 1 RESULT TASK 2 RESULT Program CPU Program CPU Program CPU TASK 2 CPU TASK 3 CPU TASK 1 RESULT
  26. 26. <ul><li>VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU </li></ul><ul><li>WORD LENGTH: bits processed at one time </li></ul><ul><li>MEGAHERTZ (CLOCK SPEED): one million cycles per second </li></ul><ul><li>DATA BUS WIDTH: bits moved between CPU & other devices </li></ul><ul><li>MOORE’S LAW: Processing power duplicates every 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MICROPROCESSOR 6.28
  27. 27. EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS 6.29
  28. 28. USES OF MICROPROCESSORS 6.30 NAME USE 80486 PCs 68040 MAC QUADRAS PENTIUM PCs PENTIUM PRO PCs PENTIUM (MMX) MULTIMEDIA PENTIUM II HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS PowerPC HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS ALPHA COMPAQ & DEC WORKSTATIONS PENTIUM III HIGH END PCs, SERVERS, WKST
  29. 29. <ul><li>CENTRALIZED: PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ONE STANDARD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GREATER CONTROL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTED: PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MORE FLEXIBILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FASTER RESPONSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED 6.31
  30. 30. <ul><li>NETWORKED COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLIENT: user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have </li></ul><ul><li>SERVER: component (computer) having desired data, application, communications </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>CLIENT / SERVER 6.32
  31. 31. CLIENT / SERVER CLIENT SERVER USER INTERFACE APPLICATION FUNCTION DATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES 6.33 REQUESTS DATA, SERVICE
  32. 32. DOWNSIZING <ul><li>TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES COST </li></ul><ul><li>SPEEDS RESULTS TO USER </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST </li></ul><ul><li>COOPERATIVE PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.34
  33. 33. NETWORK COMPUTERS <ul><li>NETWORK COMPUTER: simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO): total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.35
  34. 34. <ul><li>DISK </li></ul><ul><li>TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>OPTICAL STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>SECONDARY STORAGE 6.36
  35. 35. DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE <ul><li>HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems </li></ul><ul><li>RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks </li></ul><ul><li>FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.37
  36. 36. DISK PACK STORAGE <ul><li>LARGE SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>RELIABLE STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS </li></ul><ul><li>CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES </li></ul>6.38 CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITE HEADS
  37. 37. TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTOR 6.39 TRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 START OF TRACKS
  38. 38. <ul><li>CD-ROM: 500-660 MEGABYTES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAND: flat parts of disk surfa ce reflects light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PITS: small scratch on surface sca tters light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW: CD - Rewritable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>OPTICAL STORAGE 6.40
  39. 39. <ul><li>ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>INEXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>STORED IN SAFE LOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE REUSED </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE 6.42
  40. 40. PERIPHERAL DEVICES <ul><li>POINTING DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.43
  41. 41. POINTING DEVICES <ul><li>KEYBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WIRED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFRA-RED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRACKBALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOUCH PAD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JOYSTICK </li></ul><ul><li>TOUCH SCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.44
  42. 42. SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION <ul><li>CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORMAT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION </li></ul><ul><li>OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): saves characters, format </li></ul><ul><li>BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): special ink identifies bank, account, amount </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.45
  43. 43. SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION <ul><li>PEN-BASED INPUT: digitizes signature </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL SCANNER: translates images & characters into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE INPUT DEVICES: converts spoken word into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORS: devices that collect dat a from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.46
  44. 44. OUTPUT DEVICES <ul><li>CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLOTTER </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIMEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.47
  45. 45. DATA PROCESSING <ul><li>BATCH PROCESSING: transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. </li></ul><ul><li>ON-LINE PROCESSING: transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.48
  46. 46. BATCH PROCESSING 6.50 KEYBOARD INPUT BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE OLD MASTER FILE NEW MASTER FILE VALIDATE AND UPDATE ERROR REPORTS REPORTS
  47. 47. ON-LINE PROCESSING 6.50 TRANSACTIONS KEYBOARD PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE MASTER FILE IMMEDIATE INPUT IMMEDIATE PROCESSING IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE
  48. 48. TECHNOLOGY TRENDS <ul><li>INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>VIRTUAL REALITY </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERCHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>SMART CARDS </li></ul><ul><li>MICROMINIATURIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL INTERFACES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.51
  49. 49. 6.53 6. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING
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