Metabolic disorders of livestock ppt.

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Metabolic disorders of livestock ppt.

  1. 1. METABOLIC DISORDERS OF LIVESTOCK Inborn errors of metabolism occur from a group of rare genetic disorders Disorders caused by defects in the enzymes
  2. 2. PASTURE BLOAT  • Cause  – High legume pastures produce more foam  • Heavy foam traps gasses
  3. 3. ENTEROTOXEMIA (OVER-EATING DISEASE) • Cause – Toxin produced by clostridium perfringens bacteria that grow when fed high energy feeds or lush pastures • Symptoms – Sudden death – Can be prevented by vaccination
  4. 4. GRASS TETANY (GRASS STAGGERS) • Cause – Low blood Mg and in many cases low blood Ca – Cattle grazing on lush grass pastures in latter stages of gestation or early lactation • Symptoms – Nervousness, staggering, convulsi ons, coma and death
  5. 5. KETOSIS • Cause – CHO- low blood sugar – High energy demand pulls down fat reserves rapidly • Symptoms – Loss of appetite, acetone (sweetish chloroformlike smell) odor from milk, urine and breath
  6. 6.  Night Blindness  • Cause  – Vitamin A deficiency  • Symptoms  • Roughened hair and scaly skin with mild deficiency  • Prolonged deficiency leads to poor vision in dim  light and eye ulceration  Nitrate poisoning  • Cause  – Excessive levels of nitrate plant material  • Symptoms  – Bluish coloration of membranes, staggering,  shortness of breath and death
  7. 7. LIVER ABSCESSES  • Cause  – High concentrate rations  • Symptoms  – Symptoms include reduced feed intake and gain  – Can be prevented with antibiotics  Pregnancy disease of ewes  • Cause  – Ewes carrying twins or triplets in the last 6  weeks of gestation  – Insufficient CHO - low blood sugar  • Symptoms  – Ketosis in sheep
  8. 8. PARTURIENT PARESIS MILK FEVER, HYPOCALEMIA • Cause – Low blood Calcium – Usually occurs within 72 hours following parturition – Ewes in the latter stages of gestation • Symptoms – Loss of appetite, nervousness, collapse, head turned back toward flank
  9. 9. NUTRITIONAL SECONDARY HYPER- PARATHYROIDISM It is nutritional/ metabolic disorder caused by elevation of parathyroid hormone (PTH), usually secondary to poor nutrition. All meat or all grain diet is rich in P which is responsible for this disorder. Low calcium and Vitamin D and malabsorption also cause hypocalcaemia. Increased PTH causes bone resorption, & Ca, thus, mobilized is transferred to extra-cellular fluid. Depletion of bone osteoid leads to deformities, fractures and loss of structural support.
  10. 10. DISPLACED ABOMASUM  .. Refers to repositioning of abomasal  compartment from the right ventral  abdominal wall  .. Twisting from this repositioning slows or stops  flow of digesta  .. Gas buildup leads to bloat appearance  .. “Pinging” detected with stethoscope by thumping the  cow near the last rib and listening on the left flank  .. 85-90% left-sided  .. Right-sided more complete torsion  .. 75% occur within 1st 14 days postcalving  .. Rare in heifers  Abomasum = A  Rumen = B  C = Omasum  Abomasum = A  Rumen = B  C = Omasum  D = Liver
  11. 11.  Symptoms of DA  􀂄 Dramatically decreased feed intake  􀂄 Drastic drop in milk production  􀂄 Pain (stand with back arched)  􀂄 Can diagnose by “thumping” near last  rib and listening along left flank  Causes and Risk Factors  􀂄 Space in abdominal cavity  􀂄 Decreased feed intake  􀂄 Sudden ration changes  􀂄 􀂄 Hypocalcemia allows stagnant gut and gas  buildup in abomasum  􀂄 High grain feeding (high VFA production)  prior to proper rumen papillae development  􀂄 Over 2/3 of cases are preceded by a different  metabolic disorder  􀂄 Cows with high condition scores at parturition  are more prone to displacements
  12. 12. DISPLACED ABOMASUM  􀂄 When abomasal attachments stretch during  pregnancy, this may increase risk for  developing a DA  􀂄 Genetics of the animal may also affect the  predisposition to this disorder  􀂄 Resting positions may affect risk for DA  􀂄 Resting on left side reduces risk of LDA relative to  resting on right side  Non-surgical treatment  􀂄 Removal of gas from abomasum  􀂄 Rolling cow over, taking on rough trailer ride  􀂄 Tethering of right hind leg  􀂄 87% recovery rate  Prevention  􀂄 Prevent other metabolic diseases  􀂄 Cows should be in proper body condition at  parturition  􀂄 Cows fed to encourage maximal intake  􀂄 Prevent hypocalcemia  􀂄 Encourage cows to lie on left side  􀂄 Cows lie with hooves downhill  􀂄 Stall/Barn design may affect incidence
  13. 13. HEMORRHAGIC BOWEL SYNDROME(HBS)  􀂄 Newly emerging, highly fatal intestinal disease  􀂄 Sudden, progressive & occasionally massive hemorrhage into small  intestine with formation of blood clots that cause obstruction  􀂄 Affected areas of intestine become necrotic  􀂄 Most commonly seen in adult cows early in lactation  􀂄 Cause of HBS is unknown  􀂄 Maybe associated with Clostridium perfringens type A  􀂄 Treatment is difficult and often unsuccessful  􀂄 Medical therapy: fluids, laxatives, antibiotics and anti- inflammatory  drugs  􀂄 Surgical excision of affected bowel  􀂄 There is no current control measures; unsure of pathogenesis of  disease
