S p o n S o r e d b y:                                                                   The Commonwealth Fund            ...
ContentsAcknowledgments ● 2Meeting Attendees ● 4Planning Committee ● 6Letter from Donald M. Berwick, MD, Administrator,  C...
AcknowledgmentsA     s the patient centered medical home expands      its reach in dozens of demonstration and pilot progr...
Access                                                 Health ITPresenter:                                             Pre...
Meeting AttendeesChristine Bechtel,Vice President,                       Kevin Grumbach, MD*, Professor and Chair, Univers...
David K. Nace, MD*, Vice President and Medical               John Tooker, MD, M.B.A., F.A.C.P.,Director, McKesson Corporat...
Planning CommitteeMelinda K. Abrams, MS, Vice President,                   Rosemarie Sweeney, Vice President,The Commonwea...
Dear Colleagues:As you may know, the topic of patient-centered care is dear to my heart. I believe—that, of thesix IOM Aim...
Preface“W     hat do you want health care to become?”       was the question that opened discussionamong a group of nation...
Each week during an hour-long call, the planning          planning committee members in attendance verycommittee convened ...
IntroductionT  he U.S. health care system is in crisis. Health   care spending in the U.S. dwarfs that of otherindustriali...
toward preparing the delivery system for planned                  improving both the quality and efficiency ofMedicaid exp...
for a defined population at lower total costs.        success can be attributed to the hard work by     This report summar...
Value Driving Elements  of Health ReformThis paper summarizes a brief prepared by Melinda K. Abrams, MS,            and a ...
PCMHs, ACOs and access                                                          compromise quality of care. An estimated 4...
Electronic Access to Care:                                                                  Evidence Shows Improvements in...
significantly improved.12,13,14 Overall, continuity                         intensive care unit days and 28 percent lessof...
how much the racial and ethnic disparities in                  whether patients’ access to care improves.access to care, q...
to include consumers in design of demonstration     Policy Action item(s):                                projects. Incent...
Once this framework is determined, there is a needto assign which caregivers constitute the accessteam and to define the r...
Care coordination is the deliberate organization                                                                       of ...
Care coordination and primary care                                        In this conceptual model, primary care serves aC...
The integrative function–interpreting with patients                         He also explained the synergistic relationship...
For patients with chronic conditions, particularly                          In addition, disease management services provi...
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
Better to Best Patient Centered Medical  Home
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Better to best -- consensus meeting between large employers, HHS, CMS, DOD OPM, hospitals, Primary care association, AMA, healthcare plans around the elements that add value in the Patient Centered medical home. coordination of care, access to care Health information technology and payment reform.

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Better to Best Patient Centered Medical Home

  1. 1. S p o n S o r e d b y: The Commonwealth Fund Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative Better to Best Value-Driving Elements of the Patient Centered Medical Home and Accountable Care Organizations MARCH 2011  WAsHIngTOn, D.C. AThis report was written and produced by Health2 Resources with funding provided by the Milbank Memorial Fund
  2. 2. ContentsAcknowledgments ● 2Meeting Attendees ● 4Planning Committee ● 6Letter from Donald M. Berwick, MD, Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ● 7Preface ● 8Introduction ● 10Enhanced Access to Medical Homes and Implications for ACOs ● 13 Discussion and Action Items ● 17Better Care Coordination ● 20 Discussion and Action Items ● 26Better Health IT ● 28 Discussion and Action Items ● 33Payment Reform for Primary Care Services ● 35 Discussion and Action Items ● 39Closing Discussion, Group Consensus and Action Items ● 41
  3. 3. AcknowledgmentsA s the patient centered medical home expands its reach in dozens of demonstration and pilot programs nationwide, much attention has been to support the Triple Aim: Better care for individuals; better health for the community; and reduce, or at least control, the per capita cost of care. paid to its proven worth in well-known models, measured in improved outcomes and lowered This document is a result of that meeting, and is costs. But a number of questions remain as to the intended to activate participants and the broader medical home’s value as it is applied more broadly. health care transformation audience to pursue Will a focus on the value-driving elements of the the recommendations and action items brought medical home–care coordination, access, new forward to effect needed change. We would like payment models that reward positive outcomes, to thank Katherine H. Capps and her colleagues and the meaningful use of health IT–enable its at Health2 Resources who led the planning com- more rapid expansion and greater return on mittee, managed and produced the meeting, investment? And what will be the role of the medi- invited speakers and participants and produced cal home as accountable care organizations enter this document. the marketplace, spurred by rewards promised in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act? For their contributions at the Consensus Meeting, How can health care leaders plan now to firmly we would first like to thank Don Berwick, MD, head establish the medical home within the greater of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services,“medical neighborhood” of the ACO? for providing inspiration and a framework to reach consensus. We are also grateful to our moderator,These questions spurred a “meeting of the minds” Susan Denzter, for her gracious and informedof the leadership of health plans, business member- leadership, and to Diane R. Rittenhouse, MD, M.P H., .ship organizations, consumer groups, academia, for writing the foreword. Much gratitude is alsofederal health entities and policymakers as they extended to the subject matter experts who con-met September 8, 2010 for a high-level, invitation- tributed the topic research papers that served asonly discussion about transforming health care. the background reading in preparation for theHosted by the Patient-Centered Primary Care meeting, and to the presenters who crystallized keyCollaborative (PCPCC) and sponsored by The topic points and kicked off discussion around eachCommonwealth Fund and the Dartmouth Institute topic. This was an amazing collaborative effort,for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, the one-day and we are grateful to those who offered theirConsensus Meeting fostered frank dialogue and time and expertise; the names of the presentersrobust discussion. By the end of the day, this group and contributors are listed at the right.of accomplished and nationally recognized busi-ness, health care industry and thought leaders sat Thanks also are extended to our report sponsor,shoulder-to-shoulder in a powerful demonstration of Milbank Memorial Fund, and for the contributionssolidarity to see the medical home and ACOs work that made this report possible.Paul Grundy, MD, M.P H., . Karen Davis, Ph.D., President, Elliott S. Fisher, MD, M.P. H., Director,PCPCC President, and IBM’s The Commonwealth Fund Center for Population Health,Global Director of Healthcare Dartmouth Institute for Health PolicyTransformation and Clinical Practice2
