Post Harvest Spoilage of Fish Dr.Laximan Sawant
• Fish is a perishable commodity• Spoilage of fish begins as soon as the fish dies• In tropical countries fish spoil quite rapidly within a few hours of landing , if not properly cooled .
In raw fish spoilage takes place mainly due to • Biological action – Enzymatic action – Microbial action • Chemical action
Raw fish spoilage Biological Chemical action actionEnzymatic Microbial action action Yellowing of fish flesh
• Enzymes and bacteria do not cause any deteriorative changes in the living cell because of natural defense mechanism.• In dead fish enzyme become involved in autolytic changes and bacteria invade the fish muscle and proliferate there• Responsible for early loss of quality of fresh fish
GlycolysisFlavour changes in fish Black discolouration Belly bursting Yellowing of fish flesh Colour Changes Brown discolouration
Microbial spoilage SaprophyticHistamine Formation of Formation of Indole production Other compounds formation ammonia TMA Pathogenic bacteria Indigenous Non-Indigenous bacteria bacteria
1. Glycolysis• The first enzymatic change in fish muscle is the gradual hydrolysis of glycogen to lactic acid which is known as glycolysis• After death, the blood circulation stops and the cells are no longer supplied with oxygen and hence glycogen will not be converted into carbon dioxide & water• In P.M. period , glycolysis proceeds via anaerobic pathway where end product is lactic acid, as lactic acid accumulates pH of muscles fall .
• In general, fish muscles contains relatively low amount of glycogen compared with mammalian muscle, & the final pH is consequently higher. This makes fish meat more susceptible to microbial attack• Rested fish contains more glycogen than exhausted fish , & well fed fish more than starved fish
2.Flavour changes in fish ( Nucleotide degradation)• The most significant enzyme deterioration are those which affects flavour.• Nucleotide degradation in fish muscle produces many flavour bearing compounds• These compounds are formed by splitting of ATP by series of dephosphorylation and deamination reactions
ATP ADP AMP IMP Inosine Ribose Hypoxanthine • At ambient temp. ATP breaks down rapidly and IMP (Inosine monophosphate) accumulates in the fish tissue • In fresh fish IMP is very high and imparts a desirable sweet, meaty & characteristic flavour to fish.
• As autolysis proceeds further , the level of IMP decreases , & neutral tasting inosine or bitter tasting hypoxanthine accumulates in the tissue as a result fish becomes more Insipid.
3.Belly bursting• Enzymatic spoilage causes belly bursting of fish, especially during a period of high food intake.• These fish will have large content of digestive enzymes in digestive tract. Such fish will degrade quickly & spoil easily soon after caught.
• In the dissolved gut components, bacteria proliferate and produces gases such as Co2 & H2• This gas production leads to belly bursting after short storage period
4.Colour Changes in fishI. Black discolouration –• It is due to oxidative reaction of tyrosinase on tyrosine.o Sulphite preservatives are used to prevent black discolouration.o Shrimps are dipped in 0.2-0.5 % sodium bisulphite for one minute
II. Yellowing of fish flesh• Frozen storage of some fish may result in yellowing of flesh below skin.• Freezing process disrupt chromatophores and release carotenoids and their migration to the S/C fat layers causes yellowing.
III. Brown discolouration• Cause by reaction of protein or amino acid with product of lipid oxidation• It is observed in variety of processed products including white pomfret, sardine etc• Discolouration due to protein-lipid browning is greater in fatty fish than lean fish
Microbial spoilage• Fish spoilage is mainly due to action of bacteria. Bacteria are present on the surface slime, skin, gills & intestine of fish.• In dead fish bacteria begin invading the tissues causing spoilage and production of undesirable compounds.
• In food processing industry two types of micro-organism are of concern – Saprophytic – Pathogenic bacteria
Saprophytic / Spoilage Bacteria• These are responsible for spoilage of fish• Important class of spoilage organism are – Pseudomonas , Acinobacter, Aeromonas & Moraxella• Flesh looses its qualities like juiciness, firm texture, etc changing it into a product that becomes soft with loss of flavour, discolouration & off flavour
Major deteriorative changes broughtabout by microorganism in fish area. Histamine formationb. Indole productionc. Formation of ammoniad. Formation of TMAe. Other compounds
Histamine formation• Microbial spoilage of fish produces histamine in certain species• Dark muscle fishes contain high levels of free amino acids, histidine in their muscle• During spoilage histidine is converted into histamine• Histamine increases with temperature & 37 C is the optimum temperature• Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae are the spoilage organism producting histamine
Indole production• Conversion of tryptophan to indole is another result of amino acid decomposition by bacteria• The FDA uses indole level along with sensory evaluation for measurement of shrimp decomposition
Formation of ammonia• Spoilage organism convert many nitrogen compounds into off smelling volatile bases• The free amino acid pool in the muscle of fish is readily utilized by spoilage organism by the process of deamination resulting in formation of ammonia which is primary compound formed during decomposition.
• Urea present in sharks & rays is degraded to ammonia by bacterial action. Thus high level of ammonia in these species is an indication of spoilage
Formation of TMA• Marine fish is characterized by the presence of an odourless compound called trimethylamine oxide (TMAO).• Spoilage organism convert this TMAO into foul smelling trimethylamine (TMA)
Other compounds• Includes various volatile compounds like H2s, deimethysulphide & methylmercaptan.• Esters of lower fatty acids such as acetic, propionic, butyric acids are also produced• Volatile sulphur compounds influence the organoleptic characters.
Pathogenic bacteria• Pathogenic bacteria associated with sea food are of two types – Indigenous bacteria – Non-Indigenous bacteria
Indigenous bacteria• These are widely distributed in the aquatic environment.• These pathogens occur in minimal numbers & are not a serious problem in fresh fish• However their growth & multiplication in sea food is serious problem & can cause illness• Eg.- Clostridium botulinum , Vibrio sp., etc
Non-Indigenous bacteria• They occur in seafood as a result of contamination.• Source include polluted aquatic environment, sewage, workers handling as well as the surface where the sea food is processed.• Eg- Salmonella sp , E. coli , Shigella
Chemical spoilage• The most common chemical action which causes spoilage is the oxidative rancidity in fatty fishes.• Fish is characterized by a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) & hence under goes oxidative changes.
• With fatty fish in particular, fat oxidation give rise to problems such as rancid flavour and odour as well as discolouration• At first hydro-peroxides are formed , which further degrade to form aldehyde and ketones with typical rancid flavour.