Referencing methods and approaches


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A talk I gave to our research students about some of the things they should be thinking about when recording and listing references.

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Referencing methods and approaches

  1. 1. Referencing methods and approaches Dr Karen McAulay
  2. 2. A groan or a sigh?
  3. 3. What do we mean by referencing?• Footnotes• Bibliography• In The Dissertation• … or in articles/books you might write now or in the future …
  4. 4. Why?• Why does it matter?• So your examiners/readers can follow up your sources … books, articles and websites …• … with the minimum fuss!
  5. 5. Input / Output• 2 distinct stages:-• Collecting• Codifying / Sharing
  6. 6. Input
  7. 7. In preparation• Don’t start your bibliography when you start writing your text – if you haven’t already started, begin compiling your bibliography now.• Keep full details of anything you read – especially dates and pages.• Record place of publication and publishers’ names – you can decide later how much to include depending on the system you choose.
  8. 8. Gathering it all in?
  9. 9. For your own benefit …• If something you read strikes a particular chord, keep a brief annotation with the reference itself. This won’t go in the bibliography, but might be useful in your literature survey or a footnote.
  10. 10. Embarras de richesses?French (literally, ‘an embarrassment of riches’).More resources, pleasures, etc., than one knows what to do with.
  11. 11. Embrace technology• There are various kinds of software to help you compile your bibliography.• EndNote and RefWorks are commercially- available software• We don’t subscribe, but Endnote available with educational discount as an individual, or• Access Refworks through the University of St Andrew’s.
  12. 12. RefWorks
  13. 13. Pros and Cons• EndNote and RefWorks are powerful tools• Synchronise with web-resources like COPAC and even international library catalogues• Synchronise with Word• Choose citation style and the software does it for you• But quite complex and does need learning.
  14. 14. Free shareware• Peggy uses Zotero (pronounced Zo-tair-oh) – requires you to use Firefox not Internet Explorer. Good for keeping citation details.• For saving favourite websites online, many people use Delicious – but Yahoo is apparently dropping it, so future uncertain.• Diigo is a new social bookmarking tool which I’m experimenting with – looks quite flexible, and portable.
  15. 15. Social bookmarking and more• Zotero• Delicious• Diigo
  16. 16. Growing Knowledge• Take another look at the British Library Growing Knowledge website –more ideas there?•
  17. 17. Output
  18. 18. How?• How?• Different referencing systems, eg Harvard, Chicago, MHRA Style Guide (Modern Humanities Research Association)• RSAMD prefers Harvard system, as recommended in RSAMD “Writing Essays on Music” guidelines.• Links on Moodle and via RSAMD library catalogue; also in ‘how to write PhD’ books• Bottom line – consistency
  19. 19. Rules are for fools? (and the guidance of the wise)• All citation systems: consistency & clarity• Agree on a system: get rules & stick to them• Basic questions: footnotes or endnotes?• If endnotes, at end of chapter or dissertation?• Different views on how much info to be given.
  20. 20. University of St Andrews• Citing References – info on St Andrews Uni Library website• /citingreferences/
  21. 21. Harvard system @Anglia Ruskin University
  22. 22. Anglia Ruskin University• harvard.htm = good online guide to the Harvard system.
  23. 23. Harvard system at Leeds Metropolitan
  24. 24. Leeds Metropolitan University• _Unquote.pdf = Quote, Unquote: a guide to Harvard referencing
  25. 25. Bibliography• Again, decide on a system then stick to it.• I was advised only to include items I’d referred to in the text.• Ask your supervisor if they require only cited materials, or additional reading matter too.
  26. 26. Actually Compiling the dreaded BibliographyMy own personal method –1. Big Master Bibliography from Day One;2. Started EndNote Bibliography when I began writing up, to keep details of what I had actually cited;3. Used that as basis for the Bibliography that went at the end of my dissertation. (But I didn’t use EndNote formatting within Word)
  27. 27. Geekiness• If you don’t have the page no. of a quotation, GoogleBooks can be invaluable.• … Search for the quotation and find which page it was on, even if you can’t read the book online. Quicker than going back to the library!• For accuracy, proofread intensively.• If there are mistakes you regularly make, use Edit>Find in Word, to ensure you’ve caught and corrected them all.
  28. 28. Practical help• Look at other people’s dissertations – get an idea of what passes muster, and what might work for you. Talk to people who have ‘been there, done that’.• If you have any difficulty formatting the dissertation, do speak to IT Trainer Julie Halstead early enough to allow you time to implement any changes/ improvements.
  29. 29. Always darkest before the dawn!
  30. 30. The End• Thank you Dr Karen McAulay Music & Academic Services Librarian