  4. 4. Access Health ITPresenter: Presenter:Karen Davis, Ph.D., president, David K. Nace, MD, Vice President and MedicalThe Commonwealth Fund Director, McKesson Corporation and member of the PCPCC board of directorsBriefing document authors:Melinda Abrams, MS, vice president, Briefing document authors:The Commonwealth Fund John E. Jenrette, MD, Chief Executive and Medical Officer, Sharp Community Medical GroupGeorgette Lawlor, program associate forpatient-centered coordinated care, David K. Nace, MD, Vice President and MedicalThe Commonwealth Fund Director, McKesson CorporationSteve Schoenbaum, MD, M.P H., executive vice . Adrienne White, M.B.A., B.S.M.T., A.S.C.P Managing .,president for programs, The Commonwealth Fund Consultant, IBM Global Business Services, Healthcare- Practice Business Analytics and Optimization,Karen Davis, Ph.D., president, IBM CorporationThe Commonwealth FundCare Coordination Payment Reform Presenters:Presenters: Allan H. Goroll, MD, Professor of Medicine, HarvardElliott S. Fisher, MD, M.P H., Director, Center for . Medical School; Chair, Massachusetts Coalition forPopulation Health, Dartmouth Institute for Health Primary Care ReformPolicy and Clinical Practice Diane R. Rittenhouse, MD, M.P H., Associate Professor, .Kevin Grumbach, MD, Professor and Chair, University Department of Family and Community Medicineof California, San Francisco, Department of Family and Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies,and Community Medicine; Chief, Family and University of California, San FranciscoCommunity Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital Briefing document authors:Briefing document authors: Thomas Bodenheimer, MD, Professor in FamilyDavid Meyers, MD, Director, Center for Primary Care, Medicine, University of California, San FranciscoPrevention and Clinical Partnership, Agency forHealthcare Research and Quality Allan H. Goroll, MD, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chair, Massachusetts Coalition forDebbie Peikes, Senior Researcher, Mathematica Primary Care ReformPolicy Research Diane R. Rittenhouse, MD, M.P H., Associate Professor, .Janice L. Genevro, Ph.D., M.S.W, Lead, Primary Care Department of Family and Community MedicineImplementation Team, Center for Primary Care, and Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies,Prevention and Clinical Partnership, Agency for University of California, San FranciscoHealthcare Research and Quality Shawn Martin, Director of Government Relations,Greg Peterson, Researcher, American Osteopathic AssociationMathematica Policy ResearchTim Lake, Researcher, Mathematica Policy ResearchKim Smith, Researcher, Mathematica PolicyResearchErin Taylor, Associate Director, health research,Mathematica Policy ResearchKevin Grumbach, MD, Professor and Chair, Universityof California, San Francisco, Department of Familyand Community Medicine; Chief, Family andCommunity Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital 3
  5. 5. Meeting AttendeesChristine Bechtel,Vice President, Kevin Grumbach, MD*, Professor and Chair, UniversityNational Partnership for Women and Families of California, San Francisco, Department of Family and Community Medicine; Chief, Family and CommunityDonald Berwick, MD, M.P ., Administrator, .P Medicine, San Francisco General HospitalCenters for Medicare & Medicaid Services Paul Grundy, MD, M.P. H.*, IBM’s Global DirectorKatherine H. Capps, President, Health2 Resources, of Healthcare Transformation; President, Patient-Planning Committee Chair* Centered Primary Care CollaborativeBlair G. Childs, Senior Vice President, Premier, Inc. Bruce H. Hamory, MD, F.A.C.P., Executive Vice President, Chief Medical Officer, GeisingerCarolyn M. Clancy, MD, Director, Agency forHealthcare Research and Quality Yael Harris, Ph.D., M.H.S., Director, Office of Health IT and Quality, Health Research andJohn B. Crosby, JD, Executive Director, Service AdministrationAmerican Osteopathic Association Douglas E. Henley, MD, F. A.A.F.P., Executive ViceGerald Cross, MD, F.A.A.F.P Acting Under Secretary ., President and CEO, American Academy offor Health, Veterans Health Administration Family PhysiciansHelen Darling, President, National Business Group Jim Hester, Ph.D., Director, Health Care Reformon Health Commission, Vermont State LegislatureKaren Davis, Ph.D., President, Sam Ho, MD, Senior Vice President and ChiefThe Commonwealth Fund Medical Officer, UnitedHealthcareSusan Dentzer, Editor-in-Chief, Health Affairs Christine Hunter, Rear Admiral, Deputy Director, The TRICARE Management Activity,Allen Dobson Jr., MD, Vice President, U.S. Department of DefenseClinical Practice Development,Carolina Health Care System John E. Jenrette, MD*, Chief Executive and Medical Officer, Sharp Community Medical GroupSusan Edgman-Levitan, PA, Executive Director,John D. Stoeckle, Center for Primary Care Peter V. Lee, JD, Director of Delivery System Reform,Innovation, Massachusetts General Hospital Office of Health Reform, U.S. Department of Health & Human ServicesElliott Fisher, MD, M.P H., Director, Center for .Population Health, Dartmouth Institute for Health Kevin E. Lofton, F. A.C.H.E., President and CEO,Policy and Clinical Practice Catholic Health SystemRichard J. Gilfillan, MD, Director of Performance Chris McSwain, Director of Global Benefits,Based Payment Policy, Centers for Medicare & WhirlpoolMedicaid Services Steven Morgenstern, Benefits Manager,Allan H. Goroll, MD*, Professor of Medicine, Dow Chemical CompanyHarvard Medical School, Chair,Massachusetts Coalition for Primary Care Reform, Albert Mulley, M.P. P., MD, Chief of the GeneralMassachusetts General Hospital Medicine Division, Director of the Medical Practices Evaluation Center, Massachusetts General Hospital4
  6. 6. David K. Nace, MD*, Vice President and Medical John Tooker, MD, M.B.A., F.A.C.P.,Director, McKesson Corporation Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer, American College of PhysiciansMonique Nadeau, Executive Director,Hope Street Group Jan Towers, Ph.D., NP-C, C.R.N.P., F. A. A.N.P., Director of Health Policy, American AcademyPatricia M. Nazemetz, Vice President and Chief of Nurse PractitionersEthics Officer, Xerox Andrew Webber, President and CEO,Karen J. Nicholas, DO, MA, M.A.C.O.I., President, National Business Coalition on HealthAmerican Osteopathic AssociationCarmen Hooker Odom, M.R.P .,President, Milbank Memorial FundRichard Popiel, MD, M.B.A., Vice President andChief Medical Officer, Horizon Blue Cross BlueShield of New JerseyKyu Rhee, MD, M.P. P F.A.A.P F.A.C.P Chief Public ., ., .,Health Officer, Health Research and ServiceAdministrationMichael Rosenblatt, MD, Executive Vice President,Chief Medical Officer, Merck & Co., Inc.Edwina Rogers, JD*, Executive Director,Patient-Centered Primary Care CollaborativeLewis G. Sandy, MD, Senior Vice President,Clinical Advancement, UnitedHealth GroupMartin J. Sepulveda, MD, F.A.C.P Vice President, .,Health and Well-Being, IBM CorporationMichael S. Sherman, MD, M.B.A, MS, C.P F.A.C.P. E., .E,Corporate Medical Director, Humana ClinicalGuidance Organization, Humana Inc.Michael Suesserman, Vice President,Corporate and Government Customers, Pfizer Inc.Fan Tait, MD, F.A.A.P Associate Executive Director, .*,Director, Department of Community,Specialty Pediatrics, American Academyof PediatricsGeorge E. Thibault, MD, CEO, Macy Foundation*Indicates the individual also served on the Planning Committee. 5
  7. 7. Planning CommitteeMelinda K. Abrams, MS, Vice President, Rosemarie Sweeney, Vice President,The Commonwealth Fund Public Policy and Practice Support, American Academy of Family PhysiciansThomas Bodenheimer, MD, M.P H., Professor, .Department of Family and Community Medicine, Adrienne White, M.B.A., B.S.M.T., A.S.C.P.,University of California, San Francisco Managing Consultant, IBM Global Business Services, Healthcare Practice, Business Analytics andAndrea Cotter, Director, Global Healthcare and Life Optimization, IBM CorporationSciences Marketing, IBM Corporation Mark Zezza, Ph.D., Research Director,Michael Dinneen, MD, Director, Office of Strategic Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform,Management, U.S. Department of Defense Brookings InstituteRobert Dribbon, Director, Health Care Strategy,Merck & Co., Inc.Robert Doherty, Senior Vice President,Governmental Affairs and Public Policy,American College of PhysiciansJanice L. Genevro, Ph.D., M.S.W.,Lead, Primary Care Implementation Team,Center for Primary Care, Prevention and ClinicalPartnership, Agency for Healthcare Researchand QualityMartin Kohn, MS, MD, FACEP FACPE, Associate ,Director, Healthcare Analytics, IBM ResearchShawn Martin, Director of Government Relations,American Osteopathic AssociationKaren Matsuoka, D.Phil, M.Phil, Research Director,Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform,Brookings InstituteDavid Meyers, MD, Director, Center for Primary Care,Prevention and Clinical Partnership,Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityKate Neuhausen, MD, R-3, Resident Physician,Department of Family and Community Medicine,UCSF/San Francisco General HospitalDuane C. Putnam, Director, Employers Coalitions,Pfizer Inc.Diane R. Rittenhouse, MD, M.P H., Associate Professor, .Department of Family and Community Medicineand Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies,University of California, San Francisco6
