Histology of male reproductive system
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Histology of male reproductive system Histology of male reproductive system Presentation Transcript

  • HISTOLOGY OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Dr. GURUDASAN 31.03.14
  • INTRODUCTION 31-03-2014 2  The male reproductive system consists of the two testes (the male gonads), a system of genital ducts, accessory glands, and the penis. Testes Epididymis Penis with urethra Ejaculatory duct Seminal vesicle Ductus deferens Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland
  • TESTES 31-03-2014 3  Each testis is an oval structure housed in its separate compartment within the scrotum.  The tunica albuginea, the fibromuscular connective tissue capsule of the testis, is thickened at the mediastinum testis, from which septa are derived to subdivide the testis into approximately 250 small, incomplete compartments, known as the lobuli testis.Tunica albuginea Lobuli testis Septae Mediastinum testis
  • COVERINGS OF TESTES 31-03-2014 4  It is covered from outside inwards by I) Tunica Vaginalis II) Tunica albuginea III) Tunica vasculosa
  • TESTES (CONTD...) 31-03-2014 5  Each lobule contains 1 to 3 tightly coiled tubules, the seminiferous tubules.  Each seminiferous tubules is about 30- 70cm long and 200μm in diameter.  In between seminiferous tubules there is presence of loose connective tissue and blood vessels.  Interstial tissue contains interstitial cells (Leydig Tunica albuginea Tunica vasculosa Septum Interstitial Connective tissue Interstitial Cells (Leydig Cells) Seminiferous tubule
  • TESTES (CONTD...) 31-03-2014 6
  • TESTES (CONTD...) Seminiferous tubule:  The seminiferous tubules are lined by complex stratified epithelium which consists of two major class of cells I) Supporting cells (sertoli cells) II) Spermatogenic cells  It is surrounded by layer of connective tissue. 31-03-2014 7 connective tissue Spermatogenic cells Sertoli cells
  • TESTES (CONTD...) Sertoli cells:  Tall columnar cells extending from basal lamina to free epithelial surface.  They have irregular outlines as they have lateral processes which surround spermatogenic cells. 31-03-2014 8
  • FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS  Support: provides structural and metablic support to spermatogenic cells  Protection and nutrition  Phagocytosis: phagocytose excess cytoplasm which is shed from differentiating spermatids during spermiogenesis.  Secretion: I) Some components of testicular fluid II) Secrete androgen binding proteins which help in concentration of testosterone III) Secrete inhibin that inhibits FSH secretion from pituitary  Form blood – testes barrier 31-03-2014 9
  • BLOOD – TESTES BARRIER  Adjacent sertoli cells are joined together by tight junction through their basal cytoplasmic processes over spermatogonia.  These tight junctions form blood-testes barrier.  The blood-testes barrier prevents entry of harmful substances from blood affecting developing sperms and at the same time preventing sperms related proteins to enter circulation. 31-03-2014 10 blood-testes barrier
  • SPERMATOGENIC CELLS  It is arranged as complex stratified epithelium which consists of stem cells (spermatogonia) at the base of the epithelium.  The other cells are arranged in the order of development. i.e spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa.  This process of differentiation of spermatogonia to spermatozoa is called spermiogenesis. It takes 31-03-2014 11
  • SPERMATOGONIA  These are immature spermatogenic cells lying on the basement membrane of seminiferous tubule. Spermatogonia (Mitosis) 31-03-2014 12 Type A spermatogonia Type B spermatogonia Serve as stem cell Of Germinal epithelium Undergo maturation to form primary spermatocyte s
  • PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES  These are largest germ cells occupying the middle region of seminiferous tubule.  They have large nucleus with coarse chromatin clumps. Primary spermatocytes (I Meiotic division) 31-03-2014 13 Secondary spermatocytes (Haploid no. of chromosomes)
  • SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES  Are smaller in size with their nuclei having less dense chromatin. Secondary spermatocytes (II Meiotic division) Spermatids (Haploid no.of chromosomes) 31-03-2014 14
  • SPERMATIDS  They are much smaller and lie in groups in sertoli cells.  With the formation of spermatids the first phase of spermatogenesis i.e spermatocytogenesis is completed.  II Phase (Spermiogenesis): Spermatids (Non – motile) Motile spermatozoa 31-03-2014 15
  • SPERMIOGENESIS 31-03-2014 16 Process of spermiogenesis: I) Formation of acrosomal cap from golgi apparatus covering nucleu II) Condensation and elongation of nucleus III) Formation of flagellum from centrioles IV) Formation of helical mitochondrial sheath V) Casting off excess cytoplasm
  • INTERSTITIAL TISSUE AND CELLS 31-03-2014 17 Interstitial tissue Interstitial Cells (Leydig cells)  Interstitial tissue is a delicate vascular connective tissue that surrounds and supports the seminiferous tubule and is continuo with tunica vasculosa of testes at the periphery.  It contains specialised endocrine cells called leydig cells which secrete testosterone.