  14. 14. MILK FEVER  􀂄 Hypocalcemia  􀂄 Ca mobilization unable to keep up with demand  􀂄 Calcium moves from blood to mammary gland  􀂄 􀂄 Requires increased absorption of calcium from feed  􀂄 Requires increased resorption of calcium from bone  􀂄 Associated with blood changes  􀂄 Hypophosphatemia  􀂄 Hypermagnesemia  􀂄 Hyperglycemia  􀂄 Most cases in first 24 hours post-calving  􀂄 Higher frequency in older cows  􀂄 Higher frequency in Jerseys  Symptoms  .. No fever, ears and teats actually become  hypothermic  .... Loss of appetite  .. Feed remains in rumen, calcium is essential for gut  motility  .. Pulse and respiration rate increase  .. Milk fever is 100% fatal if untreated  .. After treatment, secondary problems may occur  .. Degeneration of muscle, nerve paralysis from laying too  long  .. Injuries from staggering and falling
  15. 15. MASTITIS  Pathogens colonize mammary gland  􀂄 Spread by milking machines, milkers & cow to  cow  􀂄 Streptococcus agalactiae  􀂄 Streptococcus dysgalactiae  􀂄 Staphylococcus aureus  􀂄 Mycoplasma bovis  Important to maintain sanitary conditions  Mastitis Signs and Symptoms  􀂄 Acute mastitis  􀂄 Udder is hot, very hard, and tender  􀂄 Increase in temperature, refusal to eat, dull eyes,  􀂄 Increase in blood proteins and leukocytes in  mammary tissue and milk  􀂄 Blood vessels greatly dilated  􀂄 Milk ducts compressed  􀂄 Treatments more likely to be unsuccessful under these  conditions
  16. 16.  Mastitis  􀂄 Sphincter open in high- pathogen environment  􀂄 Neutrophil function compromised by low Ca  􀂄 Increases risk of ketosis  􀂄 Depression of feed intake is long-term  􀂄 Dystocia  􀂄 Pre-calving hypocalcemia  􀂄 No uterine contractions  􀂄 Uterine prolapse  Incomplete first milking  .. Increased incidence of mastitis  .. Preventative feeding strategies  .. Limit calcium intake during dry period  .. Not practical  .. Limit potassium intake in forages fed to dry cows  .. More important  .. By increasing concentration of anions in diet, it  becomes acidogenic  .. Decreases blood pH, much less susceptible to milk fever  .. Increases calcium resorption from bone  .. Reduces severity of hypocalcemia
  17. 17. FACTORS AFFECTING RISK OF MASTITIS  .. Majority of new infections occur during:  .. First three weeks of dry period  .. Milk left in udder  .. First month after parturition  .. Immune system compromised  .. Frequency of milking affects risk of  infection  .. Pathogen load decreased by evacuating  milk more frequently
  18. 18. TREATMENT  􀂄 Slow infusion of calcium intravenously  􀂄 Rapid delivery will cause heart to stop  􀂄 Some animals need second treatment 8 hours after the  first treatment  􀂄 Some herds regularly use oral calcium gels at  calving to improve calcium status  􀂄 Calcium chloride problematic  􀂄 Calcium propionate preferred  􀂄 Can be used as stand-alone treatment, in conjunction with  IV calcium, or as prevention  Cows with milk fever will typically tuck their head back  against their flank (Courtesy of University of IllCows with milk fever will typically tuck their head back  against their flank (Courtesy of University of llinois)inois)
  19. 19. PREVENTION  􀂄 Clean and dry environment  􀂄 Clean and dry teats at milking  􀂄 Teat dips (pre- and post- milking)  􀂄 Properly maintained equipment  􀂄 Early identification  􀂄 Prompt treatment  Teat dips are only effective if adequate coverage of all teats is  accomplished (Courtesy of Mark Kirkpa Teat dips are only effective if adequate coverage of all teats is accomplished (Courtesy of Mark Kirkpatrick)
  20. 20. LAMINITIS  .. Separation of epidermal laminae from dermal laminae of hoof  .. Causes in cattle include:  .. Carbohydrate overload, metritis, ketosis, mastitis and a heritable form in  Jerseys.  .. Foot rot or hoof damage and secondary infection can result in laminitis in cattle  (Bacteroides nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum )  .. Typical Clinical Findings:  .. Pain, lameness, abnormal stance, reluctance to move  .. Pounding digital pulses, increased temperature of hoof wall  .. Typical Gross Findings:  .. Acute: Swelling of coronary band  .. Chronic: Circumferential hoof rings, altered hoof growth, flattened sole,  penetration of third phalanx through sole, depressed coronary band
  21. 21. FOUNDER (LAMINITIS)  • Cause  – Overeating grain, digestive disturbances, lush  Pasture  • Symptoms  – Extreme pain, reluctance to move, excessive  hoof/toe growth
  22. 22. THANKYOU FOR ATTENTION
  23. 23. PRESENTED BY:DR.IRFAN BHATTI PRESENTED TO:DR.JAMIL AHMAD CLASS :DVM(IST SEMMESTER) DEPT.BZU,COLLEGE OF VERINARY SCIENCES LAYYAH. E.MAIL:BZUVETSCARECLUBLAYYAH@YAHO O.COM

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