  8. 8. Dear Colleagues:As you may know, the topic of patient-centered care is dear to my heart. I believe—that, of thesix IOM Aims for Improvement—safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, efficiency,and equity—“patient-centeredness” is the keystone and that, from it, the others properly devolve.To me, “patient-centered care” is care that respects each person as an individual, honoring hisor her backgrounds, their families and their choices.The Affordable Care Act calls for investments in “patient-centered care,” including medical andhealth homes and accountable care organizations (ACOs) so patients can receive seamless,integrated care. At the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), we intend to build onthe current foundation of medical and health homes and optimize their scope of services, capacityand capabilities for patients. We will be working to incorporate patient-centered medical homeswith ACOs and examining various payment methods to support medical home expansion throughthe CMS Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (Innovation Center). Along with healthhomes and ACOs, the Innovation Center will be tasked with evaluating the effect of the advancedprimary care practice model, commonly referred to as the patient-centered medical home,in improving care, promoting health, and reducing the cost of care provided to Medicarebeneficiaries served by Federally Qualified Health Centers.One thing is for sure—we cannot do this alone. It is only through partnership with the privatesector that we will accomplish our aims for integrating care. We look forward to workingwith you in the future.Sincerely,Donald M. Berwick, MDAdministratorCenters for Medicare and Medicaid Services 7
  9. 9. Preface“W hat do you want health care to become?” was the question that opened discussionamong a group of national thought leaders as- greater context of ACOs–the medical home situ- ated and functioning within a medical neighbor- hood. As CMS moved forward with its new chargesembled on Sept. 8, 2010 in Washington, D.C. The to rapidly advance promising primary care-basedanswer to this question became the framework for models, it became clear that those supportinga daylong discussion led by moderator Susan primary care must also move forward to create aDentzer and hosted by The Commonwealth Fund, consensus around key principles in this new context.the Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborativeand the Dartmouth Institute.Almost eight months in planning, the journey to The desire of the group was to buildthe September 8 meeting began during a conver-sation between Paul Grundy, MD, and White House a broad consensus on the foundationhealth reform policy staff during a roundtable established by the Joint Principles ofdiscussion on Aug. 10, 2009. The meeting show-cased the evidence and outcomes1 from patient- the medical home, but to bring them tocentered models of care that are transforminghealth care delivery. Those assembled recognized action so consensus points can be usedthat activity around the patient centered medical to create value for those who purchasehome should focus not only on the Joint Principles,but on value-driving elements that would bring health care and for those who deliver itabout long-term, sustainable changes, with primary within accountable care organizations.care as a foundation. As a follow up to that meet-ing, the PCPCC brought in Health2 Resources,which formed a planning committee to offera structure, outline an approach and manage Working from a set of clearly enunciated goals, aa consensus meeting of engaged stakeholders. planning committee of thought leaders, researchers,Funding to support the effort was secured from academics and federal health agency leadershipPfizer, and Paul Grundy invited The Commonwealth began meeting weekly for what became knownFund and Dartmouth to serve as co-sponsors. as the September 8 Consensus Meeting. The desire of the group was to build a broad consensus on On May 4, 2010, Health Affairs held a briefing at the the foundation established by the Joint Principles National Press Club to introduce its special issue, of the medical home, but to bring them to action“Reinventing Primary Care.” The issue was entirely so consensus points can be used to create value devoted to the topic of advanced primary care for those who purchase health care and for those models, making important links about value-driving who deliver it within accountable care organizations. elements of the medical home and the role of The patient centered medical home is an approach primary care within accountable care organiza- to providing comprehensive primary care that tions. Recognition among thought leadership came facilitates partnerships between individual patients quickly that the medical home must operate in the and their personal physicians and, when appropriate, the patient’s family. ACOs, value-based insurance design and multi-payer patient centered medical 1 These outcomes are summarized in the PCPCC document, home demonstrations must synchronize their efforts“Outcomes of Implementing Patient Centered Medical Home in order to create a sustainable, long-term solution Interventions: A Review of the Evidence from Prospective Evaluation Studies in the United States.” http://www.pcpcc.net/content/pcmh- to health care cost, quality, accountability and outcome-evidence-quality. access issues.8
  10. 10. Each week during an hour-long call, the planning planning committee members in attendance verycommittee convened and discussed progress much filling the room. Interest in the meeting topicstoward the meeting. A host of academic and key accelerated over the months of planning; it wasthought leaders spent many volunteer hours to so overwhelming that we were forced to limit thedevelop background papers that illuminated each number of attendees to ensure robust discussion.of the four value-driving topic areas the groupagreed to explore in detail, within the framework At the end of the day, we all left the September 8of developing consensus and action steps to drive Consensus Meeting sharing Don Berwick’s passionthem forward within medical homes and ACOs: for the need to buy journeys, recognizing that the value of the trip is entirely based on our own invest- 1. Better care coordination ment in it. The who, what, where and how state- ments we use to populate the coming journey is 2. Better access to care (access as it relates work still ahead of us. This document is a first step to time, location, availability, etc.) in drawing the roadmap we will use to navigate that journey around policy, practice and research. 3. Better technology (patient portals, online The broad set of consensus agreements and the access to clinicians, health IT for quality specific recommendations outlined over the course measurement) of the meeting are presented here as action items so they do not sit on a shelf and become mere 4. Better payment models (designed to mementos of the trip. There are research and achieve accountable, high quality, evaluation goals to be pursued, policies to be patient-centered care) championed, and models to be tested and disseminated. The next leg of the journey begins today.Susan Dentzer, editor-in-chief of Health Affairs, wasinvited to serve as meeting moderator, and shegenerously volunteered her time to the effort. We Katherine H. Cappsalso asked Dr. Donald Berwick, administrator of the President, Health2 ResourcesCenters for Medicare & Medicaid Services, to Planning Committee Chairdiscuss a vision for patient-centered care.We are grateful for the significant work of SusanDentzer and the planning committee membersas they conducted research, developed thepapers and presentations, briefed participantsprior to the meeting, and worked to activateand engage federal agency partnershipsaround the meeting’s goals.And finally, we are most thankful to PCPCCPresident Paul Grundy, MD, whose sustainingenergy has sparked all our imaginations.The initial goal to involve 35 national thought leadersmorphed to nearly 50 seated around the consensustable on September 8, with additional staff and 9
  11. 11. IntroductionT he U.S. health care system is in crisis. Health care spending in the U.S. dwarfs that of otherindustrialized nations and threatens our fragile populations, providing a vision for increased accountability for performance and spending across the health care system.economy. The Institute of Medicine highlights thechasm between the quality of care we receive Embodied in the ACO and PCMH is a shared visionand the quality we should expect. Millions of for high-value health care in the U.S. The bipartisanAmericans have no health insurance, and the support for inclusion in the ACA reflects a consensusrolls of the uninsured are rapidly expanding. that the system is broken and something can,The federal Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed and must, be done to fix it. The models build onin March 2010, was a herculean attempt not only decades of research and experience in a varietyto expand and reform health insurance, but also to of practice settings and communities. Neitherdrive quality improvements and decrease spending model dictates an ideal size or type of organiza-in health care. It is not surprising that the process tional setting, and it is not yet known exactly howthat led to its passage was tumultuous. Health care the models should be operationalized in anyis not only a massive industry consuming roughly 17 particular setting.percent of our gross domestic product, but it is alsodeeply personal. Every person wants to be assured But time and tide wait for no