Scottish musical history 2013 Strathclyde University lecture 4
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Scottish musical history 2013 Strathclyde University lecture 4



19th century Scottish song collections - certainly not all the same

19th century Scottish song collections - certainly not all the same



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Scottish musical history 2013 Strathclyde University lecture 4 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1THREE WAYS TO MAKEA SONG COLLECTIONAnd one way to annoy your neighbours!19th Century Scottish Music Dr Karen McAulay
  • 2. 2Last lecture: C18th Celtic music• How people in Scotland viewed their own national music• (To a lesser extent) how it was viewed in England.• And what was happening in Ireland and Wales• And the key themes were …
  • 3. 36 key political & cultural influences Travel Political History Ossian Popularity Scottish outwith Scotland Song Enlightenment Primitivism & Antiquarianism
  • 4. 4This week• 3 song collections and an English anthology: different times, different approaches• C18th influences continued, but changed gradually• Albyn’s Anthology / Alexander Campbell• The Scotish Minstrel / Robert Archibald Smith• Songs of Scotland / George Farquhar Graham• and …• Popular Music of the Olden Time / William Chappell
  • 5. 5MISTAKEN FORNAPOLEONAlexander Campbell‟s Hebridean Song-CollectingSummer, 1815
  • 6. 6An extraordinary man Alexander & John Campbell Classically trained by Tenducci(caricature by John Kay, 1784)
  • 7. 7A dilettante – literature & art too. Sketch from Campbell‟s Journey from Edinburgh through Parts of North Britain
  • 8. 8Albyn‟s Anthology (1816-18)
  • 9. 9Campbell‟s “Slight Sketch of a journey madethrough parts of the Highlands & Hebrides.” “On the 23rd July 1815, I took my place as an out-side passenger on the mail-coach to Stirling. On my arrival there, I armed, and apparelled myself in the ancient costume of my native mountains; and set forward for Lanrick Castle.” Lanrick Castle – home of Sir John MacGregor Murray (influential and interested)
  • 10. 10Off to theHebrides …Imagine a trip today.Now think again!
  • 11. 11Stopping fordirections atLanrick CastleAfter that – on foot.Callander.Ferry to Lismore.Ferry to Mull.
  • 12. 12Social gathering
  • 13. 13 Fingal‟s Cave, StaffaPiper played a lament inthe cave
  • 14. 14 Dervaig, Mull Met an old lady with Tunes from Margaret Maclean- a song-collection ClephaneStopped at Callach Point to draw aview, and met an old man whocould recite Ossian
  • 15. 15Tunes from boatmen, fiddlers, gentry …Mull, Staffa, North and SouthUist, Benbecula, Skye …
  • 16. 16 Mishaps and misadventuresFell in Tobermory Falls Kept awake by talkative weaver
  • 17. 17Got taught piping notation - and transcribed some
  • 18. 18ALEXANDER CAMPBELL(1764-1824) 23 July – 23 October, 1815 Journey “by sea and land, of between eleven and twelve hundred miles, undertaken to collect on the spot materials for Albyn‟s Anthology” …
  • 19. 19Results of Campbell‟s trip• Attempted another journey in Borders following year• Albyn’s Anthology - 2 volumes• Gaelic and English• Highland and Border repertoire, including …• Novelist & ballad-collector Walter Scott - words• Poet & Novelist James Hogg – words and tunes• But what was the music like?
  • 20. 20Some examples• Una of Ulva (Luineag Mhic Leod) AAII/13• Does have intro/coda• Moved beyond figured bass but clumsy harmony• Oh, sweet is the feeling („Smi m‟ shuidh‟) AAII/2• Same observations: inappropriate/unprepared inversions, strange passing notes (but nice tune)• When I was a wee thing (Oran sugradh) AAII/79• Double-tonic tune: AC seems unsure how to handle it• My Peggy, thou art gane away (AC‟s Gaelic; Hogg English) AAII/25 dedicated to Sir John MacGregor Murray• More effective
  • 21. 21R A SMITH – THE SCOTISHMINSTREL(Give or take a made-up song or two)
  • 22. 22 Wild flowers, honeycombs and jewels• Metaphors inform us about audience expectation in early 19th Century Scottish song collections• Robert Archibald Smith, The Scotish Minstrel [sic] (1820-24)• In 6 vols. Subsequently compiled 1-vol Irish Minstrel.• Allan Cunningham, The Songs of Scotland, Ancient and Modern (1825)
  • 23. 23 Recurrent themes• 1. Minstrels• 2. Origins (minstrels, royalty, peasants)• 3. Manner of presentation• 4. Authenticity v. restorations/imitations
  • 24. 24Robert Archibald SmithThe Scotish MinstrelHow it was done • Committee of ladies • Lady Carolina Nairne • (aka Mrs Bogan of Bogan) • Ballad-collector William Motherwell involved at least towards end.
  • 25. 25 The significance of Paratext• Floral & natural metaphors in The Scotish Minstrel:• „simple “breathings of nature”‟• „Not a few of these wild flowers have been gathered from the peasantry.‟• Floral & natural metaphors in The Irish Minstrel:• „our old national melodies are imperishable plants, unfading evergreens…‟
  • 26. 26If you thought the minstrel theme had diedout …• „There are some Scotch bards to whom we have not had the courage to make any application; but if they would twine a wreath for the Minstrel, proud would he be to wear it.• We now send him forth, „[…] to wander through the mountains of his native land - to traverse the green wilds of Erin, and the sequestered vales of Cambria; and, we trust, he will be hospitably received “‟mong merry England‟s cultured fields.”‟• (The Scotish Minstrel I - Preface )
