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Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
Pol Comm 6   Permanent Campaigning
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Pol Comm 6 Permanent Campaigning

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Discussion of permanent campaigning and its impact on public engagement. Sixth lecture for final year students on the Political Communication option in Bournemouth University

Discussion of permanent campaigning and its impact on public engagement. Sixth lecture for final year students on the Political Communication option in Bournemouth University

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  1. Spin v Branding permanent campaigning and impression management Lecture 6
  2. <ul><li>“ Governing is turning into a perpetual campaign” </li></ul><ul><li>(Blumenthal, The permanent campaign, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everyday is Election day” </li></ul><ul><li>(Hugh Heclo, Campaigning and Governing, in Ormstein & Mann, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigning is… “the political ideology of our age” (Blumenthal, 1980) </li></ul>
  3.  
  4. After an Election <ul><li>Once about getting on with government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Today is day one of the campaign to win a second term – don’t let one of you forget that” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Blair, speech to new MPs, May 8 th 1997 Interview with Paul Marsden 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ telling the truth doesn’t get you elected and we are in politics to get elected not scratch around being nice and hoping everyone will be nice to us” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Karl Rove, reflecting on Bush and Enron scandal) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 1976 + all that <ul><li>Dealignment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic / Rational Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust in the US presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon and Ford the ‘bandaid’ president </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to be permanently vigilant! </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pat Cadell, Carter’s marketing guru </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. Ron Peters (2002) Why US Senators must campaign constantly www.ou.edu/special/albertctr/extensions/spring2002/Intro.html <ul><li>Realignment of parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voters need to know of and understand shifts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealignment of voters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to seek voters daily, not every 4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media demands / Making up news </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To gain funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsors need courting too – PR!! </li></ul></ul>
  7. Ormstein & Mann The permanent campaign & its future (2000) <ul><li>Rise of interest groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sap strength of electoral organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fragility of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginal seats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic shifts in public opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-term reaction can be permanent </li></ul></ul>
  8. How politics has changed
  9. How politics has changed
  10. How politics has changed
  11. This means that… <ul><ul><li>The leader’s image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The party’s image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideas & beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be positive, consistent and constant </li></ul><ul><li>“ every communication does something to the brand image – if you can control it, then it must all be positive” (Barry Goldwater) </li></ul>
  12. A party as brand Ideology (Ethos & Values) Product (People & Policy) Communication (messages, imagery and symbols) Communication covers all aspects and so must be positive, if not it damages the overall perception
  13. The Media and branding <ul><li>“ if you don’t provide a story, some damn journalist will make one up” </li></ul><ul><li>(John Chen, consultant to Clinton, speech 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>A party must “coordinate all forms of communication in a seven days a week news cycle” </li></ul><ul><li>(Thurber, 2002) </li></ul>
  14. The public demand <ul><li>The big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Easily convinced by media reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypodermic effect of negative frames </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cynical of political communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap between rhetoric and reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater demand for responsive government </li></ul>
  15. Gauging how to campaign <ul><li>Research among voters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring perceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing how to reinforce/change them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion polls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gauging the mood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often related to political salesmanship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. Problems with permanent campaigning <ul><li>Short-termism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governing is a series of mini campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adversarial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties compete to set agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political communication = propaganda </li></ul></ul>
  17. The UK permanent campaign <ul><li>Designed to strengthen the party </li></ul><ul><li>Claims to legitimise politics </li></ul><ul><li>Makes the leader pivotal </li></ul><ul><li>Can drive the news agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To report campaigning activities - positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To thwart spin-doctor’s efforts - negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has changed how politics is done </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Norris, A Virtuous Circle, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. The nature of permanent campaigning in the UK <ul><li>Constantly evolving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking the edge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Targeting a range of audiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily news management </li></ul><ul><li>Negative advertising </li></ul><ul><li>On message communication at all levels </li></ul>
  19. A feature of New Labour’s history <ul><li>Permanent reinvention </li></ul><ul><li>Strong defence against anti-Labour media </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to a market-orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of losing </li></ul><ul><li>Drive to win the 2 nd full term of office </li></ul><ul><li>(Philip Gould, ‘What permanent campaign’, BBC News, 21/11/02) </li></ul>
  20. The limits to success <ul><li>The Media </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness of the party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal v external campaigning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of permanent rapid rebuttal </li></ul><ul><li>Public perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point scoring = childishness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurring of truth/accuracy = cynicism </li></ul></ul>
  21. Does it work? <ul><li>Wedge issues don’t just separate the parties </li></ul><ul><li>Spin confuses voters </li></ul><ul><li>Protracted war hinders effective politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies defined by political purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People reject politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Mandelson, The Blair revolution Revisited, Politicos, 2002. </li></ul></ul>
  22. Local permanent campaigning <ul><li>Favours the incumbent </li></ul><ul><li>(Steger, In Newman, Handbook of Political Marketing, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliant on the local paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Lilleker & Negrine, in Journalism Studies 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Image of effective representation </li></ul><ul><li> (Lilleker & Negrine, in Journal of Political Marketing 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause conflict with the centre </li></ul><ul><li>(Franklin & Richardson, in Journal of Political Marketing 2002) </li></ul>
  23. Local dimension important <ul><li>Where permanent campaigning is positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective representation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be backed by party image and legislative agenda setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Barbara Sinclair, US Senator, Extensions, Spring 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working for public consumption enhances democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But can conflict with role of effective governance </li></ul></ul>
  24. Thoughts <ul><li>Public + Media make it necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you’re not in the news you’re dead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yah-Boo politics boring and unedifying </li></ul><ul><li>When parties agree, opposition ineffective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq War </li></ul></ul>

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