man.that they will have easy access to the care theyneed, when they need it, from a team of providers Implementation is well underway, supported by adedicated to maximizing their health and well- broad-based coalition of health care stakeholdersbeing. Meanwhile, as a society, we must find a from the public and private sectors. Evaluationsway to increase the value of health care–better of early initiatives demonstrate improvements inaccess and quality at lower costs–and this will not health outcomes and patient experience, withbe accomplished by tinkering around the edges. decreases in total expenditures. A new CenterA major overhaul is required. The health care for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation has beenreform debate over the past many months has established and charged with implementing ACObeen at once reasonable, rational, emotionaland divisive. Every U.S. community can benefitTruly remarkable was the emergence from the tumult from expanded access and improvedof two widely endorsed models of delivery systemreform: the patient centered medical home and the care coordination spurred by healthaccountable care organization. These models, taken information technology and paymenttogether, hold promise to alter the course of the U.S.health care system. This report provides action items reforms. The question is where andto propel these initiatives forward. how to begin.The patient centered medical home (PCMH)emphasizes the central role of primary care and and PCMH demonstration projects. The Office ofcare coordination, with the vision that every person the National Coordinator for Health Informationshould have the opportunity to easily access high Technology, through the HITECH Act, has issuedquality primary care in a place that is familiar and Meaningful Use criteria and has dedicated moneyknowledgeable about their health care needs and to states and communities for implementation ofchoices. The accountable care organization (ACO), health information technology aimed at improvingalso coined the “medical neighborhood,” empha- population health outcomes. State governmentssizes the urgent need to think beyond patients to are experimenting with the models, with an eye10
  12. 12. toward preparing the delivery system for planned improving both the quality and efficiency ofMedicaid expansions. Private health care founda- care delivery. Care coordination is aimed attions are supporting community-based demonstra- improving the transfer of patient care informa-tions and evaluations to further our collective tion, and establishing accountability by clearlyknowledge base. All the major national health delineating who is responsible for which aspectplans have PCMH demonstrations underway, and of patient care delivery and communicationthe federal government has adopted the PCMH across the care continuum. There is substantialmodel within the Department of Defense and the evidence that enhanced access and im-Veterans Administration. A large federal demonstra- proved care coordination result in improvedtion project is targeting PCMH implementation in health outcomes and patient satisfaction,federally qualified health centers. Large and small and decreased total costs of care for aphysician practices across the country are looking defined population.2for guidance on what these models mean forthem, and where and when to begin the process The presentations highlighted specific actions toof transformation. enhance access that have been shown to add value, including off-hours access to primary careThis report presents action items for moving forward. to decrease reliance on the emergency depart-The product of multi-disciplinary discussion and lively ment; access to same-day or next-day primarydebate, the report delves beyond the boundaries care appointments; access to appointments withof specific delivery system models and addresses a personal clinician who is familiar and knowl-fundamental themes essential to improving care edgeable about the patient and his or her needsand stemming rising costs. It presents recommenda- and preferences; expanded modes of communi-tions for immediate action by stakeholders ranging cation between patients and providers, includingfrom policymakers to providers and researchers. advice lines, telephone appointments, electronic visits and interactive websites; and special atten-The themes, or “value-driving elements,” that are tion to the needs of vulnerable patient popula-the focus of this report are access, care coordina- tions who may face time constraints, languagetion, health information technology and payment barriers or problems with transportation. Specificreform. The first two are elements of health care actions that define care coordination were alsodelivery that require urgent overhaul to maximize discussed, including regularly assessing carehealth outcomes at lower costs. The latter two are coordination needs; creating and updatingessential tools, without which widespread imple- a proactive plan of care; emphasizing communi-mentation of new care delivery models will not cation; facilitating transitions; connecting withsucceed. These are not the only elements of our community resources; and aligning resourcescurrent health care system that require attention, with population needs.but progress in each of these areas is necessary tooptimize value in health care. Every U.S. community Enhanced access and care coordination arecan benefit from expanded access and improved included in the core principles of the PCMHcare coordination spurred by health information model, and both are essential to the success oftechnology and payment reforms. The question is any ACO that aims to improve health outcomeswhere and how to begin. 2 Grumbach, K. and Grundy, Paul. Outcomes of Implementing Enhanced Access and Care Coordination Patient Centered Medical Home Interventions: A Review of the Evidence from Prospective Evaluation Studies in the United States. Patient- Enhancing access means increasing access Centered Primary Care Collaborative 2010. Accessed at http://www. to health care in ways that add value by pcpcc.net/content/pcmh-outcome-evidence-quality. 11
  13. 13. for a defined population at lower total costs. success can be attributed to the hard work by This report summarizes the evidence base be- leaders at the Patient-Centered Primary Care hind enhanced access and care coordination; Collaborative, the Dartmouth Institute, and The describes the implementation opportunities Commonwealth Fund. Bravo for putting us all in and challenges for both PCMHs and ACOs; a room together and challenging us to communi- and presents action items to begin to answer cate across traditional boundaries, to innovate, important questions such as: “What is the role investigate and lead–always keeping the patient of primary care teams in enhanced access at the center. Responsibility for achieving greater and care coordination?” and “How can incen- value in health care belongs to all of us. The action tives be aligned to drive excellence in access items agreed upon at the September 8 Consensus and care coordination across all aspects of Meeting and detailed in this report provide much the health care system?” needed direction. The time to act is now. Information Technology and Diane R. Rittenhouse, MD, M.P.H. Payment Reform Associate Professor Transformation of the U.S. health care system Department of Family and Community to deliver greater value could be stimulated Medicine and Philip R. Lee Institute for by rapid advancements in two areas: wide- Health Policy Studies spread implementation of health information University of California, San Francisco technology, and fundamental reform of the November 2010 payment system for primary care services. While neither alone is sufficient, both are necessary to catalyze major delivery system reform. Electronic tools can facilitate, for example, secure messaging, referral manage- ment, shared decision support, and perfor- mance reporting, the presenters explained. Payment reforms can create financial incen- tives to, for example, improve care coordina- tion across settings; implement electronic visits and expand after-hours primary care access; and minimize inappropriate use of costly interventions. This report provides a review of the challenges and opportunities for progress in health IT implementation and payment reform; their relevance to the success of PCMHs and ACOs; and action items to facilitate progress in these areas.The PCMH and ACO models incorporate the bestevidence and the best ideas to drive value in thehealth care system. But the forward momentumpropelling these models cannot be explained bynew ideas or new evidence alone. What is historicis the magnitude of the collaboration, the broadinclusion of a wide variety of stakeholders, and thediverse and dedicated leadership that spans theprivate and public sectors and hails from everycorner of the health care sector. Much of this12
