BeetlesSaveNeedlesCFSA2013

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Once we realized the HWA was native to our own country, our hypothesis was that we would have an analogue for every Chinese or Japanese summer predator. All we have to do is collect and release beetles - and our insectaries are now coming on line locally. This program works. We need to get the word out and expand this program to save as many of the High Country's hemlocks as possible. If we can organize quickly we can still save many hemlocks and all the other plants and animals that depend upon hemlocks for survival. Like trout, wood thrush, crayfish, and other 'cool' creatures.

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  • Dick, suggestions for title that will also work for the proceedings publication. Suggest you use a scenic picture of Grandfather Mtn. (I may have one) or something else that depicts the landscape of the area.
  • Dick, fill in numbers that Mausel recoved and correct the dates. In talk say that David Mausel and I released 300 beetles in Banner Elk in 2003 and recovered 2, x, x beetles in each of the following 3 years. Then in 2005 (or is it 2007), you began collecting beetles in Seattle and releasing them in areas nearby the Mausel release site. Then you introduce that you began broader sampling that you will describe later and give them a tid-bit of results of how far and how many (I use dispersal since I think it really is the radius of the area around Banner Elk and GGCC where you find beeltes.
  • Dick, add radius to circle
  • View looking north from Granfather Mountain. All the area that you see has Laricobius nigrinus established. The peak in the upper left is Beech Mountain which is north of Banner Elk and about about 10 miles distant from view point. The peak in the center is Sugar Mountain which is about 2 miles south of Banner Elk.
  • Dick delete text and replace with 3 bullets: Private landowners, Urban and Community Forestry Grant from NC Div. of Forestry, USDA Forest Service grants to Virginia Tech. Then add picture of golf course in the lower left. Good luck!
  • Three predators have been released in this area. Details are lacking on exactly where, when and how many Sasajiscymnus tsugae were released. During sampling for the other two species, I have recovered a handful of these. St seems to be established in the area, but numbers are low. Scymnus sinuanodulus was recently released and progeny of these have been recovered in the year after release. My presentation will focus on Laricobius nigrinus, which I habitually refer to as “Lari”.
  • BeetlesSaveNeedlesCFSA2013

    1. 1. Banner Elk & Grandfather Mountain Banner Elk & Grandfather Mountain Collections & Observations Collections & Observations Dick McDonald
    2. 2. Overview Of Hemlock Hill  Initial release - 300 lab-reared beetles in 2003.  Recovered 3, 12, 93 beetles in 2004, ’05, ‘06, respectively – establishment by year 3 – 2006.  2005-2012 - 695 beetles collected in Seattle area released.  2006 recovered beetles in non-release areas using “nonstandard” sampling based on where beetles were found in Seattle • Beetle dispersal was ½ mile by 2008, 10+ miles by 2012 • 34,500 beetles collected in last 14 months  Currently using field nurseries as well as Seattle collections to establish beetles in other areas  Providing on-site training in different states on sampling procedures.
    3. 3. Initial release of Laricobius nigrinus in NW NC. Dr. Gina Davis ––recovers 22F1 Ln 16 Oct 2004 Dr. Gina Davis recovers F1 Ln 16 Oct 2004 along with Prof. Stewart Skeate. along with Prof. Stewart Skeate. • Dr. David Mausel, Virginia Tech, released 300 Lamb-labreared L. nigrinus adults on 31 Dec 2003 @ Hemlock Hill, Banner Elk & 150 adults Oct 2004 at Holloway Mountain. These were two of Dr. Mausel’s 22 release sites on the east coast. Dr. Gina Davis was the NC state forestry liason for the NC releases.