  • TESTES (PANORAMIC VIEW) 31-03-2014 18
  • GENITAL DUCTS  Genital ducts conduct sperms to urethra.  They are I) Epididymis II) Ductus deferens III) Ejaculatory duct 31-03-2014 19 Epididymis Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct
  • EPIDIDYMIS  It is a comma shaped structure on the posterolateral aspect of testes.  It is 6m long, highly coiled and supported by vascular connective tissue.  It is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium.  It consists of two types of cells I) Tall columnar principle cells 31-03-2014 20 Epididymis
  • EPIDIDYMIS 31-03-2014 21 Sperm Pseudostratified epithelium Principle cells Basal cells Smooth muscles Stereocilia  Tall columnar principle cells bear microvilli called stereocilia whi are involved in both secretion and absorption.  Beneath the epithelium there is a circularly arranged smooth muscle fibres.
  • EPIDIDYMIS - FUNCTIONS  Storage of spermatozoa – Epididymis is so long that it takes a month for the sperm to make the journey.  Smooth muscles in the wall contracts rhythmically during ejaculation to move the sperm along.  Epithelial cells are phagocytic and degenerate the sperms and residual bodies.  Maturation of spermatozoa – they become motile  Absorption of testicular fluid – 90% of testicular fluid is absorbed here. 31-03-2014 22
  • EPIDIDYMIS – PANORAMIC VIEW 31-03-2014 23
  • DUCTUS DEFERENS  It is a thick muscular tube extending from the tail of epididymis to prostatic urethra.  The distal end of ductus deferens is dilated to form ampulla which joins with duct of seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct.  Ductus deferens is also called vas deferens. 31-03-2014 24
  • 31-03-2014 25 Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Ductus deferens Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Ampulla Ejaculatory duct pierces the prostate and opens into prostatic ureth Ductus deferens consists of three coats I) Mucosa II) Muscular layer III) Adventitia
  • DUCTUS DEFERENS 31-03-2014 26 Mucosa Mucosa – It is irregular star shaped and is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia. Lamina propria contains collagen and elastic fibres. Muscle layer – Inner and outer longitudinal, middle circular Adventitia – fibroelastic CT with blood vessels and nerves
  • DUCTUS DEFERENS 31-03-2014 27
  • ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS  These glands are androgen dependant organs whose secretions provide medium for transport and nourishment of sperms and constitute the bulk of semen (Seminal fluid).  They are I) Seminal vesicle (Accounts for 30% of seminal fluid) II) Prostate gland (Accounts for 60% of seminal fluid) III) Bulbourethral glands (Accounts for 10% of seminal fluid) 31-03-2014 28
  • SEMINAL VESICLE  These are paired glands present at the base of urinary bladder.  Each gland is elongated blind tube (12-15cm)  Secretes thick yellow viscous alkaline fluid rich in fructose that nourishes the sperm. It also contains ascorbic acid and prostaglandin. 31-03-2014 29It is made up of three coats I) Mucosa II) Muscle layer III) Adventitia
  • SEMINAL VESICLE 31-03-2014 30
  • PROSTATE GLAND 31-03-2014 31 Prostate gland Seminal vesicle Urinary bladder It is present at the begining of male urethra It is of the size of chestnut. It is 20g in weight.