  14. 14. Value Driving Elements of Health ReformThis paper summarizes a brief prepared by Melinda K. Abrams, MS, and a team at The Commonwealth Fund 3K aren Davis, Ph.D., opened the Access topic session with the observation that the goals ofthe Triple Aim (improved health for the population,improved care for the patient and reducing theper capita cost of care) are served by advancingaccess to needed health care delivery. QuotingPCPCC President Paul Grundy, MD, Davis pointedout that there is consensus on what should happenwith patient access to care, but there is a shortfall inexecuting the actions needed to make it happen.Seventy-three percent of Americans report havingdifficulty obtaining timely access to their doctor,according to a 2008 Commonwealth Fund survey.Access issues identified by those surveyed includedgetting an appointment with a doctor the same ornext day when sick, without going to the ER; gettingadvice from the doctor by phone during regularoffice hours; and getting care on nights, weekends,or holidays without going to the ER. Health insur-ance access issues, while important to our nation’soverall health, are not included in this discussion ofaccess in patient centered medical home andACO models of care delivery.Davis offered three answers to the question ofhow to change problems with access:1. “We need to get out of denial” about the Creating Value: Enhanced U.S. health system and realize there is a gap between what we are achieving and what Access to Medical Homes is possible. and Implications for ACOs 2. Incentives need to change (e.g., payment reform, transparency, public recognition). presented by 3. “We need the know-how about how to change.” Karen Davis, Ph.D., president, 3 M. K. Abrams, G. Lawlor, S. C. Schoenbaum, K. Davis, Creating The Commonwealth FundValue: The Importance of Enhanced Access to Medical Homes andWhat it Means for Accountable Care Organizations, The CommonwealthFund, forthcoming. 13
  15. 15. PCMHs, ACOs and access compromise quality of care. An estimated 40 to Improving patient access to primary care is central 50 percent of emergency department visits are to improving the quality and efficiency of health for non-urgent conditions, representing wasteful care. It can create greater value for patients, health care expenditures.6 Davis relayed her providers and payers. own story of sitting in an ER for hours because her doctor wasn’t available. The evidence is consistently positive: When patients have access to primary care, preventive services When primary care providers have arrangements increase, immunization rates improve, emergency for off-hours coverage, which is the expectation department visits and inpatient hospitalizations of a medical home, the evidence shows reduct- decline and health care costs decrease.4,5 ions in emergency department use, increased clinician satisfaction and improvements in In the medical home, enhanced access to care patient experience.7, 8, 9 can include a variety of attributes; Davis discussed six important ones: 6 J. M. O’Connell, J. L. Stanley, C. L. Malakar, “Satisfaction and 1. Off-hours coverage patient outcomes of a telephone-based nurse triage service,” Manag When patients cannot reach or see their primary Care, Jul 2001;10(7):55-6, 59-60, 65. care provider during off-hours, they tend to go to L. Huibers, P. Giesen, M. Wensing, R. Grol, “Out-of-hours care in 7 the emergency department or seek an alternate western countries: assessment of different organizational models,” clinician, which can increase fragmentation and BMC Health Serv Res, Jun 2009, 23;9:105. 8 C. J. van Uden, R. A. Winkens, G. Wesseling, H. F. Fiolet, O.C. van Schayck, ”The impact of a primary care physician cooperative on the 4 J. M. Ferrante, B. A. Balasubramanian, S. V. Hudson, B. F. caseload of an emergency department: the Maastricht integratedCrabtree. “Principles of the patient-centered medical home and out-of-hours service,” J Gen Intern Med, 2005 Jul;20(7):612-7.preventive services delivery,” Ann Fam Med. Mar-Apr 2010;8(2):108- 9 S. Belman, V. Chandramouli, B. D. Schmitt, S. R. Poole, T. Hegarty,16. A. Kempe, “An assessment of pediatric after-hours telephone care: 5 B. Starfield, L. Shi, J. Macinko, “Contribution of primary care to a 1-year experience,” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, Feb health systems and health,” Milbank Q, 2005;83(3):457-502. 2005;159(2):145-9. Access Problems: Three of Four Adults Have Difficulty Getting Timely Access to Their Doctor Percentage reporting that it is very difficult/difficult:Getting an appointment with a doctor the same 30 or next day when sick, without going to ER Getting advice from your doctor by 41 phone during regular office hours Getting care on nights, weekends, or holidays without going to ER 60 Any of the above 73 0 25 50 75 100 Source: Commonwealth Fund Survey of Public Views of the U.S. Health Care System, 2008. 14
  16. 16. Electronic Access to Care: Evidence Shows Improvements in QualityOff-hours coverage requires collaboration „„ studies suggest that electronic communication with Earlyamong primary care providers. ACOs may be providers and patient access to medical records over theable to take the lead, she said, “but so far, it Internet may improve doctor-patient communication andhasn’t happened.” help patient self-management2. Same-day or next-day access Group Health Cooperative’s “Access Initiative” included „„The Commonwealth Fund’s 2009 International the following:Health Policy Survey showed that one-fifth y„Secure email with MDsof Americans report waiting six or more y„Medical record accessdays to obtain an appointment with their y„Medication refillsprimary care physician.10 Lack of timely access y„Appointment schedulingto primary care can not only delay diagnosis y„Discussion groups and health promotion informationand treatment, but also signals a lack of Results from Group Health’s Access Initiative: „„respect for patients’ concerns and time. Patients reported better access to care (e.g., time to y„One strategy to reduce wait times for appoint- appointment, seeing personal doctor, getting needed care)ments is “advanced access” or “open access.” Providers reported improvements in quality of service given y„Research suggests this approach can to patients (pride in service provided)decrease appointment no-shows, improve Surveys did not assess patient experience with secure y„continuity of care and increase patient email communication or other Web servicesand clinician satisfaction. J. D. Ralston, D. P. Martin, M. L. Anderson, P. A. Fishman, D. A. Conrad, E. B. Larson, D. Grembowski, “Group health cooperative’s transformation towardProviding same-day or next-day appointment patient-centered access,” Med Care Res Rev, 2009 Dec;66(6):703-24.scheduling requires a commitment to practiceredesign, and building the patient’s experi-ence into the financial reward system, Davissaid. That could involve explicitly tyingbonuses or value-based purchasing to Access to Medical Homes Reducesthis type of access. Racial/Ethnic Disparities3. Appointments with a personal clinician When racial and ethnic minorities have access to a medical „„Ensuring the appointment is with the patient’s home, disparities in care are eliminated or substantially reducedpersonal clinician is a hallmark of continuity Access to care must accommodate needs of vulnerable „„of care and having a true medical home, patient populationsbut only 65 percent of U.S. adults report y„ example, when limited English proficiency patients see Forhaving an accessible personal clinician.11 clinicians that speak the same language, they ask moreWhen patients have access to (and continuity questions and report better clinical outcomeswith) their primary care provider, preventive When patients have professional interpreters, instead of ad y„care screening rates are higher, immunization hoc interpreters, they report betterrates are higher, emergency department – communication (fewer errors, greater comprehension)and hospital visits are fewer, health care – management of chronic diseasecosts are lower and patient satisfaction is – patient satisfaction – follow-up and adherence to clinical advice A.C. Beal et al. Closing the Divide: How Medical Homes Promote Equity in Health 10 C. Schoen, “A Survey of Primary Care Physicians in 11 Care: Results From The Commonwealth Fund 2006 Health Care Quality SurveyCountries, 2009: Perspectives on Care, Costs, and Experiences,” (The Commonwealth Fund, June 2007); A. C. Beal et al. “Latino access to the patient-centered medical home,” J Gen Intern Med, 2009 Nov;24 Suppl2009. 3:514-20; Q. Ngo-Metzger et al. “Providing high-quality care for limited English 11 The Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High proficient patients: the importance of language concordance and interpreter use,”Performance Health System, Why Not the Best? Results from the J Gen Intern Med, Nov 2007;22 Suppl 2:324-30; L. S. Karliner et al. “DoNational Scorecard on U.S. Health System Performance, 2008 Professional Interpreters Improve Clinical Care for Patients with Limited English Proficiency? A systematic Review of the Literature,” Health Services Research,(The Commonwealth Fund, July 2008). April 2007,42:2. 15