  • 27. 27 Albyn’s Anthology and Scotish Minstrel – both had links with contemporary poetsFlowers as metaphors The land as a metaphor Lady Carolina Nairne & R A Smith Sir Walter Scott Minstrelsy of the Scottish BorderThe land as metaphor „Like the natural free gifts ofBallad collector William Motherwell Flora, these poetical garlands canMinstrelsy Ancient and Modern, 1827 only be successfully sought for where the land is uncultivated;„Though the field in which many have and civilisation and increase ofreaped, may, by this time, be well learning are sure to banishdeemed nearly bare, yet much is still them, as the plough of theleft for future skill and industry to agriculturalist bears down theglean. mountain daisy.‟
  • 28. 28Another theme: Nature v. artificiality Ritson, Scotish Song (1794) Allan Cunningham, Songs of Scotland• „beautiful peasant, in her • [Scottish muse] homespun russet‟ • „the lyric muse of the north‟• Compared with • „the muse of simple nature‟• „the fine town lady, • Compared with patched, powdered, and • „her more courtly sister of the dressed out, for the ball or south‟ opera, in all the frippery of fashion.‟
  • 29. 29The idea of buried treasure• Cunningham indulged in fakery – confession alluded to „planting‟ flowers and jewels (ie fake folksongs) for others to find.• R A Smith admitted to making up songs for his collection and wrote to Motherwell that the preface had to mention all the „fine airs produced and saved from oblivion.’• Literary examples -• Walter Scott• James Hogg• And others
  • 30. 30The results of R A Smith‟s efforts• In far distant climes, Scottish Minstrel Vol.1 no.1• Thy cheek is o’ the rose’s hue, Vol.4, no.1• No intros/codas, but harmonically much more competent• Some in Scots, some English (Lady Nairne‟s preference)• Incidentally, he got into trouble with Thomas Moore over his subsequent Irish Minstrel collection – copyright issues involving material taken from Moore‟s Irish Melodies
  • 31. 31Changing attitudes• Mid 1820s, much disapproval of fakery• Mid 19th Century, fakery seen as creative endeavour.• Eg, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, May 1847, about Cunningham‟s Scottish poems:-• ‘They are no more imitations than the finest poems of Burns, or Hogg, or Motherwell. […] every one of them came direct from the heart of our beloved Allan, and are, in their way, as truly original compositions as any burst that ever yet was uttered by inspired poet under the canopy of heaven.’
  • 32. 32MID 19TH CENTURYThe authoritative, competentGeorge Farquhar Graham, Songs of Scotland
  • 33. 33Cultural changes• More acceptance of „fakery‟• More insistence on authority• Continuing insistence on propriety• Replace words „unsuitable for the more fastidious taste of the present day‟, „profane absurdity‟, „this very trashy song‟
  • 34. 34The piano in the parlour• Before mid-19th, subscription lists show who bought collections• Names begin to change from titled gentry, to schoolmasters, clergy & female amateurs• More didactic, and for domestic use.• Middle-of-the-road, playable by average pianist• … but more musically complex than Campbell or Smith‟s collections• Compilers - professionals
  • 35. 35 G F Graham‟s collection - examples• Gloomy winter’s now awa (setting by T M Mudie) Vol.1/6• Commentary by G F Graham• NB referencing earlier sources, including Alexander Campbell, Gow, William Stenhouse‟s Illustrations• Note how much more sophisticated setting is, & intro/coda etc.• Tullochgorum Vol.4, no.1 (setting by G F Graham) Vol.1/52• Again, commentary by G F Graham• Acknowledges problematic implied harmony (the double tonic Campbell struggled with)
  • 36. 36AND HOW TO ANNOY THENEIGHBOURSWilliam Chappell‟s Popular Music of the Olden Time(1855-59)
  • 37. 37William Chappell• English antiquarian (family publishing firm)• Popular (ie national) music• Old English ballads• A Collection of National English Airs, consisting of Ancient Song, Ballad, and Dance Tunes (1838-40)• Substantially altered, became Popular Music of the Olden Time (1855-59) – published in parts and then in 2 vols.• Controversial
  • 38. 38Which neighbours? The Scottish ones• Correspondence: significant Scots• Chappell – Edinburgh librarian David Laing• Chappell – Dundonian music seller, Andrew Wighton• Wighton – Grumpy Aberdeen publisher, James Davie
  • 39. 39Cultural Nationalism (and the chip onChappell‟s English shoulder)• We‟ve already noted C18th Scottish resentment of Union with England;• Lowland/Highland and Scots/English arguments over Ossian;• Late C18th and early C19th Irish anti-English feeling;• Now English defensive about heritage• And Scots resentful about Chappell‟s observations
  • 40. 40New edition• After Chappell‟s death, book revised:• Old English Popular Music• Significant changesNot much to say about C19th Scottishcollections?• Clearly discernible changes• Literary and cultural influences• Cultural nationalism