  • PROSTATE GLAND  Histologically prostate consists of parenchyma (tubulo-alveolar glands) and a characteristic fibromuscular stroma.  Glandular parenchyma: - Formed by irregular prostatic alveoli with wide lumen. - Secretory lining of alveoli varies from cuboidal to columnar depending upon activity. 31-03-2014 32 Glandular parenchymaFibromuscular stroma
  • PROSTATE GLAND 31-03-2014 33  The lumen contains spherical prostatic concretions or corpora amylacea which are formed by condensation of prostatic secretio  The number of concretions increase with age and may become calcified. Corpora amylacea
  • 31-03-2014 34 Fibromuscular stroma:  It supports the parenchyma and is made of smooth muscle fibres mixed with connective tissue fibres running in different directions.  The stroma also contains blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves. Fibromuscular stroma with blood vessels
  • PROSTATIC URETHRA (GROSS FEATURES) 31-03-2014 35
  • PROSTATIC URETHRA  It is crescent shaped with many diverticula.  It is lined by transitional epithelium in the upper part and stratified columnar in the lower part.  Other structures: Prostate also contains a pair of ejaculatory duct and a single prostatic utricle ( Uterus masculinus) 31-03-2014 36 Prostatic urethra Ejaculatory Prostatic utricle
  • PROSTATE GLAND (PANORAMIC VIEW) 31-03-2014 37
  • PROSTATE GLAND (PANORAMIC VIEW) 31-03-2014 38 PC Fibromuscular stroma Prostatic concretions Glandular parenchyma Fibro muscular stroma
  • BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS  These glands are 2 in number and are of the size of a pea.  They lie in deep perineal pouch and secrete mucus like fluid that lubricates penile urethra before ejaculation. 31-03-2014 39 Bulbourethral glands
  • BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS 31-03-2014 40
  • PENIS 31-03-2014 41
  • CLINICAL ANATOMY  Immotile cilia syndrome: Normally Sperms are highly motile in female genital tract, in this condition sperms are unable to move and reach ampulla of fallopian tube for ferilisation and it results in infertility in men. 31-03-2014 42
  • CLINICAL ANATOMY  Undescended testes: Normally testes should lie in scrotum where the temperature is lesser than the basal body temperature. And this is conducive for spermatogenesis. In this condition infertility results due to failure in the descent of testes 31-03-2014 43
  • CLINICAL ANATOMY  Benign prostatic hypertrophy: The glandular tissue of prostate start proliferating after 40-45 years of age in some individuals Compression of prostatic urethra Difficulty in voiding urine 31-03-2014 44
  • CLINICAL ANATOMY  Adenocarcinoma of prostate: It arises from the glandular tissue of the prostate gland. Surgical removal is preferred. 31-03-2014 45
  • CLINICAL ANATOMY  Vasectomy: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilisation and/or permanent birth control. During the procedure, the vas deferentia of a man are severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner such to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate).  For men who still have option to have children, cryopreservation of sperm (sperm banking) is advised 31-03-2014 46 For human sperm, the longest reported successful storage is 21 years. (Source: Wikipedia)
  • CLINICAL ANATOMY  Impotence: It is the inability to achieve and maintain erection to perform sexual intercourse. It may be temporary or permanent. Temporary impotence may be due to drugs or psychological factors. Permanent is due to any lesion in hypothalamus, spinal cord or ANS or due to any systemic illnesses. 31-03-2014 47
  • 31-03-2014 48 THANK YOU