  17. 17. significantly improved.12,13,14 Overall, continuity intensive care unit days and 28 percent lessof care with a personal clinician or care team estimated total health care expenditures.16is associated with increased efficiency andbetter quality of care. In addition, providing Redesign care delivery to give physicians time inbetter, less expensive care for patients with their schedules to call patients, Davis suggested,chronic conditions is a high-yield approach and offer a reasonable financial incentive toto more accountable care and the encourage them to do it. By introducing a structuresuccess of ACOs. for the activity and the reimbursement for it, we can “make the right thing to do the easy thing to do.”“We need to do everything we can to encourage enrollment of patients with their patient centered 5. Electronic access to providers and services medical home, with their source of primary Patients’ access to care can be vastly improved care,” Davis said. But ACO “attribution,” or assigning through appropriate use of Web-based or online a patient to a primary care provider, isn’t enough health care services. by itself: There needs to be dialogue. “Doctors and patients need to talk to each other about Although 58 percent of U.S. adults would like to their mutual expectations and responsibilities.” communicate with their physician by email, only 21 percent report the ability to do so.17 But studies4. Ability to have clinical questions answered suggest that electronic communication with provid- by telephone ers and patient access to medical records over theEstablishing dedicated telephone appointments Internet may improve doctor-patient communica-during office hours–when they are an appropriate tion and help patient self-management.18 Patientssubstitute for in-person care–can reduce patient reported better access to care (e.g., time to ap-office visit and costs without degrading medical pointment, seeing personal doctor, getting neededoutcomes or patient satisfaction. care), and providers reported improvements in quality of service given to patients.19Studies show that telephone appointments havehelped clinicians successfully monitor patients It saves time for everyone, and it lets patients andwith depression, asthma and urinary tract infec- family members review the physician’s recommen-tions.15 A study of telephone care provided to dations at their leisure.elderly men in a clinic operated by the VeteransHealth Administration showed 19 percent fewer 6. Access for vulnerable patient populationsoffice visits, 28 percent fewer hospital admissions Access to care must accommodate the needs ofand shorter hospital stays, 41 percent fewer vulnerable patient populations, and PCMHs appear to help achieve this goal and make a difference in reducing disparities. For example, Davis pointed out that when racial and ethnic minorities have access 12 A. G. Mainous, R. J. Koopman, J. M. Gill, R. Baker, W. S.Pearson, “Relationship between continuity of care and diabetes control: to a medical home, disparities in care are eliminat-evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination ed or substantially reduced. “I was really shocked atSurvey,” Am J Public Health, 2004;94(1):66-70. 13 J. W. Saultz, W. Albedaiwi, “Interpersonal continuity of care andpatient satisfaction: a critical review,” Ann Fam Med, 2004;2(5):445– 16 J. Wasson, C. Gaudette, F. Whaley, A. Sauvigne, P. Baribeau, H.51; J. M. De Maeseneer, L. De Prins, C. Gosset, J. Heyerick, “Provider G. Welch, “Telephone care as a substitute for routine clinic follow-up,”continuity in family medicine: does it make a difference for total health JAMA, 1992;267:1788-93.care costs?” Ann Fam Med, 2003;1(3):144-148. 17 S. K. H. How, Public Views on U.S. Health System Organization: 14 M. J. Hollander, H. Kadlec, R. Hamdi, A.Tessaro, “Increasing A Call for New Directions, 2008.Value for Money in the Canadian Healthcare System: New Findings 18 J. D. Ralston, D. P. Martin, M. L. Anderson, P. A. Fishman, D. A.on the Contribution of Primary Care Services,” Healthcare Quarterly, Conrad, E. B. Larson, D. Grembowski, “Group Health Cooperative’s2009;12(4):30-42. transformation toward patient-centered access,” Med Care Res Rev, 15 L.L. Berry, “Innovations in access to care: a patient-centered 2009 Dec;66(6):703-24.approach,” 2003. 19 ibid16
  18. 18. how much the racial and ethnic disparities in whether patients’ access to care improves.access to care, quality of care, preventive care ACOs can help primary care sites collect,were eliminated if you were given care in a prac- analyze and report quality data to monitortice that met the characteristics of the patient their performance.centered medical home,” she said. Improve access to specialty care services: In „„ „For the promise of enhanced access to be realized an ACO, the complement of clinicians is heldby all patients, including the medically underserved, accountable for the quality of care providedthe strategies and methods applied will need to to an entire population of patients. With suchbe tailored to meet the needs of vulnerable shared responsibility, the PCMH, specialty carepatient populations. providers and the ACO can work together to set up systems and agreements to ensure timely access to specialty care services.ACOs enabling enhanced accessACOs need a strong foundation of primary care ACOs and PCMHs “need each other,” Davis said.to succeed. “The patient centered medical home The evidence demonstrates that when patientsis the foundation for everything that calls itself an have enhanced access to primary care services,ACO,” Davis said. On that foundation, there can quality, efficiency and patient experience improve.be different models for ACOs: “There are differentways to build the neighborhood.” Discussion and action itemsMedical home care coordination and caremanagement activities will enable the ACO One overarching consensus item emerged earlyto realize cost savings. PCMHs can benefit from on in discussion after the initial presentation: AnyACO infrastructure and support (e.g., information discussion on the application of the elements of thetechnology, data collection and reporting, PCMH–whether it be care coordination, access, useadditional personnel) to help PCMHs meet of health IT or redesign of payment models–musttheir functional requirements. be framed in the context of both enhancing value for the patient and “bending the cost curve.” ValueACOs can also enhance the elements of access for the patient must be informed by the consumerthat medical homes cannot offer on their own: voice. The group consensus was that these two elements should stand as the framework for action ACO support for off-hours coverage: Through „„ „ going forward in all four discussion topic areas. the infrastructure of an ACO, small practices can be networked or organized to more The discussion then focused on what it takes within easily share personnel to provide after-hours the physician practice to provide enhanced care for their patients. Alternatively, hospital- access. Primary care capacity is a real issue; train- based staff that is part of the ACO or under ing and project management support is needed to contract to it can provide telephone triage help practices become high-access primary care and urgent care visit services for primary sites. Investments are being made now to increase care practices. the primary care workforce, but it will take time for the pipeline to bring those newly trained profession- Facilitate online access, provide tech support: „„ „ als to the field. ACOs can defray the financial and adminis- trative investment to provide Web-based The primary care workforce shortage is further services, such as electronic physician-patient complicated by differences in scope-of-practice messaging, e-consultations and personal laws across states. If each health care provider is health records. ACOs can set parameters of to work at the top of his or her license to enhance how these systems can/should be organized access, clarity is needed regarding which practitio- as well as provide the resources to monitor ner is allowed to perform specific services. 17
