4/18/2014 1
Hypothalamus
Presenter: Dr. Kapil Amgain
Chairperson: Prof. Dr. S.P. Desai
4/18/2014 2
1. Introduction
• The most ventral part of
diencephalon which lies
below the thalamus
• 4 gram in weight (whole
brain wt 1...
2. Boundaries
4/18/2014 4
3. Relations
• Anteriorly: LaminaTerminalis
• Laterally: Internal Capsule &
ventral thalmus
• Medially: ependymal lining
o...
Inferior Relation
4/18/2014 6
4/18/2014 7
4.
4/18/2014 8
5.
4/18/2014 9
4/18/2014 10
6. Region wise descriptions of Nuclei
A. Preoptic Region:
Lies anterior to
hypothalamus
along with
lamina terminalis
betwe...
B. Supra optic Region:
1. Supra optic Nucleus: Medail,
lateral and periventricular
part. It is Sexually dimorphic
Nuclei.
...
C. Tuberal Region
1. Arcuate or infundibular
nucleus: composed of
small neurons.
Controls emontional
behaviours and
endocr...
D. Mamillary Region
1. Mamillary bodies:
i) Medial intercalated N.:
small neurons. Forms
the bulk of mamillary
bodies.
ii)...
4/18/2014 15
4/18/2014 16
Afferent Connections
S.N. Afferent Tracts Origin Termination
1. Retinothalamic Ganglion cells of Retina Suprachiasmatic Nu...
Efferent Connections
S.N. Afferent Tracts Origin Termination
1 Hypothalamo-
hypophysial tract
Supraoptic & paraventricular...
Both Afferent & efferent connections
S.N. Pathways Origin Termination
1 Stria Terminalis Amygdaloid nucleus.
Preoptic & ar...
Major connections
4/18/2014 20
4/18/2014 21
Hypothalamo-hypophysial tract
• The
hypothalamus
is a
neuroendocrine
area which acts
as a
"transducer" to
convert
neuronal...
Hypothalamus and Anterior Pitutary
• GHRH
• FSHRH
• LHRH
• GnRH
4/18/2014 23
4/18/2014 24
4/18/2014 25
Functions: 1. Controls posterior pitutary
• It controls neurohypophysis
through hypothalamo-
hypophyseal tract.
• Approx. ...
2. Controls anterior pitutary
• Several trophic factors or
hormones are released
that influence the
production of hormones...
4/18/2014 28
Hormones Released
4/18/2014 29
4/18/2014 31
Neuro-secretory cells
1. Receive and process stimuli from
all parts of the CNS,
2. Conduct action potentials along
their a...
3. Autonomic regulation
• It controls brain stem & spinal cord autonomic
centers.
• Autonomic influence is mediated by dor...
4. Temperature regulation
• contains thermal recepters which is sensetive to
changes in the body temperature of blood
perf...
5. Emotional behavior
• Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus is
related to emotional behavior.
6. Feeding Behavior:
Ventro...
7. Sleep & awakefulness
• Anterior part of hypothalamus….sleep centre
• Posterior… waking centre
8. Biological clock or ci...
9. Memory
• Through its connections with the hippocampal
formation & anterior thalamic nucleus, the
mamillary body of hypo...
Blood supply
Perforating brach of
1. Anterior communicating
artery & anterior cerebral
artery….
i) Preoptic & supraoptic r...
4/18/2014 39
Circumventricular Organs
4/18/2014 40
Clinical Anatomy
1. Disorder of water balance
A. Diabetes inspidius
• It results due to lesions that destroy the majority ...
2. Disorders of Thermoreghulation
i) Hypothermia: posterior pituitary lesion
ii) Hyperthermis: related to lesion of ventom...
3. Disorders of caloric balance
i) Diencephalic syndrome of infancy or
Russell syndrome or
Batten- Russel- Collier Disease...
4. Disorders of emotional behavior
• Ventromedial nucleus lesion have been
associated with Rage
• Posterior nucleus lesion...
5. Disorders of sleep
• Waking centre is in posterior nucleus. So lesion
on it produce lethargy and hypersomnia.
• Sleep c...
6. kleine-Levin Syndrome
It is characterised by
• Episodic compulsive eating
(bulimia)……..predominently seen in females
• ...
7. Disorders of Memory
• Lesion of posterior nucleus are associated with
inability to memorise the recent event.
• Connect...
4/18/2014 48
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
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Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus

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Gross anatomy and connections of hypothalamus

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Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus

  1. 1. 4/18/2014 1
  2. 2. Hypothalamus Presenter: Dr. Kapil Amgain Chairperson: Prof. Dr. S.P. Desai 4/18/2014 2
  3. 3. 1. Introduction • The most ventral part of diencephalon which lies below the thalamus • 4 gram in weight (whole brain wt 1400gms) • 0.3 to 0.5% of total brain • Sherrington regarded as head ganglion of ANS • Nauta describes as the nodal region in the maintenance of homeostais4/18/2014 3
  4. 4. 2. Boundaries 4/18/2014 4
  5. 5. 3. Relations • Anteriorly: LaminaTerminalis • Laterally: Internal Capsule & ventral thalmus • Medially: ependymal lining of 3rd ventricle • Posteriorly: Ventral thalamus via tegmentum of midbrain • Superiorly: Dorsal Thalamus 4/18/2014 5
  6. 6. Inferior Relation 4/18/2014 6
  7. 7. 4/18/2014 7 4.