    4. 4. Site Elevations: 1000 - 1200m 3 1 2 • • • • • Intensive study sites of L. nigrinus around Banner Elk (Date , # adults released, source) 1- Hemlock Hill, Banner Elk 2003-300 VT Lab + 2006-455 Seattle. 2- Holloway Mtn. Rd. 2004-150 VT Lab + 2006 240 Seattle. 3- Lees-McRae Field, Banner Elk 2005-202 adults OSU + 2006 -100 OSU
    5. 5. L. nigrinus Dispersal L. nigrinus Dispersal Mid-November 2006 ––11adult, Mid-November 2006 adult, main ridge of Hemlock Hill, main ridge of Hemlock Hill, 300+ meters from the nearest 300+ meters from the nearest release tree. release tree. N. Elk River Oct 07 Nov 06 Mar/Dec07 Jan 08 Ln March 2007 --11adult, March 2007 adult, 600 meters from nearest 600 meters from nearest release tree. release tree. December 2007 --22adults , , December 2007 adults same area as above same area as above January 2008 ––11adult, January 2008 adult, 800 meters from nearest 800 meters from nearest release tree and on opposite release tree and on opposite site of open athletic field. site of open athletic field.
    6. 6. Dispersal in Banner Elk Area, 2010 Dispersal in Banner Elk Area, 2010 Beetles ½ mile from release site. Beetles ½ mile from release site.
    7. 7. From February 2008-2012, Grandfather Golf and Country Club released 13,000+ wild From February 2008-2012, Grandfather Golf and Country Club released 13,000+ wild caught L. nigrinus from Seattle, Washington. A majority of those beetles were collected caught L. nigrinus from Seattle, Washington. A majority of those beetles were collected at Seattle Golf Course (a total of nearly 10,000) during 2008 to 2010. It is believed that at Seattle Golf Course (a total of nearly 10,000) during 2008 to 2010. It is believed that this amount of beetles has lead to L. nigrinus spreading over 10 miles in all directions. this amount of beetles has lead to L. nigrinus spreading over 10 miles in all directions. This was the first large scale, operational release of L. nigrinus on the East Coast. This was the first large scale, operational release of L. nigrinus on the East Coast.
    8. 8. Release Sites Release Sites & Recovery Areas & Recovery Areas Approximate area Approximate area of recoveries in 2012 of recoveries in 2012 Banner Elk Banner Elk Grandfather Grandfather Golf & Golf & Country Country Club Club Holloway Holloway
    9. 9. Looking North to Beech, Flat Top, Sugar, and Looking North to Beech, Flat Top, Sugar, and 77Devils Mtns --Peaks and valleys where Devils Mtns Peaks and valleys where Laricobius nigrinus has dispersed and is Laricobius nigrinus has dispersed and is generally established ––300 square miles. generally established 300 square miles. GGCC is in the foreground below. GGCC is in the foreground below.
    10. 10. Looking southwest towards Looking southwest towards Hawksbill/Table Rock Mtns, Hawksbill/Table Rock Mtns, at the center of the screen. at the center of the screen. Ln found at base of Hawksbill Ln found at base of Hawksbill On Carolina Hemlocks. Black On Carolina Hemlocks. Black Mountains in distance. Mountains in distance.
    11. 11. Cold-hardiness of Laricobius nigrinus in the mountains of northwestern North Carolina ••Beetlesat the hemlock/spruce-fir tree line on Beetles at the hemlock/spruce-fir tree line on Grandfather Mountain at 4,800 feet elevation. Maine? Grandfather Mountain at 4,800 feet elevation. Maine? ••TheBanner Elk, Grandfather area is in cold-hardiness The Banner Elk, Grandfather area is in cold-hardiness zone 6a (-23° C avg. min.). Grandfather: 5,960’ elev. zone 6a (-23° C avg. min.). Grandfather: 5,960’ elev. ••Beetleswere originally collected in cold-hardiness zone Beetles were originally collected in cold-hardiness zone 8a (-12° C avg. min.) in Seattle/Tacoma area. 8a (-12° C avg. min.) in Seattle/Tacoma area. ••Beetlesin North Carolina are thriving in a climate with Beetles in North Carolina are thriving in a climate with much colder winter temperatures than the climate where much colder winter temperatures than the climate where they originated. they originated. ••Possiblegene flow from interior populations of beetles. Possible gene flow from interior populations of beetles.
