Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Dr. kapil seminar on hypothalamus

764

Published on

Gross anatomy and connections of hypothalamus

Gross anatomy and connections of hypothalamus

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
764
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
131
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 4/18/2014 1
  • 2. Hypothalamus Presenter: Dr. Kapil Amgain Chairperson: Prof. Dr. S.P. Desai 4/18/2014 2
  • 3. 1. Introduction • The most ventral part of diencephalon which lies below the thalamus • 4 gram in weight (whole brain wt 1400gms) • 0.3 to 0.5% of total brain • Sherrington regarded as head ganglion of ANS • Nauta describes as the nodal region in the maintenance of homeostais4/18/2014 3
  • 4. 2. Boundaries 4/18/2014 4
  • 5. 3. Relations • Anteriorly: LaminaTerminalis • Laterally: Internal Capsule & ventral thalmus • Medially: ependymal lining of 3rd ventricle • Posteriorly: Ventral thalamus via tegmentum of midbrain • Superiorly: Dorsal Thalamus 4/18/2014 5
  • 6. Inferior Relation 4/18/2014 6
  • 7. 4/18/2014 7 4.
  • 8. 4/18/2014 8 5.
  • 9. 4/18/2014 9
  • 10. 4/18/2014 10
  • 11. 6. Region wise descriptions of Nuclei A. Preoptic Region: Lies anterior to hypothalamus along with lamina terminalis between optic chiasma & ant.commissure 4/18/2014 11
  • 12. B. Supra optic Region: 1. Supra optic Nucleus: Medail, lateral and periventricular part. It is Sexually dimorphic Nuclei. 2. Suprachiasmatic: Involves circadian rhythm 3. Anterior Nucleus: Thirst Center 4. Paraventricular 4/18/2014 12
  • 13. C. Tuberal Region 1. Arcuate or infundibular nucleus: composed of small neurons. Controls emontional behaviours and endocrine function 2. Ventromedial: Satiety centre 3. Ventrolateral 4. Lateral nucleus: feedin centre 4/18/2014 13
  • 14. D. Mamillary Region 1. Mamillary bodies: i) Medial intercalated N.: small neurons. Forms the bulk of mamillary bodies. ii) Lateral intercalated N.: Receive termination of fornix and provide origin to mamilothalamic tract and mamilotegmental tract 1. Posterior hypothalamic nucleus 4/18/2014 14
  • 15. 4/18/2014 15
  • 16. 4/18/2014 16
  • 17. Afferent Connections S.N. Afferent Tracts Origin Termination 1. Retinothalamic Ganglion cells of Retina Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 2. Inferior mamillary peduncle Tegmentl nuclei of midbrain Mamillary 3. Thalamo- hypothalamic Dorsomedial & midline thalamic nuclei Lateral & posterior hypothalamus 4 Pallidohypothala mic Lentiform nucleus Ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei 5 Cerebello- hypothalamic Deep nuclei of cerebellum Ventral & posterior nuclei of hypothalamus 6 Prefrontal hypothalamic Orbitofrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex Prefrontal cortex 4/18/2014 17
  • 18. Efferent Connections S.N. Afferent Tracts Origin Termination 1 Hypothalamo- hypophysial tract Supraoptic & paraventricular Nuclei Neurohypophysis 2 Tuberohypophysial tract Arcuate & periventricular Median eminence & infundibular stalk 3 Hypothalamo- cerebellar fibers Laterar & posterior hypothalamus Deep cerebellar cortex 4 Mamillothalamic fibers Mamillary body Anterior thalamic nucleus 5 Mamillotegmental fibers Mamillary body Tegmental nuclei of midbrain 6 Descending autonomic fibers Paraventricular nucleus,lateral hypothalamic area, postrior hypothalamus Autonomic cranial nerve nuclei & spinal cord nuclei 7 Hypothalamic prefrontal Posterior hypothalamus, Tuberal hypothalamus, Anterior hypothalamus Prefrontal cortex 4/18/2014 18
  • 19. Both Afferent & efferent connections S.N. Pathways Origin Termination 1 Stria Terminalis Amygdaloid nucleus. Preoptic & arcuate nuclei Preoptic &arcus nuclei. Amygdaloid nucleus 2 Fornix Hippocampal formation. Mamillary body Mamillary body. Hippocampal formation 3 Ventral amygdalofugal fibers Amygdaloid nucleus. Lateral hypothalamic nucleus Lateral hypothalamic nucleus. Amygdaloid nucleus 4 Medial forebrain bundle Amygdala, premotor cortex,frontal cortex. Lateral hypothalamus Lateral hypothalamus. Septal nuclei, tegmental nuclei, periaquductal gray matter of midbrain 5 Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of schutz periaquductal gray matter of midbrain. Medial hypothalamus Medial hypothalamus. periaquductal gray matter of midbrain. 4/18/2014 19
  • 20. Major connections 4/18/2014 20
  • 21. 4/18/2014 21
  • 22. Hypothalamo-hypophysial tract • The hypothalamus is a neuroendocrine area which acts as a "transducer" to convert neuronal activity into hormonal secretions 4/18/2014 22
  • 23. Hypothalamus and Anterior Pitutary • GHRH • FSHRH • LHRH • GnRH 4/18/2014 23
  • 24. 4/18/2014 24
  • 25. 4/18/2014 25
  • 26. Functions: 1. Controls posterior pitutary • It controls neurohypophysis through hypothalamo- hypophyseal tract. • Approx. 100,000 nonmyelinated fibers extend from the SON & PVN of the hypothalamus to the fenestrated capilary bed of the neurohupophysis. • These fibers convey 2 peptide hormones; ADH & oxytocin 4/18/2014 26
  • 27. 2. Controls anterior pitutary • Several trophic factors or hormones are released that influence the production of hormones in adenohypophysis. 4/18/2014 27
