Changing TraditionsLecture 6 (Strathclyde, 25.4.13)Karen McAulay
Collections as products of their times• This is what we expectto find today …
Domestic music-making in the 19thCentury
Scots Musical MuseumFiguredBassG-B-D-EE-A-B thenE-G#-B
The Songs of Scotland Prior to Burns(Chambers,1862)• ‘It is meant as historical in its general scope andarrangement, and m...
The Songs of Scotland Prior to Burns(Chambers,1862)
Popular mid-19th century collections• Vocal Melodies of Scotland (1836); Finlay Dun& John Thomson. Reissued 1842-53; again...
Vocal Melodies of Scotland - Dun &Thomson’s concern for the performer• ‘… some of the finest Scottish songs have beenpubli...
Orain na h-Albain; Dun• Accompaniment … ‘simple and appropriate’• ‘a few suggestions as to the manner of singing the songs...
Graham comments on lyrics• ‘As the third and fourth stanzas of the original songare not only unsuited to the air, but are ...
Musical examples• Flow gently, sweet Afton(i) arr. F. Dun(ii) Arr. G. F. GrahamCompare accompaniments with(i) An die Musik...
Highland sentiments• Continued to collect tunes ‘in thefield’, because fear of culture disappearing• Threat to Gaelic lang...
An ComunnGaidhealach, 1891Preceded by Lorn OssianicSociety, 1872-early 1880s.(Prof. John Stuart Blackie aleading light in ...
The Mod (started 1892)
Mod – The National Bard• Gaelic Mod at Oban- Crowning of theBard - Mr AngusMcInnes (4.10.58)
Choral music at The Mod• A Choisir-Chiuil (StColumba Collectionof Gaelic Songs), late19th Century.• (And there’s amodern e...
Musical example• Thainig an Gille dubh (A’ Choisir Chiuil p.13) –melody then choral setting
Marjory Kennedy-Fraser• 1857-1930• Perth …• Edinburgh …• World tours … Eriskay …• Barra …
Fr. Allan McDonald, Eriskay• Gaelic poem collector& folklorist (1859-1905)
Early recording equipment• Kennedy-Fraser’sgraphophoneArchival sound – 1908 (not MKF)
Marjory Kennedy-Fraser• Songs of the Hebrides(3 vols)• Sea Tangle• From the Hebrides• More Songs from theHebrides
Musical examples• Kennedy-Fraser –• Spinning wheel accompaniment• Harp effect accompaniment
Musical Example• Kennedy-Fraser –• Eriskay love-lilt, sung by Lisa Milne
W B Yeats (Irish poet and dramatist)• Celtic Twilight– a‘sketchbook full offolklore reverie’ (1893)
Ducoudray:Breton song
Musical Examples• Debussy – Pelleas & Melisande opera (overture)• Compare the style of Debussy’s La CathedraleEngloutie (p...
Musical Examples• Kennedy-Fraser – A simple setting of A RaasayLove-Lilt (Songs of the Hebrides Vol.I)• Musically more adv...
Hamish MacCunn (1868-1916)• The land of themountain and the flood• The Dowie Dens o’Yarrow• Ship o’ the Fiend• Jeanie Dean...
Musical Example• MacCunn – Flow gently, sweet Afton
20th century developments• Folk revivalhttp://folkmusic.about.com/od/folkmusic101/a/60sFolkRevival.htm• Ewan MacColl http:...
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Scottish musical history 2013 Strathclyde University lecture 6

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Changing Traditions - never let it be said that traditional music is timeless and unchanging. Nothing could be further from the truth!

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Scottish musical history 2013 Strathclyde University lecture 6