  19. 19. to include consumers in design of demonstration Policy Action item(s): projects. Incentives need to be aligned for consum- ers to seek care in their primary care setting, rather 1. Actively support federal funding of than turning to more costly avenues for care. primary care workforce training efforts Cultural differences also play a role in where across the full spectrum of primary care and how consumers seek care. team members in order to ensure an adequate and well-trained primary care workforce. Demonstration Project Action Item(s): 2. Policies and initiatives that promote ACOs and PCMHs must incentivize 1. Develop design principles to set up innovative delivery models that ensure systems to enable more efficient and superb patient access to care including coordinated use of a community’s off-hours coverage, same-day or next- existing access resources (e.g., call-in day visits, telephone and electronic lines, urgent care). Encourage collabo- access, and access to electronic ration between health plans, hospitals medical records. and primary care sites to reconfigure existing resources in order to support patients’ timely and appropriateThere was considerable discussion about the role access to their patient centeredof health plans and hospitals in enhancing access. medical homes.These entities have resources already in place thatcould support physician practices, such as nurse 2. Develop a reimbursement frameworkcall lines, telephonic case management and of enhanced access that is bothdisease management programs and after-hours patient-centered and low-cost–in theurgent care facilities. However, patients continue to ambulatory settings (whenever appro-experience problems in accessing care. Medical priate) and where it will best benefithome and ACO demonstration projects must the patient.include collaboration between primary carepractices and hospitals and/or health plans to 3. Involve consumers in design of alltest new ways to ensure enhanced access to projects, but especially those that seekprimary care for all patients. These efforts will inform to enhance access, since it is an issuethe future development of the medical neighbor- of paramount concern and interest tohood, which will be critical to the success of the patients. Keep in mind Davis’ directiveACO. This sort of attention to enhanced access to “make the right thing to do the easyas part of existing medical home demonstrations thing to do.”would require development of the “medical neigh-borhood” that takes in providers (including special-ists, hospitals and primary care providers), payers If primary care providers are to take on new accessand consumers as collaborative partners. points–telephonic and online consultation and after-hours care among them–metrics and incen-In particular, there is an opportunity to re-envision tives should be aligned to ensure that better carethe role of the hospital–specifically, for hospitals to is being delivered, not just more care. There is anprovide support of primary sites, but not through essential need for functional operational metricstheir emergency departments, which are not to understand what constitutes “access.” Therecost-effective delivery sites for primary care. is further need to refine metrics to identify and monitor “appropriate” vs. “bad” access.There was considerable discussion about theconsumer voice in access and a direct challenge18
  20. 20. Once this framework is determined, there is a needto assign which caregivers constitute the accessteam and to define the role and function for eachteam member. Best practices in improved accessare in the field, but the elements of access thatmake these practices successful need furtheranalysis and documentation. Research Action Item(s): 1. Set up a research/learning collaborative to capture learnings on improving prima- ry care bandwidth to expand access and to cull lessons from existing demonstrations. 2. Identify the framework for access (what needs to be done to achieve access), and then move to the roles and functions of team members (who needs to do it). 3. Develop functional operational metrics for appropriate access.The original Access briefing document for the Sept. 8, 2010 Consensus Meeting can beobtained from The Commonwealth Fund and was prepared by:Melinda Abrams, MS, Vice President, Karen Davis, Ph.D., President,The Commonwealth Fund The Commonwealth FundGeorgette Lawlor, Program Associate for PLANNING COMMITTEE CHAIRPatient-Centered Coordinated Care, Katherine H. Capps, President, Health2 ResourcesThe Commonwealth FundSteve Schoenbaum, MD, M.P .H., Executive VicePresident for Programs, The Commonwealth Fund 19
  21. 21. Care coordination is the deliberate organization of patient care activities between two or more participants (including the patient) involved in a patient’s care to facilitate the appropriate delivery of health care services.20 T he effective coordination of a patient’s health care services is a key component of high-quality, efficient care. It provides value to patients, profes- sionals and the health care system by improving the quality, appropriateness, timeliness and efficiency of decision-making and care activities, thereby affect- ing the experience, quality and cost of health care. But care coordination is largely missing from the status quo. And so Kevin Grumbach, MD, began the session on Care Coordination with a stark but unsurprising assessment: The health care system is failing due to a lack of integrated, coordinated care. Care coordination has two key operational principles, he explained: the transfer and exchange of informa- tion, and accountability. The former involves the appropriate flow of information–such as medical history, medication lists, lab results, imaging studies and patient preferences–from one participant in a patient’s care to another (including the patient). Creating Value: The latter, accountability, requires clarity about the responsibility of participants in a patient’s care forBetter Care Coordination each aspect of that care, e.g., specifying who is primarily responsible for key care delivery activities, the extent of that responsibility, and when that presented by responsibility will be transferred to other care partici- pants. And it means engaging patients to develop Elliott S. Fisher, MD, M.P H., . care plans that are accountable to the patient director, Center for Population Health, and the care team. Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy Kevin Grumbach, MD, professor and chair, UCSF Department of Family and Community Medicine McDonald KM, Sundaram V, Bravata DM, Lewis R, Lin N, Kraft S, 20 McKinnon M, Paguntalan H, Owens DK. Care coordination. Vol 7 of: Fisher and Grumbach credited david Meyers, Md, director, Shojania KG, McDonald KM, Wachter RM, Owens DK, editors. Closing the quality gap: A critical analysis of quality improvement strategies.Center for Primary Care, Prevention and Clinical Partnership at Technical Review 9 (Prepared by Stanford-UCSF Evidence-Based the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, for Practice Center under contract No. 290-02-0017). AHRQ Publication playing a major role in the paper’s development. No. 04(07)-0051-7. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 2007. 20
  22. 22. Care coordination and primary care In this conceptual model, primary care serves aCare coordination is an essential component of critical integrating function for the diverse servicesprimary care. As conceptualized by the Institute a patient may need, promoting cohesive, whole-of Medicine, primary care consists of the provision person care.of accessible, comprehensive, longitudinal andcoordinated care in the context of families and The exceptional value primary care brings to healthcommunity.21 More simply, it is the “four cardinal care systems22 is due in part to the care coordinationC’s”: first contact, comprehensive, continuity provided by primary care professionals and theand coordination. informed decision-making it allows them to make. 21 Primary Care: America’s Health in a New Era. Washington, DC.: 22 Starfield, B., L. Shi, and J. Macinko. “Contribution of Primary CareNational Academy of Sciences; 1996. to Health Systems and Health.” The Milbank Quarterly, vol. 83, no. 5, 2005, pp. 457–502. Value-enhancing activities Grumbach shared six central activities within care it occurs between health care professionals coordination that enhance health care value that and patient/family, within teams of health care were identified in the background paper:23 professionals and across teams or settings. 1. Assess patient needs. Care coordination needs 4. Facilitate transitions. Share information among are based upon a patient’s health care needs providers and patients when the accountability and treatment recommendations, which reflect for some aspect of a patient’s care is trans- physical, psychological and social factors. ferred between two or more health care Coordination needs also are determined by entities. Transitions require transfer of both the patient’s life circumstances, current health accountability and information. and health history, functional status, self- management knowledge and behaviors, 5. Connect with community resources. Provide and need for support services. and, if necessary, coordinate services with additional resources available in the commu- 2. Develop and update proactive plan of care. nity that help support patients’ health and Establish and maintain a plan of care, jointly wellness or meet their care goals. created and managed by the patient/family and health care team. The plan outlines the 6. Align resources with population needs. patient’s current and longstanding needs Use a systems-level approach within the and goals for care, and identifies coordination health care system to assess the needs of needs and potential gaps. It clearly identifies populations and to identify and address gaps the roles of each participant in the patient’s in services. Aggregating the needs assessments care. It anticipates routine needs and tracks conducted with individual patients is one up-to-date progress toward patient goals. method that should be used to identify the overall population’s needs. Care coordination 3. Emphasize communication. Communication and feedback from providers and patients may take a number of forms (e.g., oral, should also be used to identify opportunities electronic, face-to-face, asynchronous), and for improvement. 23 Fisher, Elliott; Grumbach, Kevin; Meyers, David, et al. Unpublished, September 8, 2010 Consensus Meeting Briefing Materials on Care Coordination: Issues for PCMHs and ACOs 21