  • 28. 4/18/2014 28
  • 29. Hormones Released 4/18/2014 29
  • 30. 4/18/2014 31
  • 31. Neuro-secretory cells 1. Receive and process stimuli from all parts of the CNS, 2. Conduct action potentials along their axons, and 3. Synthesize and release hormones into the circulatory system. 4. produce peptide prohormones by mRNA on ribosomes in their nerve cell bodies, and then convert these prohormones to active hormones during the process of axoplasmic transport along axon filaments. 5. They store the hormones in vesicular granules at their axon terminals until depolarization of the plasma membrane causes exocytosis. 4/18/2014 32
  • 32. 3. Autonomic regulation • It controls brain stem & spinal cord autonomic centers. • Autonomic influence is mediated by dorsal longitudinal fasciculus & mamilothalamic tract • Rostral & medial hypothalamus is concerned with parasympathetic control • Caudal & lateral hypothalamus is concerned with sympathetic control mechanism. 4/18/2014 33
  • 33. 4. Temperature regulation • contains thermal recepters which is sensetive to changes in the body temperature of blood perfusing these regions. • Anterior regions of hypothalamus is are sensetive to rise in blood temperature. • B/L damage to this regions results hyperthermia 4/18/2014 34
  • 34. 5. Emotional behavior • Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus is related to emotional behavior. 6. Feeding Behavior: Ventro medial Nucleus…feeding centre Dorsomedial nucleus….satiety centre Anterior & lateral region…thirst centre 4/18/2014 35
  • 35. 7. Sleep & awakefulness • Anterior part of hypothalamus….sleep centre • Posterior… waking centre 8. Biological clock or circadian Rhythm: • Through the connections of the suprachiasmatic nucleus with the retina and brain, it reghulates the circadian rhythm loke sleep-wake cycle, hormonal cycle etc. • So suprachiasmatic nucleus is also refered as endogenous pacemaker 4/18/2014 36
  • 36. 9. Memory • Through its connections with the hippocampal formation & anterior thalamic nucleus, the mamillary body of hypothalamus plays a role in memory 10. Sexual arousal: • Medial preoptic nucleus is concerned with the sexual arousal to erotic stimuli. • It size is double in case of male than in female. • So it is also refered as sexually dimerfic nucleus 4/18/2014 37
  • 37. Blood supply Perforating brach of 1. Anterior communicating artery & anterior cerebral artery…. i) Preoptic & supraoptic region ii) Rostral part of lateral hypothalamus 2. posterior communicating artery & posterior cerebral artery…. i) Tuberal & mamillary regions ii) Middle & posterior part of lateral hypothalamus 4/18/2014 38
  • 38. 4/18/2014 39
  • 39. Circumventricular Organs 4/18/2014 40
  • 40. Clinical Anatomy 1. Disorder of water balance A. Diabetes inspidius • It results due to lesions that destroy the majority of the neurons of SON & PVN. • Or due to interuption of the hypothalamo-hypophusial tract • Decreased ADH results polyurea B. SIADH ( Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH) Due to lesions in SON & PVN that impair hypothalamic osmoreceptors resulting increased ADH release. So concentrated urine is excreted 4/18/2014 41
  • 41. 2. Disorders of Thermoreghulation i) Hypothermia: posterior pituitary lesion ii) Hyperthermis: related to lesion of ventomedial nucleus iii) Poikilothermia: fluctuation of body temperature. It is due to B/L posterior hypothalamic lesion 4/18/2014 42
  • 42. 3. Disorders of caloric balance i) Diencephalic syndrome of infancy or Russell syndrome or Batten- Russel- Collier Disease • It is characterised by progressive emanciation during the first year of life despite of a reasonable food intake • It is due to slowly growing tumor affecting the hypothalamus • Other lesion of anterior nucleus can produce the syndrome. ii) Frohlich syndrome or Babinski-Frohlich syndrome or Dystrophia –Adiposogenitalis • Obesity….due to lesion of ventrolateral nucleus ( satiety center) • Genital hypoplasia… due to involvement of infundibulum • Stunted growth4/18/2014 43
  • 43. 4. Disorders of emotional behavior • Ventromedial nucleus lesion have been associated with Rage • Posterior nucleus lesion is related to fear and apathy • Stimulation of lateral region of anterior nucleus elicits flight response 4/18/2014 44
  • 44. 5. Disorders of sleep • Waking centre is in posterior nucleus. So lesion on it produce lethargy and hypersomnia. • Sleep centre is in anterior nucleus. So lesion on it produces insomnia. 4/18/2014 45
  • 45. 6. kleine-Levin Syndrome It is characterised by • Episodic compulsive eating (bulimia)……..predominently seen in females • Hypersomnolence • Hypersexuality… predominently seen in adult males It is due to lesion of medial nucleus of hypothalamus 4/18/2014 46
  • 46. 7. Disorders of Memory • Lesion of posterior nucleus are associated with inability to memorise the recent event. • Connections of mamillary body with hippocampus vai fornix and with anterior nucleus of thalamus via mamillothalamic tract is interrupted. 4/18/2014 47
  • 47. 4/18/2014 48

×