  8. 8. 4/18/2014 8 5.
  9. 9. 4/18/2014 9
  10. 10. 4/18/2014 10
  11. 11. 6. Region wise descriptions of Nuclei A. Preoptic Region: Lies anterior to hypothalamus along with lamina terminalis between optic chiasma & ant.commissure 4/18/2014 11
  12. 12. B. Supra optic Region: 1. Supra optic Nucleus: Medail, lateral and periventricular part. It is Sexually dimorphic Nuclei. 2. Suprachiasmatic: Involves circadian rhythm 3. Anterior Nucleus: Thirst Center 4. Paraventricular 4/18/2014 12
  13. 13. C. Tuberal Region 1. Arcuate or infundibular nucleus: composed of small neurons. Controls emontional behaviours and endocrine function 2. Ventromedial: Satiety centre 3. Ventrolateral 4. Lateral nucleus: feedin centre 4/18/2014 13
  14. 14. D. Mamillary Region 1. Mamillary bodies: i) Medial intercalated N.: small neurons. Forms the bulk of mamillary bodies. ii) Lateral intercalated N.: Receive termination of fornix and provide origin to mamilothalamic tract and mamilotegmental tract 1. Posterior hypothalamic nucleus 4/18/2014 14
  15. 15. 4/18/2014 15
  16. 16. 4/18/2014 16
  17. 17. Afferent Connections S.N. Afferent Tracts Origin Termination 1. Retinothalamic Ganglion cells of Retina Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 2. Inferior mamillary peduncle Tegmentl nuclei of midbrain Mamillary 3. Thalamo- hypothalamic Dorsomedial & midline thalamic nuclei Lateral & posterior hypothalamus 4 Pallidohypothala mic Lentiform nucleus Ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei 5 Cerebello- hypothalamic Deep nuclei of cerebellum Ventral & posterior nuclei of hypothalamus 6 Prefrontal hypothalamic Orbitofrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex Prefrontal cortex 4/18/2014 17
  18. 18. Efferent Connections S.N. Afferent Tracts Origin Termination 1 Hypothalamo- hypophysial tract Supraoptic & paraventricular Nuclei Neurohypophysis 2 Tuberohypophysial tract Arcuate & periventricular Median eminence & infundibular stalk 3 Hypothalamo- cerebellar fibers Laterar & posterior hypothalamus Deep cerebellar cortex 4 Mamillothalamic fibers Mamillary body Anterior thalamic nucleus 5 Mamillotegmental fibers Mamillary body Tegmental nuclei of midbrain 6 Descending autonomic fibers Paraventricular nucleus,lateral hypothalamic area, postrior hypothalamus Autonomic cranial nerve nuclei & spinal cord nuclei 7 Hypothalamic prefrontal Posterior hypothalamus, Tuberal hypothalamus, Anterior hypothalamus Prefrontal cortex 4/18/2014 18
  19. 19. Both Afferent & efferent connections S.N. Pathways Origin Termination 1 Stria Terminalis Amygdaloid nucleus. Preoptic & arcuate nuclei Preoptic &arcus nuclei. Amygdaloid nucleus 2 Fornix Hippocampal formation. Mamillary body Mamillary body. Hippocampal formation 3 Ventral amygdalofugal fibers Amygdaloid nucleus. Lateral hypothalamic nucleus Lateral hypothalamic nucleus. Amygdaloid nucleus 4 Medial forebrain bundle Amygdala, premotor cortex,frontal cortex. Lateral hypothalamus Lateral hypothalamus. Septal nuclei, tegmental nuclei, periaquductal gray matter of midbrain 5 Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of schutz periaquductal gray matter of midbrain. Medial hypothalamus Medial hypothalamus. periaquductal gray matter of midbrain. 4/18/2014 19
  20. 20. Major connections 4/18/2014 20
  21. 21. 4/18/2014 21
  22. 22. Hypothalamo-hypophysial tract • The hypothalamus is a neuroendocrine area which acts as a "transducer" to convert neuronal activity into hormonal secretions 4/18/2014 22
  23. 23. Hypothalamus and Anterior Pitutary • GHRH • FSHRH • LHRH • GnRH 4/18/2014 23
  24. 24. 4/18/2014 24
  25. 25. 4/18/2014 25
  26. 26. Functions: 1. Controls posterior pitutary • It controls neurohypophysis through hypothalamo- hypophyseal tract. • Approx. 100,000 nonmyelinated fibers extend from the SON & PVN of the hypothalamus to the fenestrated capilary bed of the neurohupophysis. • These fibers convey 2 peptide hormones; ADH & oxytocin 4/18/2014 26
  27. 27. 2. Controls anterior pitutary • Several trophic factors or hormones are released that influence the production of hormones in adenohypophysis. 4/18/2014 27
  28. 28. 4/18/2014 28
  29. 29. Hormones Released 4/18/2014 29
  30. 30. 4/18/2014 31
  31. 31. Neuro-secretory cells 1. Receive and process stimuli from all parts of the CNS, 2. Conduct action potentials along their axons, and 3. Synthesize and release hormones into the circulatory system. 4. produce peptide prohormones by mRNA on ribosomes in their nerve cell bodies, and then convert these prohormones to active hormones during the process of axoplasmic transport along axon filaments. 5. They store the hormones in vesicular granules at their axon terminals until depolarization of the plasma membrane causes exocytosis. 4/18/2014 32