  23. 23. The integrative function–interpreting with patients He also explained the synergistic relationshipthe meaning of many streams of information and between the neighborhood and the PCMH. “Thereworking with the patient to make decisions based has to be a center…some glue that holds it togeth-on the fullest understanding of this information in er,” he said, referring to the need for the primarythe context of the patient’s values and preferences– care team and the patient to serve as the nucleusis an under-recognized and under-appreciated of care coordination.value of primary care. Primary care thus is integralto coordination of care.2122,23 The patient centered medical home is the center- piece of the medical neighborhood, but it’s only a piece. The medical home should be nestedFinding a pathway through the within a well-functioning medical neighborhood.medical neighborhood That neighborhood is an accountable system thatSo where does the primary responsibility for these ensures everything that needs to happen doescare coordination activities lie? Some belong in indeed happen.the medical home, some in the greater “medicalneighborhood”—the extended health community Patients often need many services in addition toof specialists, hospitals and other providers. primary care–specialists, home care, pharmacy,(This medical neighborhood may or may not workplace, and more. “It all has to fit together, andbe a formally constituted accountable coordination is key to making this work,” Grumbachcare organization.) said. “There is value in having care that’s pulled together and coordinated, with the patient–andIn an accompanying slide, Grumbach illustrated ideally the medical home–at the center.”how the activities can be facilitated within thePCMH and greater medical “neighborhood”(in this case, an ACO).24 Reviewing the evidence Research appears to support this approach to care, as is detailed in the briefing document.25 (For a more detailed review of the research, see the Care Coordination Activities briefing document’s appendix.) Recent compre- hensive efforts to strengthen primary care, including • Determine and update care coordination needs implementation of the PCMH model by Group • Create and update a proactive plan of care Health Cooperative (which emphasized the core coordination functions of primary care), are dem- • Communicate: pCMH onstrating improved patient experience, improved – Between health care professionals & patients/family staff experience, improved quality and reduced – Within teams of health care professionals emergency department and hospital utilization.26 – Across health care teams or settings Well-designed, targeted care coordination inter- • Facilitate transitions ventions delivered to the right individual can • Connect with community resources improve patient, provider and payer outcomes, especially when embedded in or closely articu- • Align resources with population needs ACO lated with the patient centered medical home.27 25 Fisher, Elliott; Grumbach, Kevin; Meyers, David, et al. Unpublished, September 8, 2010 Consensus Meeting Briefing Materials on Care Coordination: Issues for PCMHs and ACOs. 23 26 Reid, RJ et al. The Group Health Medical Home at Year Two: Cost 24 Fisher, Elliott; Grumbach, Kevin; Meyers, David, et al. Unpublished, Savings, Higher Patient Satisfaction, and Less Burnout for ProvidersSeptember 8, 2010 Consensus Meeting Briefing Materials on Care Health Affairs, 2010; (29(5):835-843.Coordination: Issues for PCMHs and ACOs. 27 Ibid.22
  24. 24. For patients with chronic conditions, particularly In addition, disease management services providedthose at relatively high risk of poor outcomes, primarily by telephone have not been shown to bewhat appears to work best, Grumbach and Fisher effective for Medicare beneficiaries.34suggested, is the inclusion of a designated person–often a nurse or social worker–who plays a target-ed care coordination role. Bridging the PCMH, ACO perspectives: Integrated careSome targeted care coordination team-based Care coordination is a core activity of the patientmodels have been shown to improve health out- centered medical home. Using proactive carecomes and/or reduce hospitalizations, readmissions teams, primary care medical homes are able toand/or costs. In the studies reviewed, hospitalization both coordinate care with and for patients, andrates dropped between 8 percent and 46 percent.28 use the results of effective coordination to developAll successful models of care coordination have appropriate care plans. For most patients in aincorporated some–or often, more extensive–face- primary care practice, the medical home team–to-face interaction between patients and care which might contain nurses, pharmacists, physicians,coordinators to establish and maintain personal medical assistants, educators, behavioralists, socialrelationships. As reported in the background workers, care coordinators and others–takes thedocument,29 almost all successful models of target- lead in working with the patient to define careed care coordination have also incorporated some needs, and to develop and update a plan of care.face-to-face interaction between the designated The PCMH team is also responsible for ensuringcare coordinators and clinicians. communication with patients and families and across the primary care team. The PCMH’s responsi-Not all care coordination programs have been bility includes collaborating with professionals andshown to be effective. For example, targeted care teams in other settings that participate in a givencoordination interventions have been shown to patient’s care, including at points of care transitions.be successful for high-risk/high-need patients.30,31 The PCMH should also be involved in connectingHowever, these services provided to low-risk with community resources and aligningMedicare patients have not been shown to those resources.improve the quality of care or utilization, andat times have increased overall costs.32,33 For accountable care organizations, care coordination is critical to achieving high-quality and high-value care. Building upon the care coordination efforts of PCMHs, ACOs can ensure 28 Ibid. and incentivize communication among teams of providers operating in varied settings. Additionally, 29 Ibid. ACOs can facilitate transitions and align resources 30 Peikes, Deborah, Arnold Chen, Jennifer Schore, and Randall to meet the clinical care and care coordinationBrown. “Effects of Care Coordination on Hospitalization, Quality of Care,and Health Care Expenditures Among Medicare Beneficiaries: 15 needs of populations. This work includes, butRandomized Trials.” JAMA. 2009, vol. 301, no. 6: 603-618. extends beyond, creating hospital discharge 31 Peikes, Deborah, Greg Peterson, Jennifer Schore, Carol care coordination programs, to creating a medicalRazafindrakoto, and Randall Brown. “Effects of Care Coordination on neighborhood where providers share informationHospitalization, Quality of Care, and Health Care Expenditures Among with one another. ACOs can ensure that theMedicare Beneficiaries: 11 Randomized Trials.” Draft manuscript, appropriate transitions of accountability happen2010. and that specialty teams are ready, willing and 32 Counsell SR, Callahan CM, Clark DO, et al. Geriatric care able to provide the requisite services. ACOs canmanagement for low-income seniors: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2007;12;298(22):2623-33. 33 Counsell, SR, Callahan CM, Tu W, Stump TE, Arling GW. Cost 34 Esposito, D., J. Schore, R. Brown, A. Chen, R. Shapiro, A.Analysis of the Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders Bloomenthal, and L. Gaber. “Evaluation of Medicare DiseaseCare Management Intervention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Management Programs: LifeMasters Interim Report of Findings.”Society. 2009; 57(8): 1420-1426. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, February 19, 2008. 23

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