    12. 12. Recommendations: Recommendations: 1)SOP for Ln collections on the East Coast – HWA data base. 1)SOP for Ln collections on the East Coast – HWA data base. 2)Urban community forest interface to collect beetles; 2)Urban community forest interface to collect beetles; 3)Get beetles from NW NC & PNW as needed; (Scw) 3)Get beetles from NW NC & PNW as needed; (Scw) 4)Releases based on knowledge of Ln requisites – duff, sun, 4)Releases based on knowledge of Ln requisites – duff, sun, 5)Use a simple guide sheet explains Ln’s life history. 5)Use a simple guide sheet explains Ln’s life history. 6)Training of cooperators to refine search images, Ln 6)Training of cooperators to refine search images, Ln phenology, use of UV, and ability to read the landscape to phenology, use of UV, and ability to read the landscape to release and then recover predators years later; release and then recover predators years later; 7) Mason/Dixon effect – abiotic factors – HWA winter kill 7) Mason/Dixon effect – abiotic factors – HWA winter kill from NJ north; we don’t have that in the South. Aggressive from NJ north; we don’t have that in the South. Aggressive southern strategy. southern strategy.
    13. 13. Predators Released in Study Sites Predators Released in Study Sites Laricobius Laricobius nigrinus (Lari) nigrinus (Lari) Sasajiscymnus Sasajiscymnus tsugae (St) tsugae (St) Scymnus Scymnus sinuanodulus (Ss) sinuanodulus (Ss)
    14. 14. What about Scymnus coniferarum? • • • • • • • • • Seattle: ‘Scymnus trees’. We ignored summer predators – focused on Ln. Lower numbers than Ln (1/10th - collecting during winter). Reproduces within tree – Ln must leave tree to pupate. Habitat: hemlocks that don’t have needle duff (wind). Parking lots, Golf courses, cemeteries, etc. Nature: bluffs, rocky outcroppings, mountain ridges, along rocky creeks/rivers, windy areas. Alternate adelgid hosts – Pines, firs, spruces. *BRACKETING- Predator for every life stage of HWA.*
    15. 15. Scymnus coniferarum Crotch (Scw) ––Hemlock was new recorded Scymnus coniferarum Crotch (Scw) Hemlock was new recorded Host tree and HWA was aanew host. Photo: Nathan Havill USFS. Host tree and HWA was new host. Photo: Nathan Havill USFS.
    16. 16. Collection records of Scymnus (P.) coniferarum based Collection records of Scymnus (P.) coniferarum based on museum specimens; shaded = general area of many on museum specimens; shaded = general area of many collections with dots showing peripheral localities (from collections with dots showing peripheral localities (from Gordon 1985); grey rectangle is area of recent Gordon 1985); grey rectangle is area of recent collections in the Seattle area. collections in the Seattle area.
    17. 17. Summer Predators in Seattle • • • • • • • • • We collected 956 Scw from Oct. 2009 -June 2010; most (838) of these were collected in late April (397 adults) and late June (441: 269 larvae and 172 adults). Scw is widespread in the Seattle-Tacoma area. Scw appears to be a major summer HWA predator in this area. We were able to collect more summer predators from trees that do not favor the development of L. nigrinus. These are trees that have the needle duff removed (or covered by mulch) and make it difficult for L. nigrinus to complete its life cycle. Natural areas: rocky outcroppings, bluffs, windy areas, or trees lining creeks. We collected Scw beetles on hemlock trees lacking needle duff in parking lots, cemeteries, and playgrounds, in mostly urban areas. 24 Scw adults were collected on Western White Pine infested with adelgids (and aphids) from 3 infested pine trees. Some niche partitioning between summer and winter predators. See Dr. Michael Montgomery’s poster on host range of Scw.
    18. 18. Recovering Summer Predators back East • We may want to make releases in areas which don’t initially favor Ln - ridges, bluffs, other areas lacking needle duff. • Alternate adelgid hosts – pines, firs, etc. • Release into hedges along a parking lot or similar place urban community forest interface. • May disperse faster than Ln?

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