  1. 1. Changing TraditionsLecture 6 (Strathclyde, 25.4.13)Karen McAulay
  2. 2. Collections as products of their times• This is what we expectto find today …
  3. 3. Domestic music-making in the 19thCentury
  4. 4. Scots Musical MuseumFiguredBassG-B-D-EE-A-B thenE-G#-B
  5. 5. The Songs of Scotland Prior to Burns(Chambers,1862)• ‘It is meant as historical in its general scope andarrangement, and may *…+ satisfy all ordinaryinquirers into the subject, as a department of thenational literature.• ‘It is also hoped that the collection may beserviceable amongst those who have not consentedto the entire banishment of our national airs fromthe drawing-room.’
  6. 6. The Songs of Scotland Prior to Burns(Chambers,1862)
  7. 7. Popular mid-19th century collections• Vocal Melodies of Scotland (1836); Finlay Dun& John Thomson. Reissued 1842-53; againpost 1853; Revised & re-edited 1884.• The Songs of Scotland adapted to theirappropriate melodies (1848-9) ; G F Graham(a.k.a. Wood’s Edition of the Songs ofScotland); Rev. as The Popular Songs ofScotland with their appropriate Melodies (1887,1908)
  8. 8. Vocal Melodies of Scotland - Dun &Thomson’s concern for the performer• ‘… some of the finest Scottish songs have beenpublished, hitherto, in keys quite unsingable by thegenerality of voices…’• ‘… accompaniments … appropriateness of style andfacility of execution’• ‘marks of expression *to guide those+ eitherunacquainted with the Scottish style, or had noteacher to guide them’
  9. 9. Orain na h-Albain; Dun• Accompaniment … ‘simple and appropriate’• ‘a few suggestions as to the manner of singing the songs.’• ‘simple and natural … due expression of the words willoccasionally require the time to be retarded oraccelerated … rhythm is irregular ’• ‘long-drawn out sounds seem to be a characteristicfeature in the style of the music of many mountainouscountries, originating … from the physical conditions …being favourable to the production of echoes’*!!!+
  10. 10. Graham comments on lyrics• ‘As the third and fourth stanzas of the original songare not only unsuited to the air, but are little betterthan street-ballad doggerel, we have taken theliberty to alter them in this work.’• Graham won’t repeat the ‘profane absurdity’ ofcertain opening stanzas.• ‘rejected the old words as very silly, and quiteunworthy of the popular air to which they wereadapted.’• ‘We give here the three most tolerable stanzas ofthis very trashy song’
  11. 11. Musical examples• Flow gently, sweet Afton(i) arr. F. Dun(ii) Arr. G. F. GrahamCompare accompaniments with(i) An die Musik (Schubert)(ii) Ständchen (Schubert)
  12. 12. Highland sentiments• Continued to collect tunes ‘in thefield’, because fear of culture disappearing• Threat to Gaelic language• Clearances, emigration, arguments about croftand land-ownership
  13. 13. An ComunnGaidhealach, 1891Preceded by Lorn OssianicSociety, 1872-early 1880s.(Prof. John Stuart Blackie aleading light in bothsocieties)
  14. 14. The Mod (started 1892)
  15. 15. Mod – The National Bard• Gaelic Mod at Oban- Crowning of theBard - Mr AngusMcInnes (4.10.58)
  16. 16. Choral music at The Mod• A Choisir-Chiuil (StColumba Collectionof Gaelic Songs), late19th Century.• (And there’s amodern edition!)
  17. 17. Musical example• Thainig an Gille dubh (A’ Choisir Chiuil p.13) –melody then choral setting
  18. 18. Marjory Kennedy-Fraser• 1857-1930• Perth …• Edinburgh …• World tours … Eriskay …• Barra …
  19. 19. Fr. Allan McDonald, Eriskay• Gaelic poem collector& folklorist (1859-1905)
  20. 20. Early recording equipment• Kennedy-Fraser’sgraphophoneArchival sound – 1908 (not MKF)
  21. 21. Marjory Kennedy-Fraser• Songs of the Hebrides(3 vols)• Sea Tangle• From the Hebrides• More Songs from theHebrides
  22. 22. Musical examples• Kennedy-Fraser –• Spinning wheel accompaniment• Harp effect accompaniment
  23. 23. Musical Example• Kennedy-Fraser –• Eriskay love-lilt, sung by Lisa Milne
  24. 24. W B Yeats (Irish poet and dramatist)• Celtic Twilight– a‘sketchbook full offolklore reverie’ (1893)
  25. 25. Ducoudray:Breton song
  26. 26. Musical Examples• Debussy – Pelleas & Melisande opera (overture)• Compare the style of Debussy’s La CathedraleEngloutie (piano), with• Kennedy-Fraser’s Sleeps the noon in the deep bluesky (sung by Lisa Milne)• This is the same tune, untitled, in the Macdonaldcollection• Kennedy-Fraser – The Coolin of Rum(again, impressionistic, Debussy-esque)
  27. 27. Musical Examples• Kennedy-Fraser – A simple setting of A RaasayLove-Lilt (Songs of the Hebrides Vol.I)• Musically more adventuroussetting, Lochbroom love song (SOH Vol.1)• Then listen to choral Mod setting
  28. 28. Hamish MacCunn (1868-1916)• The land of themountain and the flood• The Dowie Dens o’Yarrow• Ship o’ the Fiend• Jeanie Deans• Diarmid• 150+ songs …
  29. 29. Musical Example• MacCunn – Flow gently, sweet Afton
  30. 30. 20th century developments• Folk revivalhttp://folkmusic.about.com/od/folkmusic101/a/60sFolkRevival.htm• Ewan MacColl http://www.peggyseeger.com/ewan-maccoll/ewan-maccoll• Ethnomusicological approach• School of Scottish Studies• (now Celtic and Scottish Studies)http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/literatures-languages-cultures/celtic-scottish-studies• Travellers’ repertoire – Recordings• Internet – electronic advances

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