  32. 32. 3. Autonomic regulation • It controls brain stem & spinal cord autonomic centers. • Autonomic influence is mediated by dorsal longitudinal fasciculus & mamilothalamic tract • Rostral & medial hypothalamus is concerned with parasympathetic control • Caudal & lateral hypothalamus is concerned with sympathetic control mechanism. 4/18/2014 33
  33. 33. 4. Temperature regulation • contains thermal recepters which is sensetive to changes in the body temperature of blood perfusing these regions. • Anterior regions of hypothalamus is are sensetive to rise in blood temperature. • B/L damage to this regions results hyperthermia 4/18/2014 34
  34. 34. 5. Emotional behavior • Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus is related to emotional behavior. 6. Feeding Behavior: Ventro medial Nucleus…feeding centre Dorsomedial nucleus….satiety centre Anterior & lateral region…thirst centre 4/18/2014 35
  35. 35. 7. Sleep & awakefulness • Anterior part of hypothalamus….sleep centre • Posterior… waking centre 8. Biological clock or circadian Rhythm: • Through the connections of the suprachiasmatic nucleus with the retina and brain, it reghulates the circadian rhythm loke sleep-wake cycle, hormonal cycle etc. • So suprachiasmatic nucleus is also refered as endogenous pacemaker 4/18/2014 36
  36. 36. 9. Memory • Through its connections with the hippocampal formation & anterior thalamic nucleus, the mamillary body of hypothalamus plays a role in memory 10. Sexual arousal: • Medial preoptic nucleus is concerned with the sexual arousal to erotic stimuli. • It size is double in case of male than in female. • So it is also refered as sexually dimerfic nucleus 4/18/2014 37
  37. 37. Blood supply Perforating brach of 1. Anterior communicating artery & anterior cerebral artery…. i) Preoptic & supraoptic region ii) Rostral part of lateral hypothalamus 2. posterior communicating artery & posterior cerebral artery…. i) Tuberal & mamillary regions ii) Middle & posterior part of lateral hypothalamus 4/18/2014 38
  38. 38. 4/18/2014 39
  39. 39. Circumventricular Organs 4/18/2014 40
  40. 40. Clinical Anatomy 1. Disorder of water balance A. Diabetes inspidius • It results due to lesions that destroy the majority of the neurons of SON & PVN. • Or due to interuption of the hypothalamo-hypophusial tract • Decreased ADH results polyurea B. SIADH ( Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH) Due to lesions in SON & PVN that impair hypothalamic osmoreceptors resulting increased ADH release. So concentrated urine is excreted 4/18/2014 41
  41. 41. 2. Disorders of Thermoreghulation i) Hypothermia: posterior pituitary lesion ii) Hyperthermis: related to lesion of ventomedial nucleus iii) Poikilothermia: fluctuation of body temperature. It is due to B/L posterior hypothalamic lesion 4/18/2014 42
  42. 42. 3. Disorders of caloric balance i) Diencephalic syndrome of infancy or Russell syndrome or Batten- Russel- Collier Disease • It is characterised by progressive emanciation during the first year of life despite of a reasonable food intake • It is due to slowly growing tumor affecting the hypothalamus • Other lesion of anterior nucleus can produce the syndrome. ii) Frohlich syndrome or Babinski-Frohlich syndrome or Dystrophia –Adiposogenitalis • Obesity….due to lesion of ventrolateral nucleus ( satiety center) • Genital hypoplasia… due to involvement of infundibulum • Stunted growth4/18/2014 43
  43. 43. 4. Disorders of emotional behavior • Ventromedial nucleus lesion have been associated with Rage • Posterior nucleus lesion is related to fear and apathy • Stimulation of lateral region of anterior nucleus elicits flight response 4/18/2014 44
  44. 44. 5. Disorders of sleep • Waking centre is in posterior nucleus. So lesion on it produce lethargy and hypersomnia. • Sleep centre is in anterior nucleus. So lesion on it produces insomnia. 4/18/2014 45
  45. 45. 6. kleine-Levin Syndrome It is characterised by • Episodic compulsive eating (bulimia)……..predominently seen in females • Hypersomnolence • Hypersexuality… predominently seen in adult males It is due to lesion of medial nucleus of hypothalamus 4/18/2014 46
  46. 46. 7. Disorders of Memory • Lesion of posterior nucleus are associated with inability to memorise the recent event. • Connections of mamillary body with hippocampus vai fornix and with anterior nucleus of thalamus via mamillothalamic tract is interrupted. 4/18/2014 47
  47. 47. 4/18/2014 48
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